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【同义词辨析】 2017年6月汇总

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发表于 2019-1-9 23:57:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
【同义词辨析】 2017-06-01 取消revoke-recall

revoke: implies a calling back that annuls or abrogates what was previously done: had his license ~d for ninety days.     (annulnullify都表示官方正式废除,如to annul a treaty废除合约,to abrogate a privilege废除特权)


reverse: usually applies specifically to a high court's action in overthrowing a disputed law, decree, or court decision: the court of appeals ~d the opinion of the circuit court; when applied to actions or judgments of a non-judicial nature, it implies an upsetting of what was previously done: convinced the umpire to ~ his decision.    巡回法院  (decree法令: 个人颁布的命令: 如the Pope's decree that the next year will be the Holy year教皇颁布法令明年是"圣年",有时候也可用于法院政府)


repeal: usually implies revocation of a law or ordinance by the legislative body that made it: ~ed the parking ban.  (ordinance: 地方性针对特定行为的法律,权力有限)


rescind: implies the exercise of proper authority in abolishing or making void: ~ed their earlier decision in a second vote.   (abolish取消法律常规,如death abolition死刑废除) (rescind表示有权力取消废除,如Trump could rescind some congressional exemption 特朗普废除国会的一些豁免权)


recall: a less technical term, can replace any of the others: ~ a bid in bridge.       桥牌叫牌


revoke取消: 指官方正式取消(call back),reverse推翻: 指高等法院推翻(overthrow)有争议的法律法令决定,其它情况表示打乱(upset弄乱,如don't upset the sheets不要把床单弄乱)也就是取消,repeal撤销: 通常指立法机构取消自己制定的法律,rescind废除: 行使正当权力取消法律常规,recall收回: 专业性较,可替代其他各词(technical专业的,不要说成技术的,专业表示涉及专门知识技术表示对专门知识的应用)


记忆方法: 1)5个词都以词根re开头, re表示back往回<==取消


               2)取消的意思是之前做过某事之后将其废除mean to undo something previously done.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-02 唯一single-solitary

single: implies being unaccompanied or unsupported by, or not combined or united with any other: a ~ example will suffice.  


sole: applies to the only one that exists, acts, has power or relevance, or should be considered: my ~ reason for moving there.


unique: applies to the only one of its kind or character in existence: the medal is ~, for no duplicates were made.


separate: stresses discreteness, or disconnectedness, or unconnectedness from every other one: a country with a ~ set of problems. (discrete不同: 是看似接近连续实际分离不同的不同,如: two discrete problems are confused here把两个不同问题搞混了)


solitary: implies being BOTH single and isolated: television was her ~ link to the outside world.


particular: implies singular or numerical distinctness from other instances, examples, or members of a class: a very ~ kind of wine.   (singular有3个意思: 1非常突出, 2奇怪让人困惑,3单数,如 smile of singular sweetness非常甜美的微笑,singular feeling of impending disaster奇怪地感觉有灾难降临)  (numerical数字上的,没有译出)


single单一: 表示没有其它陪伴支持结合联合,sole唯一:  表示只有一个存在行动有权相关应当考虑,unique独一无二: 只存在一个,(不像sole除可能表示只存在一个外,还可能表示存在多个但只考虑一个或只让一个起作用,unique限定是只存在一个,separate单独各自:  强调分离不同(discrete),与其他断开连接(disconnected)从未连接(unconnected),solitary也是唯一: 除了表示唯一还表示被隔绝(如solitary confinement单独关押,he is a solitary man他惯于独处),particular独特: 和其他样本成员等非常不同


记忆方法: 1)首字母SSSS UP想成四海升平<==唯一使命


               2)唯一的意思是一个不是两个或更多mean one as distinguished from two or more or all others.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-05 拖拉pull-tug

pull: is the general term, BUT may emphasize the force exerted rather than the resulting motion: to open the drawer, ~ hard.


draw: implies a smoother, steadier motion and generally a lighter force than pull: a child ~ing his sled across the snow.  ==sledge雪橇雪车


drag: suggests great effort overcoming resistance or friction: ~ged the dead body across the room.


haul: implies sustained pulling or dragging, especially of heavy or bulky objects: a team of horses ~ing supplies.


tug: applies to strenuous often spasmodic efforts to move something: the little girl ~ged at her mother's hand.    (strenuous费力繁重的,如avoid strenuous exercise in the evening晚上不要剧烈运动)     (spasmodic间歇的: my husband's work was so spasmodic丈夫工作总是时忙时闲(即间歇性))  


pull拉: 通用, 但强调用力而非结果,draw轻拉: 用力更轻也更顺利平稳,drag拖拉: 用大力气克服阻力抗拒(resistance抗拒,friction阻力),haul拖拉: 长时间用力拖拉(dragging)质量重块头大物体,tug拽: 费力的拖拉,常间歇性


