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00832自考英语词汇学笔记依据教材(1)

发布者: elaine891031 | 发布时间: 2013-4-3 13:25| 查看数: 1649| 评论数: 0|

《英语词汇学》 张维友 主编,外语教学与研究出版社

笔记依据目录

Introduction Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Words and Vocabulary

Chapter 2The Development of the English Vocabulary

Chapter 3 Word Formation I

Chapter 4 Word Formation II

Chapter 5 Word Meaning

Chapter 6 Sense Relations and Semantic Field

Chapter 7 Changes in Word Meaning

Chapter 8 Meaning and Context

Chapter 9 English Idioms

Chapter 10 English Dictionaries

Introduction

On the course: lexicology

1. Interpolation (

(((1))))Greeting: hi everybody, welcome to zikao365.com. to learn the English lexicology

((((2))))Interpolation to the cours

es: Generally speaking, the courses of English major consist of 4 parts: they are A. the comprehensive courses: B. the knowledgeable courses: English-speaking countries: A Survey/ selected readings in English and American literatures/European culture, introduction. C. the skillful courses: English writing/ oral English/ English listening D. the theoretic courses: English grammar/ English lexicology.

((((3))))on English lexicology Ok, let's touch upon the course: from the contents, we learn that the course cosmists of an introduction and ten chapters; different chapters of course, have different knowledgeable aspects with different methods and different points.

2. The details concerned. Introduction of the course

1. IntroductionIt's about the nature and domain of English lexicology/ methods of study of this course. 0.1 The Nature and Domain of English Lexicology domain: scope 研究的领域

((( (1))))Definition: Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, inquiring into the origins and meanings of words(WNWD). 本句翻译:词汇学是语言学的分支,它主要是研究词的来源以及词的意义(词汇学的定义)。

((((2))))Domain: English lexicology aims at investigating and studying the morphological structures of English words and word equivalents, their semantic structures, relations, historical development, formation and usages. 本句翻译:它研究的是英语词汇的形态结构,同时它还研究英语词汇的语义结构、英语词汇的发展历史和英语词汇的形成与用法。morphological 形态

((((3))))Nature::::English lexicology is a theoretically-oriented course. It is chiefly concerned with the basic theories of words in general and of English words in particular. However, it is a practical course as well, for in the discussion, we shall inevitably deal with copious stocks of words and idioms, and study a great many usage examples. Naturally, there will be a large quantity of practice involved. 本句翻译:它是一个理论性的学科。同时它还是一个实践性的学科。

0.2 Its Relation to Other Disciplinesdisciplines: subject 学科 English lexicology itself is a subbranch of linguistics. But it embraces other academic disciplines, such as morphology, semantics, etymology, stylistics, lexicography. Each of them has been established as discipline in its own right. 本句翻译:英语词汇学与五大学科相关:形态学、语义学、词源学、文体风格学和词典学。 Morphology is the branch of grammar which studies the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of morpheme construct. This is one of the major concerns of lexicology, for we shall discuss the inflections of words and word-formation and examine how morphemes are combined to form words and words to form sentences. 本句翻译:形态学是语法学的分支,主要是讲词的结构以及词的构成。当然这也属于词汇学的一个领域。 morpheme 词素word-formation

构词法 inflections of words 词的变形 Etymology is traditionally used for the study of the origins and history of the form and meaning of words. Modern English is derived from the languages of early Germanic tribes with a fairly small vocabulary. We shall study how this small vocabulary has grown into a huge modern English vocabulary and explain the changes that have taken place in the forms and meanings of words. 本句翻译:词源学主要是研究词的来源以及词的历史发展构成。从英国的历史发展过程看,英语语言首先是来源于日尔曼部落的语言。

