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【同义词辨析】2019-08-09 威胁报复毁容放逐消灭(5小组一起记)

发表于 2019-8-25 11:23:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
(1) 威胁
threaten: may imply an attempt to dissuade or influence by promising punishment for failure to obey: ~ a boy with a spanking if he teases the baby; or it may apply to an impersonal warning of something dire, disastrous, or disturbing: heavy clouds that ~ rain. 第二项解释中3个d    (dire 1非常严重very serious,2糟糕very bad, 如living in dire poverty生活贫,dire warnings/threats严重警告/威胁)   

menace: stresses a definitely hostile or alarming quality in what portends: conditions that ~ the stability of society.    portend预示预兆预告(坏事)means to be a sign or warning of something that is going to happen, especially something bad or unpleasant,如the change did not portend a basic improvement in social conditions该变化没有预示社会状况的根本改观,如what do these strange events portend?这些奇怪的事件预示着什么?如the distant thunder portended a storm远处的雷声预示着暴风雨,名词是portent,如a portent of evil预示着邪恶即将来临)

threaten威胁: 指试图阻止影响他人,许诺如不遵守会惩罚;或表示某物预示着严重恶劣令人不安灾难性的事情(3个d),menace威胁: 强调预示有敌意令人警惕的事情

记忆方法: 1)威胁的意思是告知危险mean to announce or forecast impending danger or evil.   impending不好的事情即将发生applies to something unpleasant that is going to happen very soon,如本例

(2) 报复
avenge: suggests that the ends of justice are served OR another is being vindicated OR a merited punishment is administered: ~d the insult to his honor.    to serve the ends of something固定搭配,指达到某事目的      (vindicate证明无过错无罪、成功辩护implies a successful defending,如his success vindicated our faith in him他的成功证明了我们对他的信任是对的,如an investigation vindicated the senator on all accounts一项调查证明参议院完全无过错,这里account表示一项指责或一项罪名)  (merit有2个意思,1、优点好处good qualities or advantages,如they have been persuaded of the merits of the proposal他们被劝服,认识到了该提议的好处 2、应有值得=deserve,可以指好的或坏的,如merited honor and glory应有的荣耀光荣,如本例merited punishment应有的惩罚)   (administer除表示管理给药外,还表示给予to give or to provide something, especially in a formal way,如the teacher has the authority to administer punishment老师有权处罚

revenge: implies a desire to retaliate or get even and therefore connotes states of malice, spite, or unwillingness to forgive: angry determination to ~ herself for the slight.    get even扯平,和中文用法类似    暗示的三个词的首字母sum

avenge报复: 表示实现正义的目的,给无辜的人辩护清白,有错的人惩罚,revenge报复: 表示意欲报复扯平,因此暗示了恶意怨恨不愿原谅

记忆方法: 1)报复的意思是惩罚做错事的人mean to punish a person who has wronged oneself or another.

(3) 毁容
deface: usually applied to inanimate things, implies superficial injuries that impair the surface appearance: ~ a building with graffiti.  涂鸦

disfigure: implies deeper or more permanent injury to the surface and permanent impairment of the attractiveness or beauty: a face ~d by scars.

deface损害外表: 通常指事物肤浅外表的损伤,disfigure毁容: 表示更的损伤,对容貌造成永久损伤

记忆方法: 1)毁容的意思是损坏相貌mean to mar the appearance of.   mar严重损坏applies to disfiguration or maiming that spoils perfection or well-being,如the text is marred by numerous typos文本中有大量打印错误,可以说被毁坏了,maim表示伤残断肢,指严重损坏)

(4) 放逐
banish: implies compulsory removal from a country not necessarily one's own: a country that once ~ed the Jesuits.  耶稣会会士

exile: implies a compulsory removal or an enforced or voluntary absence from one's own country: a writer who ~d himself from South Africa.   enforce强制执行,和compulsory的动词compel意思有点像,但enforce表示的是强制执行法律命令等,而不是compel表示的强制某做某事,执法是law enforcement  流亡逃跑,如变古乱常 不死则亡,是说指那些更改规律和一些伦理约定的人,最后不是死了就是逃跑

deport:implies a sending out of a country, often back to his or her country of origin, an alien who has illegally entered or whose presence is judged inimical to the public welfare: ~ed many foreign criminals.   alien外国人外星人    (inimical有害的harmful, not helpful,如it is a habit inimical to health这是有害健康的习惯,如these policies are inimical to the interests of society这些政策有损社会利益)

transport: implies a sending of a convicted criminal to a particular place, often an overseas penal colony: a convict who was ~ed to Australia.        澳大利亚是最著名的英国海外监狱殖民地,此前中澳游泳选手起争端时,外交官说澳大利亚一些人生活在文明的边缘the fringes of civilization,就有暗讽它是监狱殖民地的意思

banish驱逐: 指强制从某国驱离,但不一定是原住国,exile流亡或旅居外国: 特指被从原住国驱逐或到外国生活,强迫或自愿,deport遣返: 指送回原住国,如因非法入境或对社会有害,transport流放: 指将罪犯送到海外监狱殖民地

记忆方法: 1)驱逐的意思是驱离出国mean to remove by authority or force from a state or country.

(5) 消灭
abolish: implies a putting to an end chiefly of things that are the outgrowth of law, customs, and conditions of existence: ~ed a poll tax.

annihilate: suggests a complete wiping out of existence of something material or immaterial: homes and cities ~d by enemy attack.   nihil无,虚无=none,如虚无主义nihilism认为某事没有意义,如existential/moral/hero nihilism人生/道德/英雄虚无主义    如to annihilate the enemy/opponent消灭敌人/彻底打败对手   

extinguish: is likely to suggest a complete and abrupt ending (as by stifling, choking, or smothering): a religion that was thoroughly ~ by governmental oppression. 几个词都表示窒息或呼吸困难,stifle表示缺少新鲜空气,choke表示呼吸不畅,smother表示有烟尘,见2018-02-26 窒息suffocate-strangle

abolish废除: 主要指停止法律习俗惯例等,annihilate消灭: 表示彻底毁灭清,extinguish消灭扑灭: 表示彻底突然的消灭,好像扑灭火焰一样, 灭火器是~er

记忆方法: 1)消灭的意思是使消失mean to make nonexistent.

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