记忆方法: 1)首字母PDDHT排序成TDPHD他的盆好大<==只能拖拉


              2)拖拉的意思是使...在外力的方向上移动mean to cause to move in the direction determined by an applied force.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-06 惩罚punish-correct

punish: implies the imposing of a penalty for violation of law, disobedience, or wrongdoing: ~ed for stealing.


chastise: may apply to either the infliction of corporal punishment or to verval censure or denunciation: ~d his son for neglecting his studies.  inflict使承受苦难伤害等inflict某人使别人遭受,afflict某物使别人遭受)   (censure正式批评, denounce公开批评,参见2017-04-14 批评criticize-denounce)


castigate: implies a severe, typically public lashing with words: an editorial ~ing the entire city council.    lash鞭打怒斥: to hit with a whip,如they each received 20 lashes for stealing他们因盗窃每人挨了20

chasten: suggests any infliction or trial that leaves one humbled or subdued but improved or strengthened: a stunning election defeat that left him ~ed.


discipline: implies a punishing or chastising in order to bring or keep under control: the duty of parents to ~ their children.


correct: implies a punishing aimed at reforming an offender: the function of prison is to ~ the wrongdoer.


punish惩罚: 泛指施加惩罚(imposing of a penalty),由于违法不服过错等,chastise责罚: 体罚训斥,castigate怒斥: 公开怒斥(severe,public lashing),chasten惩戒磨练: 任何痛苦磨难,使人既谦卑贬抑(humbled谦虚,subdued压制)改进加强,discipline管教: 惩罚责罚的目的是使受控,correct改正: 惩罚的目的改变违反者(reform改革,是剧烈的改变drastic change)


记忆方法: 1)首字母PCCCDC想成CCDCCP常常懂常常怕<==惩罚的目的


              2)惩罚的意思是由于做错事惩罚 mean to inflict a penalty on in requital for wrongdoing.   (penalty惩罚是基础词,和punish来自同一词根PEN/PUN表示惩罚,如punitive,impunity豁免,penitentiary监狱)   


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-07 愉快pleasure-enjoyment

pleasure: stresses a feeling of satisfaction or gratification rather than visible happiness: take ~ in one's possessions. (happy幸福,基本意思就是satisfy满足gratify心理满足)


delight: usually reverses this emphasis and stresses lively expression of obvious satisfaction: the delight of grandparents in a new grandchild.  


joy: may imply a more deep-rooted rapturous emotion than either pleasure or delight: felt a profound ~ at the sight.     rapture喜悦:强烈的幸福和喜悦intense bliss or delight: in speechless rapture during the entire wedding在婚礼上感到无法言表的喜悦


delectation: suggests amusement, diversion, or entertainment in relation to pleasurable experience: presented a variety of skits for their ~. (ade本身是一组同义词,amuse表示放松lightdiversion表示转移注意力即散心,entertain表示准备、提供让人amuse和divert的东西称作娱乐)


enjoyment: stresses a gratification or happiness resulting from a pleasurable experience: derived great ~ from her books and her music.


pleasure愉快:  强调"感觉"满足满意,不强调是否表露在外,delight喜悦: 和上词相反,强调生动表达明显满意(即强调表露在外),joy也是喜悦: 比pleasure,delight更强烈深远(deep-rooted长期存在影响深远,如deep-rooted crime影响深远的罪行),如欢乐颂ode to joy,delectation消遣:  表示愉快经历带来的轻松散心娱乐,enjoyment享受: 愉快经历给人带来满足,从这解释看和pleasure同样泛指愉快。


记忆方法: 1)首字母PDJDE重组成JD PED,其中JD想成京东ped词根表示“”想成快递员<==愉快的京东快递员    (centipede: 蜈蚣白足虫,biped两足动物,如human is a biped人是二足动物)


               2)愉快的意思是得到想要东西的感觉 mean the agreeable emotion accompanying the possession or expectation of what is good or greatly desired. (agreeable和pleasant完全同意,都表示令人满意)


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-08 安排order-methodize

order: suggests a straightening out so as to eliminate confusion: ~ed her business affairs before going on extended leave.