Semantics is the study of meanings of different linguistic levels: lexis, syntax, utterance, discourse, etc. But lexicology will focus on the lexical level. The types of meaning and sense relations such as polysemy, homonymy, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy and semantic field all belong to the scope of semantic study and constitute an important part of lexicology. 本句翻译:语义学分为不同的语言层次:词汇层面的、句法层面的以及话语层面的、发音层面的等。词汇学的研究集中词汇层面。

polysemy 多义词 Stylistics is the study of style. It is concerned with the user's choices of linguistic elements in a particular context for special effects. Among the areas of study: lexis, phonology, syntax, graphology, we shall concentrate on lexis, exploring the stylistic values of words. 本句翻译:文体风格学主要是关注作者或使用语言的人对语言因素的选择问题。当然在这个当中我们会把焦点集中在评说刚才提到的词汇方面。

stylistics 文体风格学 Lexicography shares with lexicology the same problems: the form, meaning, origins and usages of words, but they have a pragmatic difference.本句翻译:我们讲的词汇学和词典学在某方面有共同的问题,它们共同研究的可能有词形、词义、词的来源以及词的用法等,但它们的实际用途不一样。

0.3 Methods of Study

((((1))))Two approaches There are generally two approaches to the study of words, namely synchronic and diachronic. synchronic 共时法diachronic 历时法

((((2))))Definition: A, synchronic From a synchronic point of view, words can be studied at a point in time, disregarding whatever changes might be taking place. For example, the word wife now means ‘a married woman, esp. in relation to her husband’. This is the current meaning. It has an obsolete meaning ‘woman’, which is only preserved in midwife, housewife, etc. midwife 助产士housewife 家庭主妇 B, diachronic However, if we take a diachronic perspective, we will consider the word historically, looking into its origin and changes in form and meaning. In this light, the word wife evolved from the Old English form wif, meaning ‘woman’, but later it became specialized in the course of development to the modern meaning ‘a married woman’.

((((3))))Focus on the synchronicThough our focus is on the synchronic description of words, we need the diachronic approach as a supplement, for a knowledge of historical development of the vocabulary will definitely be of great help to us in our language study. 0.4 Aims and Significance of the Course Language study involves the study of speech sounds, grammar and vocabulary. Vocabulary has proved particularly important and certainly the most difficult. In the discussion of the relationship between words and structure, Wilkins(1972)asserts, ‘Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.’ The lexicologist McCarthy(1990)echoed the same message that no matter how well the student learns grammar, no matter how successfully he masters the sounds of a L2, without words to express a wide range of meanings, communication in that language cannot happen in any meaningful way. 本句翻译:英语的学习有三个方面的内容,涉及到语音、语法以及词汇。就词汇或语法而言,威尔金斯指出,如果我们没有语法知识的话,我们很难表达自己的感情、思想,如果没有词汇知识的话,你什么东西也不能表达。另外一个语言学家,麦卡锡也产生了共鸣,不管你的语法学得如何,对第二语言的发音掌握如何,没有足够词汇来表达你的思想,你用这门语言肯定不会进行一种完全有意义的交流。

A good knowledge of morphological structure of English words and rules of word-formation will help learners develop their personal vocabulary and consciously increase their word power. The information of the historical development and the principles of classification will give them a deeper understanding of word-meaning and enable them to organize, classify and store words more effectively. 本句翻译:(1)如果我们有好的词汇的结构知识,掌握了一些构词法,就有助于学习者提高自己语言的词汇量,以及有意识地增加语言词汇的能力。(2)如果我们对词汇的历史发展以及词语分类的原则有很好的了解,则会使我们能够更好地理解词的语义,从而也使我们更有效地组织语言,进行语言的分类。

Language teachers will find lexicology even more helpful. With some knowledge of lexicology, they will be able to handle the teaching materials, particularly those concerning words more professionally. 本句翻译:学习词汇学不但对学生有好处,而且对语言教师也有很大的帮助。 Conclusion:

0.1 the nature and domain of English lexicology:

点 0.3 Methods of Study

1)Two approaches

2)Definition: A, synchronicB, diachronic

3)Focus on the synchronicChapter 1 Basic Concepts of Words and Vocabulary

((((1))))Introduction: The basic concepts concerning words and vocabulary:

A. the relation between sound and meaning. B.the relation between sound and form.

((((2))))Important points

1.1 What Is a Word What is a word? This question has occupied the attention of linguists for ages. Although numerous definitions have been suggested, none of them seem to be perfect. Scholars still do not agree on the definition of the word. 本句翻译:我们有许多语言学家在研究到底什么叫词。词的定义一直困扰着语言学家,但是他们对词下的定义都彼此不相一致,这个现象已经持续了许多年。

Analysis to the definition of the wordIn this line a word can be defined as a meaningful group of letters printed or written horizontally across a piece of paper. 本句翻译:从视角看词是被打印在书本上的,或平衡、均匀地写出来的,是由许许多多有意义的字母构成的。

As defined in terms of spoken language, a word is viewed as a sound or combination of sounds which are made voluntarily with human vocal equipment. 本句翻译:如果我们从词的读音看,词可以看作是由人体发音器官发出的不同的声音的组合。

According to semanticists, a word is a unit of meaning. Grammarians, however, insist that a word be a free form that can function in a sentence, etc. To sum up, the definition of a word comprises the following points: (1)a minimal free form of a language; (2)a sound unity; (3)a unit of meaning; (4)a form that can function alone in a sentence. 本句翻译:根据语义学家的观点看,词是意义的组合;根据语法学家的观点看,词又可以自由组合,这种组合能够在句子里面起作用,等等。

1)Therefore, we can say that ‘a word is a minimal free form of a language 本句翻译:词是语言中的最小自由形式

2)that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function’.本句翻译:词有固定的读音,固定的意义,固定的句法功能。

Words can be simple and complex, yet all must comply with these criteria. Man and fine are simple, but they each have sound, meaning and syntactic function, and each can be used alone in a sentence. Naturally they are words. 本句翻译:词有简单的词和复杂的词,但是都必须遵循这些标准。人和五都是简单的词,但是它们都有发音、词义和句法功能,每个词都可以单独用在句中。很显然,它们就是词。

There are words which are complex such as mis·for·tune and man·age·ment. Both are polysyllabic words and can function as 'subject’, ‘object’ and ‘predictive’ in a sentence. 本句翻译:较复杂的词,例如mis·for·tune和man·age·ment,它们都是多音节词,在句中可以作主语、宾语和表语。 Though misfortune can be further divided as mis- and fortune, the former cannot stand alone as a word. 本句翻译:它虽然可以分成“mis”和“fortune”两部分,但是分开之后,前面“mis”不能在句子当中充当成分。

Similarly, management can be broken down as manage and –ment, the latter cannot be used freely, either. Blackmail can be separated into black and mail, and both can work as independent units in a sentence, the meaning of each, however, is by no means the combination of the two. Black is a colour, opposite to ‘white’, and mail denotes 'something sent by post’, yet when they are put together, the combined form means ‘compel, compulsion, to make payment or action in return for concealment of discreditable secrets etc.’ Hence blackmail is a different word(COD).

1.2 Sound and Meaning

((((1))))the relationships between the sound and meaning

1)A word is a symbol that stands for something else in the world, which is outside the language system. 本句翻译:词是语言世界之外的现实世界中代替其它物体的符号。

Each of the world's cultures has come to agree that certain sounds will represent certain persons, things, properties, processes and activities.

