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【公开课】传染病是如何扩散至世界各地的?

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-3-23 01:14| 查看数: 163| 评论数: 0|帖子模式

视频介绍

传染病疫情虽起源于一地,但有机会造成全球扩散和蔓延。TED动画小短片讲述——病毒是如何从动物传染给人类的,又是怎样变异的,史上几次大规模传染病是如何流行起来的。对于如何预防病毒传播有借鉴意义,值得观看和思考。



We live in an interconnected, an increasingly globalized world.

我们生活在互相联系越来越频繁的世界里。

Thanks to international jet travel,

因为国际航班,

people and the diseases they carry

无论人类还是疾病都能被带到任何地方,

can be in any city on the planet in a matter of hours.

到地球上的任何一个城市, 也不过十几个小时而已。

And once a virus touches down,

而一旦病毒登陆,

sometimes all it takes is one sneeze to spread

有时只需一个小喷嚏,

the infection throughout the community.

就能使整个社区被病毒感染。

When humans were hunter-gatherers, roaming the wild savannas,

当还是野人时,大家在野生热带树林里狩猎,

we were never in one place long enough,

从不会在一个地方停留过久,

and settlements were not large enough

而且他们居住地也不大,

to sustain the transmission of infectious microbes.

从而防止病菌传播。

But with the advent of the agricultural revolution

在一万年前,随着农业革命的出现,

10,000 years ago, and the arrival of permanent settlements

中东地区人类的居住地逐渐出现,

in the Middle East, people began living side-by-side with animals,

使人们开始与动物生活在同一屋檐下,

facilitating the spread of bacteria and viruses

促进了牲畜与人类之间细菌和病毒的

between cattle and humans.

传播速度。

Epidemics and pandemics come in many shapes and forms.

传染病和流行病来自于各种形式。

In 2010, for instance,

例如,2011年,

a devastating earthquake struck Haiti,

毁灭性的地震袭击了海地,

forcing thousands of people into temporary refugee camps.

迫使数以万计的海地人民 要住在临时的难民营,

Within weeks, the camps had become breeding grounds for cholera,

在几个星期内,难民营就发生了霍乱,

a bacteria spread by contaminated water,

这是一种通过污染水源传播的疾病,

triggering a country-wide epidemic.

它诱发了遍及全国的传染病。

But the most common cause of epidemics are viruses,

但是传染病最普遍的病原体是病毒

such as measles, influenza and HIV.

例如麻风病毒,流行性感冒和艾滋病病毒。

And when they go global, we call them pandemics.

当它们走向全球,我们把它们称作流行病。

Pandemics have occurred throughout human history,

流行病的发生贯穿人类的历史,

Some have left scars on the tissue and bone of their victims,

有些病毒在受害者的 身体组织和骨头上留下了伤疤,

while evidence for others comes from preserved DNA.

而有迹象表明这些病毒来自于的古代的DNA。

For instance, scientists have recovered DNA

例如,科学家们从古埃及木乃伊的残骸中 重新找到传染肺结核的病菌。

from the bacteria that transmits tuberculosis

例如,科学家们从古埃及木乃伊的残骸中 重新找到传染肺结核的病菌。

from the remains of ancient Egyptian mummies.

例如,科学家们从古埃及木乃伊的残骸中 重新找到传染肺结核的病菌。

And in 2011,

在 2011 年,

scientists investigating a plague pit in the city of London

科学家们调查了伦敦城的一处瘟疫区,

were able to reconstruct the genome of Yersinia pestis,

它竟能够改造鼠疫杆菌基因。

the bacterium responsible for the Black Death of the 14th century.

这些病菌是 14 世纪黑死病爆发的起因。

It is thought the plague originated in China

人们认为这场瘟疫起源于中国,

in around 1340,

大概是在 1340 年,

spreading west along the Silk Road,

沿着丝绸之路传播到西方去,

the caravan route running from Mongolia to the Crimea.

商队的路线从蒙古到克里米亚半岛。

In 1347, the plague reached the Mediterranean,

在 1347 年,这场瘟疫到达了地中海,

and by 1400, it had killed in excess of

而直到 1400 年,这场瘟疫造成 超过三千四百万欧洲人的死亡,

34 million Europeans, earning it the title,

使它拥有了“必死”的头衔。

the Great Mortality.

使它拥有了“必死”的头衔。

It was later historians who called it the Black Death.

随后的历史学家们称之为“黑死病”。

However, by far the greatest pandemic killer

然而,目前为止最普遍的流行病杀手

is influenza.

是流行性感冒。

Flu is constantly circulating between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres.

流感持续不断地在南北半球循环。

In North America and Europe,

在北美和欧洲,

seasonal flus occur every autumn and winter.

季节性流感每个秋冬季都会出现。

As the majority of children and adults will have been exposed to the virus in previous seasons,

大多数的儿童和成年人在之前 都接触过流感病毒,

these illnesses are usually mild.