arrange
: implies a setting in a fit, suitable, or right sequence, relationship, or adjustment: a bouquet of elaborately ~d flowers.   (adjustment调整校准, to make small changes,如I've made a few adjustments to the design我对设计做了几处调整)


marshal: suggests a gathering or arranging in preparation for a particular operation, or for effective management or use: an argument won by carefully ~ed facts.


organize: implies an arranging so that the whole aggregate works as a unit in which each element has a proper place and function: ~d the volunteers into teams.


systemize: implies an arranging according to a definite and predetermined scheme: billing procedures that have yet to be ~d.  (scheme方案: 表示做事计划,强调完备有目标, 如schemes to help combat unemployment减少失业的方案)


methodize: suggests the imposing of an orderly procedure rather than a fixed scheme: ~s every aspect of her daily living.


order整理: 使有条理不混乱(straighten out"弄直捋顺"),arrange安排布置: 设置调整使顺序关系合适恰当,marshal也是整理: 收集安排布置为使用、行动、管理做准备,organize组织:  使每个成员都有合适的位置功能成为单一整体(unit), systemize系统化:  表示根据明确预定的方案去安排(即完备有目标),methodize方法化: 强调流程(即有逻辑有顺序)而非方案(流程强调顺序逻辑order,logic,方案强调系统和目标system,end,他们的区别也是methodize和systemize的区别)


记忆方法: 1)首字母重新排序成 AS MOON像月亮一样<==安排井井有条


               2)安排的意思是将人或物放入合适位置mean to put persons or things into their proper places in relation to each other.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-09 起源origin-provenance

origin: applies to the things or persons from which something is ultimately derived and often to the causes operating before the thing itself comes into being: an investigation into the ~s of baseball.   (derive源自: 表示之前以另一形式存在implies a prior existence in another form,如their system of justice derives from British colonial law他们司法体系源自英国殖民法律 ) (ultimate最终的无法超越的: the last degree or stage of a long process, beyond which further progress or change is impossible无法再发展变化, 如the ultimate collapse of civilization文明的最终毁灭)   cause起因,句中causes和之前的things or persons都是对origin的解释。


source: applies more often to the point where something springs into being: the ~ of the Nile.  spring快速突然出现: to emerge rapidly and suddenly: a brilliant idea that sprang out of nowhere突然冒出个好主意)


inception: stresses the beginning of the existence of something without implying anything about the causes: the business has been a success since its ~.


root: suggests a first, ultimate, or fundamental source often not readily discerned: a need to find the real ~ of violence.  


provenance: a technical term, applies to the place where something originally came from: all the furniture is of English provenance. 这些家具都是英国货


origin起源: 某物的最终来源,通常此物出现前已存在(operating before the thing itself comes into being),source也是起源: 多指快速突然出现的地方(the point...spring into being), inception开始: 强调开始存在(beginning),但没有表明起因,root: 最初根本的起源,常不易发现(ultimate最终,但最终的起源就是最初),provenance来源: 专业术语,表示某物的最初来源或产地。


记忆方法: 1)首字母排序成IS PRO向前<==起源就是开始向前   (pro词根有两个意思,1向前 2支持)


              2)起源的意思是某物开始存在开始发展地方mean the point at which something begins its course or existence.  (course河道跑道)


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-12 开始begin-inaugurate

begin: is the most general and applies especially to less formal contexts: school ~s at eight; ~ to wash the dishes.


commence: suggests greater formality: let the games ~.


start: suggests a getting or setting into motion: the procession ~ed out slowly.


initiate: suggests the taking of a first step of a process or series: ~d the custom of annual gift giving.


inaugurate: implies a ceremonial beginning: the discovery of penicillin ~d a new medical age.


begin开始: 最通用,特别适用于非正式场合,commence开始: 更正式,start开始: 开始行动(即动作,主语或宾语是动作不是事物)或使开始行动,initiate发起: 表示迈出一个过程或系列第一步,inaugurate开创开幕就职启用: 有仪式典礼感觉的开始。


记忆方法: 1)首字母BCSII重组成BISIC,想成basic初级的<==从初级开始first things first.


             2)开始的意思是路程过程操作的第一步mean to take the first step in a course, process, or operation.