2)Sound is the physical aspect of a word. And meaning is what the sound refers to. 本句翻译:音是词的物质外壳。义是音的所指。 ((((2))))This symbolic connection is almost always arbitrary

1)there is ‘no logical relationship between the sound which stands for a thing or an idea and the actual thing and idea itself’. 本句翻译:它们之间关系的任意性是说:音和实际的实物和实际思想本身并没有一定的逻辑关系,所以这种关系就称为任意性。

A dog is called a dog not because the sound and the three letters that make up the word just automatically suggest the animal in question. 本句翻译:狗之所以叫狗并不是因为它的读音,也不是因为它的三个字母组合起来表明它就是狗的意思,因为在实际的读音中“dog”的音与实际的实物并没有一定的逻辑关系,所以它们之间的关系是任意的。

2)The relationship between them is conventional because people of the same speech community have agreed to refer to the animal with this cluster of sounds. In different languages the same concept can be represented by different sounds. Woman, for example, becomes ‘Frau’ in German, ‘femme’ in French and ‘fùnǚ’ in Chinese. On the other hand, the same sound [mi:t] is used to mean meet, meat, mete. Knight and night, though denoting entirely different things, yet have the same sound. conventional 约定俗成的

1.3 Sound and Form

(1)It is generally agreed that the written form of a natural language is the written record of the oral form. Naturally the written form should agree with the oral form. In other words, the sound should be similar to the form. natural language:自然语言,是与计算机语言相对应而言的。 This is fairly true of English in its earliest stage i.e. Old English. The speech of the time was represented very much more faithfully in writing than it is today. 本句翻译:在古英语时期,它的书写形式与口语形式很相似。

(2)With the development of the language, more and more differences occur between the two. 本句翻译:随着时间的推移,历史的发展,音和形之间的距离越拉越大。

What caused more and more differences between them?

①The internal reason for this is that the English alphabet was adopted from the Romans, which does not have a separate letter to represent each sound in the language so that some letters must do double duty or work together in combination. 本句翻译:它的内部原因是由于英语中的字母是借助于拉丁字母,英语字母中没有一个单独的字母代表一个发音(英语字母仅仅26个,而发音要多于英语的字母),所以我们就可以看到有的字母可能会兼两职或三职,其读音形式则不同。

②Another reason is that the pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling over the years, and in some cases the two have drawn far apart.(易出简答题)During the last five hundred years, though the sounds of speech have changed considerably, there have been no corresponding changes of spelling. 本句翻译:另一个原因是由于发音的变化远远快于拼写的变化。这两者的差异越来越大。在过去的五百年中,虽然发音发生了大量的变化,但是拼写没有相应地发生那么多变化。

③The third reason is that some of the differences were created by the early scribes. 本句翻译:第三个原因是由早期的抄写员造成的。 In the early days the spelling differences did not matter very much as people were not so used to seeing words in print, and the spelling was not fixed as it is today. 本句翻译:早期拼写的不同对人们来说都是不怎么重要的,因为人们并不经常看到打印出来的文字,拼写没有现在固定。

As a result, no one was quite sure how some English words should be spelled. 本句翻译:当然人们就不在意拼写是这样还是那样的了。

Before the printing press was brought to England, everything was written by hand. 本句翻译:在印刷术引进到应该之前,人们的书写方式都是用手写。

Those scribes, who made a living by writing for other people often worked in haste to meet the needs of the King, Church, and merchants. 本句翻译:抄写员主要以抄写来维持生活,他们快速抄写以满足国王、教堂和商人的需要。

One problem was that several letters written with short vertical strokes such as i, u, v, m, v and n looked all alike. vertical 竖写的 To solve the problem in part, they changed the letter u to o when it came before m, n, or v. 本句翻译:为了部分地解决这些问题,他们规定当u出现在m、n、v前面时改成o。

This is how sum, cum, wuman, wunder, munk came to be written as some, come, woman, wonder, monk. At some point, too, the scribes seem to have decided that no English word should end in u or v. Thus, in time, an e was added to such words as live, have, due, and true but not pronounced(Deighton 1979). 本句翻译:他们规定英语中的单词不能以字母u或v结尾,所以如果以u或v结尾。后面就要加一个不发音的e,于是便导致了现在英语的词形。

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