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【同义词辨析】 2019-05-25 一个敏锐温和体贴感恩的公民(5小组一起记)

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发表于 2019-6-8 13:11:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
(1)  敏锐
sharp: implies quick perception, clever resourcefulness, or sometimes devious cunning: ~ enough to know a con job when he saw one.      cleverquick是一个意思,聪明就是快,快就是聪明         resource资源,泛指任何赖以达到目的的事物,resourceful形容人足智多谋       (解释中说到sharp有时表示devious cunning狡猾不诚实,但不联系上下文看不出来是贬义,如a sharp lawyer无法判断褒贬。所以翻译时只采用这个词的主要意思: 快而有力)      解释中的三个名词perception,resourcefulness和cunning首字母刚好组成prc中国   
con欺骗骗局

keen: suggests quickness, enthusiasm, and a clear-sighted, penetrating mind: a ~ observer of the political scene.   penetrate穿透洞察,透过事物表面,表示观察能力强implies an ability to go beyond what is superficial or obvious,如has not the penetration to see beneath their deceptive facade无法看穿他们欺骗性的外表)

acute: implies a power to penetrate and may suggest subtlety and depth and sharpness of insight: an ~ sense of what is linguistically effective.    联系cut割开  insight洞察力: 能看到事物的内在,和penetration接近,但比它更强调"深入"洞察depth of discernment,如good teachers have insight into the problems of students好的教师能洞察学生的问题。)     如果说sharp的关键字是,keen的关键字是,那么acute的关键词就是(insight,depth)    有人总结曹操用人很成功,有多种原因,核心的一条是他“洞察人性,洞悉人心”,即了解人的内心和人性---“以功归人,以奖励人,以罚治人,以理服人”。翻译这里的洞察洞悉,最好用insight into,如果能用出acute insight into, 就更好了

sharp敏锐锋利: 表示思维机敏智谋,keen敏锐穿透: 表示思维机敏洞察力有浓烈兴趣,acute敏锐洞察: 强调深入的洞察力

记忆方法: 1) 敏锐的意思是理解清晰行动机敏mean having or showing alert competence and clear understanding.   (alert警惕关注,对危险机遇等保持警觉,时刻关注以便快速应对,强调快速应对的目的quick response,如red alert红色警戒alert investors警惕的投资者,如he is alert to new development in technology他对科技发展时刻保持关注


(2) 温和
moderate: is likely to connote absence or avoidance of excess: proceeded at a ~ rate of speed.   本杰明富兰克林总结了13条美德,第9条是"Moderation: avoid extremes, forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve",即避免极端,即使别人伤害了你,反应也要适度。 中文意思是“中庸”,中庸指折中调和、不偏不倚的处世态度。英文中中庸的标准叫法是the golden mean of the Confucian school

temperate: connotes deliberate restraint or restriction and is opposed to inordinate and intemperate: a person of modest, ~ virtues.     (来自TEMP词根表示混合调和to mix,如temper脾气,temperament性情,tempest风暴,又如司法应该"to temper justice with mercy正义结合宽悯"    是13条美德中的第1条: "Temperance: eat not to dullness, drink not to elevation",即饮食节制。 其实从解释上看,moderate和temperate没有区别,只是一个反着说一个正着说,区别是用法上的,temperate多指饮食气候情感的节制,如the north temperate zone北带,如本例,而moderate指反应行为的节制,如中庸如本例跑步速度)

moderate温和不过度中庸: 表示不过度,temperate温和节制: 表示有节制

记忆方法: 1) 温和的意思是不过度过量过强mean not excessive in degree, amount,or intensity.


(3) 体贴
thoughtful: usually implies unselfish concern for others and a capacity for anticipating another's needs or wants: the thank-you note was a ~ gesture.    concern关注考虑关心,等于care, to think for someone or something,如your happiness is my only concern我唯一关心的就是你的幸福)    (这个词还表示勤于思考认真严肃的性格implies the disposition to think in a careful and serious manner,如demonstrated his thoughtful mind展现了他的勤于思考)

considerate: stresses concern for the feelings or distresses of others: a manner both courtly and ~.

attentive: emphasizes continuous thoughtfulness often shown by repeated acts of kindness: a wonderfully ~ host.   kindness善意=good will良好的心意,如truth, kindness, and beauty真

thoughtful体贴: 表示能为他人考虑预料别人的需求愿望,considerate体谅: 强调考虑他人感受痛苦,attentive热情关照: 强调不停地展现关心,形容态度好

记忆方法: 1) 体贴的意思是为他人考虑mean mindful of others.