【同义词辨析】 2017-06-13 停止stop-desist

stop: applies to action or progress or to what is operating or progressing and may imply suddenness or definiteness: ~ped the conversation.    (sudden突然表示没有预料到a sudden rain突然下雨) (definite明确: 等于clear,不模棱两可it's too soon to give a definite answer现在给出明确答复还为时过早)


cease: applies to states, conditions, or existence and may imply gradualness and a degree of finality: by nightfall the fighting had ~d.      (final最终的,不会再延续或变化the last step has been completed,如最终判决final judgment) (state状态是condition状况的集合)


quit: may stress either finality or abruptness in stopping or ceasing: the engine faltered, sputtered, then ~ altogether. (falter停步不前说话犹豫,如 the economy is faltering经济止步不前)   (sputter发出劈啪声,停止2个意思,如the truck sputtered and stopped卡车噼啪响了几声下了)


discontinue: applies to the stopping of an accustomed activity or practice: we have ~d the manufacture of that item.  (accustomed表示习惯性的行为=habitual,如accepted the compliment with her accustomed modesty习惯性的谦虚地接受了对她的恭维 )(custom习俗: 人们长期遵守的习惯,几乎是不成文的法律,如customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces even cities不同省甚至市的传统习俗差异巨大,又如the custom of mourners wearing black at funerals追悼者葬礼穿黑色衣服的习俗


desist: implies forbearance or restraint as a motive for stopping or ceasing: ~ed from further efforts to persuade them.


stop停止: 用于动作进展(action or progress),表示突然明确(不是半停未停)(没说final,可能重新开始),cease也是停止: 用于状态存在,表示逐渐停止不会重来(finality),quit停止: 表示突然不再继续,discontinue停止: 指停止长期习惯性的行为,desist停止: 由于忍耐(forbear忍耐宽容)克制


记忆方法: 1)首字母SCQDD想成冲动的事情<==应该停止


               2)停止的意思是中断活动使中断活动mean to suspend or cause to suspend activity.    suspend不定期中断暂停a stopping until some condition is satisfied,如all business has been suspended while repairs are being made维修时所有业务暂停


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-14 惊讶surprise-amaze

surprise: stresses the causing of surprise, amazement, or wonder through being unexpected or unanticipated at a particular time or place: ~d to find his mother in a bar.  (expect预料,有一定把握,如I expect to finish the work on Friday我预计周五完成任务,anticipate预料并提前做准备,如the servants anticipated our every need服务员预料到我们的需求(并做了准备))


astonish: implies a surprising so great as to seem incredible: the young player ~ed the chess masters.


astound: stresses a stunning or overwhelming emotional effect resulting from unprecedented or unbelievable but true occurrences: news of the atomic bomb ~ed every one.  (stun使人眩晕昏迷震惊,如打击头部to make someone unconscious or unsteady, 如the animals are stunned before slaughter屠宰前要先把动物击昏, 又如she is a woman of stunning beauty她美得让人倾倒)


amaze: suggests an effect of bewilderment, perplexity, or wonder: ~d by the immense size of the place. bewilder: to confuse使人迷惑bewildered by city life面对城市生活感到迷茫perplex表示让人疑惑担心犹豫,多指不好的事情,如her change of personality perplexed her friends她性格的变化让朋友疑惑担心,没有采用)


flabbergast: may suggest a dumbfounding astonishment and bewilderment or dismay: ~ed by his daughter's precocious comments.  早熟的   (dumbfound让人目瞪口呆,形容极度惊讶困窘,如dumbfounded by her rejection of his marriage proposal她拒绝了他的求婚,让他惊讶困窘到目瞪口呆)   (dismay2个意思: 1惊愕 2气馁,都表示面对突然的困难麻烦不知怎么办, 如he looked at her in dismay诧异地看着她, 又如they were dismayed to find that the train had already left他们发现火车已离开,感到很气馁)


surprise惊讶: 表示没预料到,让人惊讶惊叹(surprise,amaze惊奇,wonder自己解释自己),astonish大为吃惊: 非常惊讶以致难以相信(incredible),astound震惊: 前所未有无法相信,让人震惊难以抵挡(stun震惊,overwhelm压倒),amaze惊叹: 表示让人迷惑感叹,flabbergast: 让人极度惊讶


记忆方法: 1)首字母SAAAF想成飞速阿==>让人惊讶


              2)惊讶的意思是让人很意外mean to impress forcibly through unexpectedness.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-15 真诚sincere-unfeigned

sincere: stresses absence of hypocrisy, feigning, or any falsifying embellishment or exaggeration: offered a ~ apology.   (hypocrisy伪善,假装有美德to pretend to be moral,语气很重,专批hypocrites伪君子feign巧妙假装,比pretend有技巧些,如feigned sickness to stay home from class病逃课,embellish细枝末节的装饰,如用花边floral border装饰书页, exaggerate夸张: 说话不合实际不克制,如unable to tell a story without exaggerating讲故事总是夸张)  


wholehearted: suggests sincerity and earnest devotion without reservation or misgiving: promised our ~ support to the cause.   事业    (earnest认真投入sincere devotion,如an earnest student一个认真的学生,海明威全名Earnest Hemmingway)        (misgiving疑虑uneasiness and mistrust, 如had misgiving about him from the start开始就对他有疑虑)   


heartfelt: suggests depth of genuine feeling outwardly expressed: a gift that expresses our ~ gratitude.   (gratitude感谢感恩和thanks意思相同但较正式, 如伊索寓言Androcles安德罗克勒斯的寓意是gratitude is the sign of noble souls感恩是高尚灵魂的标志)


hearty: suggests honesty, warmth, and exuberance in the display of feeling: received a ~ welcome at the door.


unfeigned: stresses spontaneity and absence of pretense or simulation: her ~ delight at receiving the award.  (simulate仿真: 高度逼真的模仿,没有贬义,如the training chamber simulates a weightless atmosphere训练室模仿(仿真)了失重环境)


sincere真诚: 强调不伪善假装修饰夸张,wholehearted全心全意: 真诚认真地投入没有保留疑虑(to serve the people wholeheartedly ~为人民服务), heartfelt深深的: 形容深入(depth),hearty热忱: 表示诚实温暖洋溢,unfeigned溢于言表: 强调自发(spontaneous即没人要求催促),没有假装模仿


记忆方法: 1)首字母SWHHU想成好坏无所谓(U)<==真诚最重要


               2)真诚的意思是诚恳真实表达情感mean genuine in feeling or expression. (genuineauthentic更突出真诚真实,如genuine piety真诚的同情,比较an authentic story真实故事)


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-16 同情sympathy-empathy

sympathy: is the most general term, ranging in meaning from friendly interest or agreement in taste to emotional identification: felt ~ for his political beliefs.       (identification认同: 认为自己和被认同对象有相同属性to attribute to oneself the characteristics of another person,如国家认同精神认同,如her emotional identification with the play's heroine她对女主人公的情感认同)


pity: implies tender or sometimes slightly contemptuous sympathy or sorrow for one in distress: he felt a tender ~ for her.      (tender 1温柔亲切=gentle,kind,loving, 2软嫩easy to bite or chew, 3 容易疼痛painful,例1 tender words温柔的话语,例2 cook for a minimum of 2 hours until the meat is tender至少煮两个小时直到煮到肉变软嫩为止,例3 my tummy felt very tender我肚子一碰就疼)


compassion: implies tenderness and understanding and a desire to aid or spare: treated the sick with great ~; BUT can be quite impersonal in its reference: justice tempered with ~. 宽严相济


ruth: is likely to suggest pity or compassion resulting from the softening of a stern or indifference spirit: an old man ignorant of the healing effects of ~.


empathy: implies a capacity for vicarious feeling, but the feeling need not be one of sorrow not involve agreement: lacked capacity for ~ for the plight of others.   (vicarious从别人体验中获得,如he got a vicarious thrill out of watching his son score the winning goal他看着儿子射入获胜的一球,也同样感到欣喜)


sympathy同情: 最通用,范围从兴趣爱好一致情感认同(emothional identification),pity可怜: 同情或悲伤于他人痛苦,表示得温柔或稍微轻视,compassion同情: 除了温柔理解,还希望帮助或饶恕(新4最后一篇讲对死刑犯的同情用的这个词),也可以泛指同情,ruth怜悯: 表示不再严厉冷漠,变得怜悯同情,empathy分享他人体验: 不一定悲伤或赞同。


记忆方法: 1)首字母SPCRE添加一个T即SPECTR,其中spect是词根表示看,tr想成他人,看他人<==同情


              2)同情的意思是分享分担他人利益痛苦mean a feeling for or a capacity for sharing in the interests or distress of another.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-19 人群crowd-horde

crowd: implies a massing together and often a loss of individuality: a small ~ greeted the returning athletes.



throng: strongly suggests movement and shoving or pushing: a ~ of reporters followed the President.      (shove猛推to push quickly and violently,如he shoved her out of the way他一把将她推开)



crush: emphasizes the compact concentration of the group, the difficulty of individual movement, and the attendant discomfort: a ~ of fans waited outside the theatre.   注意不要写成attendent  compact紧质紧凑压缩implies firm, neat union or consolidation of parts in a small compass在小范围内紧密有序的结合,如a compact, muscular body紧质有肌肉的身体,又如CD全称是compact disc压缩盘)



mob: implies a disorderly crowd with the potential or the intent for violence: heard an angry ~ outside the jail.