(4) 感恩
grateful: is employed to express a proper sense of favors received from another person or persons: ~ for the company.   GRAT词根表示使愉快to please,如ingrate忘恩负义者,ingratiate讨好,gratitude感恩。伊索寓言奴隶和狮子的故事《安德罗科勒斯Androcles》中,安德罗科勒斯是个奴隶。他在逃跑途中救了一只狮子。后来他和狮子都被抓住了,国王想拿他来喂狮子,但狮子认出了救命恩人,没有吃他。国王听说了这件事,很感动,不但赐予他自由,还把狮子给放了。这篇寓言的寓意是gratitude is the sign of noble souls感恩是高尚灵魂的标志)

thankful: is often preferred to express one's acknowledgment of divine favor or of what is vaguely felt to be providential: be ~ that you were not badly hurt.      providential上天安排的机缘巧合的天意,指个人没有计划而幸运发生的lucky because something good happens at the right time without being planned,如he felt his success was providential他感到他的成功是天意(天赐)
grateful感谢(人)的: 指对其他人恩惠表示感谢,thankful感谢(神)的: 一般指对的恩惠表示感谢,对人的感谢是I am grateful

记忆方法: 1)  感恩的意思是感谢mean feeling or expressing gratitude.       谚语gratitude is the sign of noble souls感恩是高尚灵魂的标志

(5) 公民
citizen: is preferred for one who owes allegiance to a state in which sovereign power is retained by the people and who shares in the political rights of those people: the inalienable rights of a free ~.     sovereign主权至高的,意思是没有再高的implies supremacy, or a quality or rank to which everything else is subordinate or inferior,如the territory and sovereignty of China中国领土主权, 如the sovereign power resides in the people主权在民,如a sovereign nation not subject to the laws of another主权国家不受制于他国法律)  (几个表示国家的词中,state强调国民和政府nation强调国民country是地理名词)

subject: implies allegiance to a personal sovereign such as a monarch: the king enjoys the loyalty of his ~s.   monarch君主,如Elizabeth II, the current and longest-reigning monarch, has reigned since 6 February 1952伊丽莎白二世是现任的也是统治时间最长的君主,从1952年2月6日至今)

national: designates one who may claim the protection of a state and applies especially to one living or travelling outside that state: American ~s currently in Europe.    公民citizen强调政治权利,国民national则是和外国人相对而言

citizen公民: 指在主权在民的国家中,效忠国家并分享政治权利的人,subject臣民: 指效忠君主个人的人,national国民: 表示可以要求国家保护,特别是居住或旅行在外国的人,国籍是nationality

记忆方法: 1) 公民的意思是效忠某国家并得到该国保护的人mean a person owing allegiance to and entitled to the protection of a sovereign state.            


说明: 这5个词组放在一个帖子里,是因为每组只有两到三个词,如果单独发,篇幅过小,内容不足;

        记忆这些同义词组时,没有用首字母联想记忆,因为每组只有两三个首字母,这些首字母很容易重复混淆。另外每组只有两三个词,即使不用联想口诀,一般也能轻松的把每个词记起来;

        选择的这5小组词意思不同,但有一定关联,已经排好顺序,可以每组中提出一个词,组成一个短句子,放在一起记有协同作用,用同样的时间掌握5组同义词,效率更高。比如这篇里5组词组成句子的话,大意是“一个敏锐温和体贴感恩的公民”,每组选第1个词是a sharp moderate thoughtful grateful citizen,这样的组合可以有3*2*3*2*3=108个,但我们只需要记住这3+3+2+2+3=13个词就能练习所有场景,记忆效率更高;

        少于4个词的同义词组不单独发帖。

上一篇:【词汇】“on the house” 并不表示”在房子上“,甚至跟房子毫无关系?
下一篇:【词汇】“出师不利”用英语怎么说?
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