horde: suggests a rushing or tumultuous crowd, often of inferior, rude, or savage character, often linked by common interests or problems: a ~ of shoppers looking for bargains.    又如this attracts hordes of tourists to Las Vegas这吸引了成群的游客去拉斯韦加斯



crowd人群: 指聚集在一起丧失个体,throng推搡的人群: 强烈暗示推搡等动作,crush拥挤人群: 强调人员紧凑集中行动困难不舒适,mob暴民乌合之众: 表示混乱潜在暴力的人群,horde成群结队: 表示奔走骚动的人群,为了共同利益诉求,一般粗野素质差




记忆方法:1)首字母CTCMH从此后没他<==进入人群



               2人群的意思是聚集的多个人mean an assembled multitude of people.   assembly集会,如freedom of assembly集会自由)


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-20 黑暗dark-gloomy

dark: the general term, implies utter or virtual lack of illumination: a ~ cave. (illumination照明启迪彩图,词根LUM表示light光,如lumen流明是物理中光的单位,luminary名人,luminous发光的光彩的,bioluminescent生物发光的如firefly萤火虫和most deep-sea animals大多数深海动物)        virtual.实际上的实质上implies a merely apparent difference between outward seeming and inner reality只是看起来有些不同,如the prime minister is the virtual ruler of his country首相是实际上的统治者,如本例virtual lack of…实际上缺乏光线,可能有少量光线,但无实质差别, 在计算机方面virtual意思完全不同,表示虚拟的,指通过软件模拟的,你以为看到某物实际上没有,如virtual reality虚拟现实,virtual library虚拟图书馆, virtual shop虚拟商店)


dim: suggests too weak a light for things to be clearly visible: a clandestine meeting in a ~ bar.   


dusky: suggests deep twilight and a close approach to darkness: trudging through ~ woods at day's end.  dusk黄昏 twilight黄昏暮光,即日落后剩余的微弱光线small amount of light after the sun has gone down,如the deepening autumn twilight渐浓的秋日暮色  trudge徒步跋涉。步履沉重to walk slowly and with heavy steps,如it was a hard trudge up the hil这趟上山是艰难的跋涉


murky: implies a heavy obscuring darkness such as that caused by smoke, fog, or dust in air or mud in water: fish cannot live in the river's ~ waters.


gloomy: implies serious interference with the normal radiation of light and connotes cheerlessness and pessimism: a ~ room in the basement of the house.


dark黑暗: 通用,表示完全或实际上缺乏光线,dim暗的: 表示光线弱无法看清东西,dusky昏暗: 表示日落已深接近全黑(dusk黄昏),murky混浊: 表示混浊不清,如空气中的烟雾尘水中的泥,gloomy阴暗: 指严重阻挡光线,隐含阴郁悲观


记忆方法:1)首字母DDDMG大大大没光<==黑暗


               2)黑暗的意思是缺乏光线mean more or less deficient in light.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-21 宣称assert-avow

assert: implies stating confidently or even brashly without need for proof or regard for evidence: ~ed that modern music is just noise.    (brash冲动草率鲁莽=impetuous)


declare: stresses the making of an open or public statement: the jury ~d the defendant guilty.    注意不要写成defendent.


affirm: implies conviction and willingness to stand by one's statement because of evidence, experience, or faith: ~ed the existence of an afterlife.      来生


protest: stresses affirmation, especiallyin the face of denial or doubt: ~ed that he had never had a more splendid meal.    protect最常用的意思是抗议,即表示反对to object,如to protest against the arrest of …抗议的逮捕)


avow: stresses frank declaration and acknowledgement of personal responsibility for what is declared: ~ed that all investors would be repaid in full.   frank坦率: 不隐瞒害羞沉默implies freedom from secretiveness, shyness, and reticence,如frank discussions on arms control坦率讨论军控问题)  (反义词disavow表示否认责任denial of responsibility, acceptance, or approval,如the radical group disavowed any responsibility for the bombing激进组织否认对爆炸负责


assert声称: 指自信地声明,甚至是草率鲁莽,可能没有证明证据,declare宣布: 强调公开或公共的声明,affirm坚称: 表示坚信坚持,如有证据经历信念,protest坚称: 强调在面对反对质疑时坚称,avow承认: 指承认个人有责任


记忆方法:1)首字母ADAPA想成3A店铺<==宣称


               2)宣称的意思是面对否认反对时的肯定性声明mean to state positively usually in anticipation or in the face of denial or objection.



【同义词辨析】 2017-06-22 平均average-norm

average: is exactly or approximately the quotient obtained by dividing the sum total of a set of figures by the number of figures: scored an ~ of 85 in a series of five tests.


mean: may be an average, OR it may represent value midway between two extremes: annual temperature ~ of 50 degree; the tranquil ~ between misery and ecstasy.    1是平均数,例2是两极端的中间a value midway between two extremes.       tranquil宁静的


median: applies to the value that represents the point at which there are as many instances above as there are below: the average of a group of persons earning 3,4,5,8,and 10 dollars a day is 6 dollars, whereas the ~ is 5 dollars.    (词根MEDI表示中间middle,如mediate调停,medieval中世纪,intermediate中等中间,但mediocre平庸不是表示中间而是较差)


norm: denotes the computed or estimated average of performance of a significantly large group, class, or grade and implies a standard of reference: scores about the ~ for 5th grade arithmetic. 注意不要写成arithmatic


average平均数: 是一组数的和除以个数得到的商,mean中间值: 可表示平均数,或表示两极端正中间,median中值: 在中值点以上和以下的个数相等,即一半比中值大,一半小,norm通例常规常态正态: 表示大量事例的平均值,能做参考标准


记忆方法:1)首字母AMMN想成Middle MAN中间人<==平均


              2平均的意思是两极端中间的点mean something that represents a middle point between extremes.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-23 真正authentic-bona fide

authentic: implies being fully trustworthy as according with fact or actuality: the ~ story.   to accord with和一致符合


genuine: implies accordance with an original or a type without counterfeiting, admixture, or adulteration: ~ maple syrup; or it may stress sincerity: ~ piety.   枫糖     piety虔诚尊敬虔敬=respect,多用在宗教,filial piety孝心


veritable: implies a correspondence with truth and typically conveys a suggestion of affirmation: in the grip of anxiety that drove him into a ~ trance; or asserts the suitability of a metaphor: ~ hail of questions.   恍惚  to correspond with等于to accord with也表示符合一致     hail冰雹般的连续提问


bona fide: can apply when sincerity of intention is in question: ~ sale of securities.   securities证券总称,包括股票股权债券等


authentic真实: 指符合事实值得相信,genuine真正: 指符合原型类型没有假冒混合掺杂,veritable确实: 增加了坚信的意思,或用来说比喻恰当(affirm坚信坚称),bona fide真诚: 适用于存疑的情况,尽管可能被怀疑,但实际上是真诚的。


记忆方法:1)首字母AGVB想成V BAG我的包<==真正


              2)真正的意思是和宣称的一致mean being actually and exactly what is claimed.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-26 发生happen-transpire

happen: is the ordinary and general term applying to whatever comes about with OR without obvious causation or intention: remembering an incident that ~ed in his childhood.    cause原因,因果中的因,是reason的基础词因此更通用,如the cause of the train wreck火车失事的原因


chance: regularly implies absence of design or apparent lack of causation: a man he ~d to know.


occur: stresses presentation to sight or attention: such events, when they ~, fascinate the public.   又如it never occurs to me that you are so gentle真没想到你这么绅士(讽刺的话)


transpire: implies a leaking out so as to become known or apparent: the meeting ~d as planned.


happen发生: 普通通用词,表示任何发生,无论是否有缘由目的,chance偶然发生: 表示没有计划或原因occur发生: 强调使人看到或注意到(present提交呈现)transpire发生: 透露出被发现的意思,暗示发生的事开始时不为人知。


记忆方法:1)首字母HCOT想成ClOTH布没了<==发生短缺


                2发生的意思是出现mean to come about.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-27 促进advance-further

advance: stresses effective assistance in hastening a process or bringing about a desired end: a gesture intended to ~ the cause of peace.


promote: suggests an open encouraging or fostering: a company trying to ~ better health among employees; and may denote an increase in status or rank: a student ~d to third grade.  (foster培养,如foster parents父母)


forward: implies an impetus or moral force moving something ahead: a wage increase would ~ productivity.   impetus推动力,词根PET表示寻找to seek,字面意思是去寻找,如the promise of a nice bonus gave us an impetus for finishing the project on time承诺给我们奖金推动我们按时完成项目,其它PET组成的词有compete竞争,petition情愿,centripetal向心的,appetite食欲,和impetuous冲动草率)


further: suggests a removing of obstacles in the way of a desired advance: used the marriage to ~ his career.


advance促进: 表示帮助加快进度或取得目标,promote提倡提升: 表示公开鼓励培养,或提高地位级别,forward促进: 指推动力道德力量促进某物发展,further促进: 表示扫除前进中的障碍


记忆方法:1)首字母APFF想成FPAF扶贫安抚<==应促进


                2)促进的意思是帮助前进mean to help (someone or something) to move ahead.



【同义词辨析】 2017-06-28 爬上ascend-scale

ascend: implies progressive upward movement: the car ~ed the steep grade.


mount: suggests a getting up upon something raised: ~ a horse.   mountain高山 mount还指山峰 Mount Qomolangma珠穆朗玛峰.


climb: connotes the effort involved in the upward movement and is used  when difficulty is implicit in the situation: ~ a tree to rescue a cat.


scale: suggests skill and adroitness in upward movement: ~ a high wall to freedom.  adroit机智,指能急中生智想办法达到目的skillful use of expedients to achieve one's purpose,如a adroit host of a radio call-in show一个机智的电台热线节目主持人。 expedient权宜之计)


ascend逐步上升: 逐步不间断地上升,mount登爬骑: 表示上到高处climb费力登爬: 指动作费力困难scale: 表示灵巧地爬。


记忆方法:1)首字母MACS马克思<==爬上顶峰   马克思实际是Karl Marx


               2爬上的意思是到山顶mean to move upward or toward a summit.


【同义词辨析】 2017-06-29 看似apparent-ostensible

apparent: suggests appearance to unaided senses that is not or may not be proven by more rigorous examination or greater knowledge: the ~ cause of the train wreck.


illusory: implies a false impression based on deceptive resemblance or faulty observation, or influenced by emotions that prevent a clear view: the ~ happiness of a new infatuation.   infatuation迷恋热恋无法正常思考strong love or passion for something making one unable to think clearly or sensibly,如his infatuation with bullfighting迷恋斗牛)


seeming: implies a character in the thing observed that gives it the appearance, sometimes through intent, of something else: the ~ simplicity of the story.


ostensible: suggests a discrepancy between an openly declared or logically implied aim or reason and the true one: business was the ~ reason for their visit.   (discrepancy差异不相符:本应相同的事物有差异a difference between two things that should be the same,如the discrepancy between press and radio reports新闻和广播报道之间的出入)


apparent看似: 表示表面上感觉是,但未经检查证明illusory虚幻: 虚假的印象,由于虚假外表、错误观察或强烈情绪,seeming看似: 表示表面上感觉是,但其实不是(对比apparent未经检查证明seeming是否定)ostensible表面上谎称的: 表示公开宣称暗指的与事实不相符


记忆方法:1)首字母AISO看起来ALSO<==看似


                2看似的意思是和外表不符mean not actually being what appearance indicates.



【同义词辨析】 2017-06-30 聪明clever-ingenious

clever: stresses physical or mental quickness, deftness, or aptitude: a person ~ with horses.  deft 轻巧利落有把握implies an light, neat, and sure handling,如a deft interweaving of the novel’s several subplots轻巧地将小说的几个情节交织在一起)  (aptitude天分==innate capacity+natural liking天生能力+喜欢,美国高考SAT中的A,全称scholastic aptitude test学术能力倾向测验,始于1926,主要测试学术研究能力,而非高中学了多少知识)


adroit: often implies a shrewd or skillful use of expedients to achieve one's purpose: an ~ negotiator of business deals.   shrewd聪明精明=clever+wise: implies practical, hardheaded cleverness and wise judgment聪明又务实冷静,有判断力,如a shrewd judge of character精明地判断性格)  skillful有技巧娴熟=dexterous,如a shrewd and skillful manipulation of public opinion精明娴熟地操纵公众观点)


cunning: implies great skill in constructing or creating: a writer who is ~ in his manipulation of the reader.  


ingenious: suggests brilliance or cleverness in inventing or discovering: an ~ computer engineer.  (brilliantbright组,表示璀璨发出大量光点sparkles,brilliant diamonds璀璨的钻石,也表示杰出让人钦佩,如a brilliant scientist一个杰出科学家)


clever聪明: 强调思维或行动快速轻巧有天赋,adroit机智的: 多表示聪明娴熟地使用权宜强调快速,正如中文里的急中生智,慧刚好相反表示静思慢悟),cunning巧思的: 善于构建创造,ingenious聪敏: 善于发明发现


记忆方法:1)首字母CACI想成A Intelligent Chinese Citizen一个睿智的中国人<==聪明     智商IQ(Intelligence Quotient)反映一个人解决新问题学习新知识的能力,人工智能AI(artificial intelligence)逐渐流行,台湾说成人工智慧属于用词不准



                2)聪明的意思是睿智有技巧mean having or showing practical wit or skill in contriving.  睿智就是智,睿是敬辞   wit表示聪明幽默睿智,如the wit of Cui崔的睿智

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