这些疾病通常是很温和的。

However, every 20 to 40 years or so

但是,每 20 年至 40 年间,

the virus undergoes a dramatic mutation.

这些流感病毒就会经历一次急剧变异。

Usually this occurs when a wild flu virus

通常这种变化产生的是 强烈的传染性病毒

circulating in ducks and farm poultry

在鸭群和农畜中不断传播,

meets a pig virus, and they exchange genes.

遇上了猪流感,它们转变了基因。

This process is known as antigenic shift

这一过程就是众所周知的抗原转移

and has occurred throughout human history.

并贯穿在整个人类历史。

The first recorded pandemic occurred in 1580.

第一个被记录的流行病是在 1580 年。

The 18th and 19th centuries

在 18 和 19 世纪生活的人,

saw at least six further pandemics.

见证了至少六种以上的流行病。

In terms of mortality,

但在死亡率方面,

none can compare with the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918.

与 1918 年的大流感无法比拟。

The first indication of the pandemic

第一次大流感爆发的迹象,

came in the spring, when American troops in northern France

是在春季,当时美军在法国北部,

began complaining of chills, headaches and fever.

军士们开始抱怨寒冷,头痛和发热。

Then, the following September, at a U.S. Army barracks near Boston,

然后,在接下来的九月份,在美国波士顿军营中,

soldiers started collapsing on parade,

士兵们开始崩溃,

prompting their removal to the camp infirmary.

导致他们被转移到到军医处。

As a surgeon there recalled,

外科医生被召到军医处,

two hours after admission, they had the mahogany spots over the cheekbones

入院后的两个小时, 他们的颧骨已经有了红褐色的斑点。

and a few hours later

再过几个小时,

you can begin to see the cyanosis extending from their ears

你们就能看见黄萎病 已经蔓延到他们的耳朵,

and spreading all over the face.

还遍布了全脸。

It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes,

这离他们病逝只是几个小时的时间,

and it is simply a struggle for air until they suffocate.

而且他们一般因为呼吸困难直到窒息而死。

On the S.S. Leviathan,

在利维坦轮船上,

a huge American transport en route to Bordeaux,

一艘去波尔多的美国运输轮。在此途中,

sick men hemorrhaged blood from their noses,

病人鼻孔出血,

turning the decks between their bunks slick with bodily fluids.

把甲板都变成了充满体液的光滑床铺。

Meanwhile, British soldiers returning from northern France on furlough

与此同时,法国北部的英国士兵从休假中归来,

introduced the flu to Dover and other Channel ports,

把流感从多佛和其他港口

from where the virus was carried by rail to London.

带到了火车车上,一并运到了伦敦。

By the time the pandemic had run its course

在此时,流行病就开始肆虐了。

in April 1919,

1919 年 4 月,

an estimated 675,000 Americans

大概有六十七万五千个美国人和

and 230,000 Britons were dead.

二十三万个英国人因此而死亡。

In India alone, some 10 million were killed,

仅仅在印度,就已经有将大约一千万人死亡,

and worldwide the death toll was an astonishing 50 million.

而全世界死亡人数是一个惊人的数字,五千万!

But that was then.

但那些已经过去了。

Today, planes can transport viruses

今天,飞机可以运载病毒

to any country on the globe

到这个世界上的任何一个国家。

in a fraction of the time it took in 1918.

比 1918 年那次传播得更快。

In February 2003, for instance,

例如,在 2003 年 2 月,

a Chinese doctor arrived at the Metropole Hotel in Hong Kong

一位中国医生住在香港維景酒店店,

feeling unwell.

他感到不适。

Unknown to him, he was harboring a new animal-origin virus called SARS,

他并不知道,他感染了 一种新的动物有机病菌,叫非典。

short for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.

非典,是严重急性呼吸系统综合症的缩写。

Within 24 hours of checking into Room 913,

在 24 小时内,

sixteen other guests had been infected,

住在 913 房附近的 16 位房客全部被感染,

and over the following days five boarded planes to overseas destinations,

接下来的几天,登上了 5 趟的国际航班,

spreading the virus to Vietnam, Singapore and Canada.

病毒传播到了越南,新加坡和加拿大。

Flights between Hong Kong, Toronto and other international cities were quickly grounded

香港与多伦多还有其他 国际城市的航班立刻被停止,

and thanks to other emergency measures,

多亏了各种紧急措施,

a pandemic was averted.

大规模传染得到了避免。

By the time the outbreak was over four months later,

四个月之后,非典爆发了,

SARS had infected 29 countries worldwide

在 29 个国家肆虐,

and more than 1,000 people were dead.

超过了 1000 人因此而死亡。

For all that the virus was rapidly contained, however,

虽然病菌传播得很快,

there was little that could be done about the alarming news reports

但有小部分可以通过来自有线频道 或者网络的预警新闻来制止。

carried by cable news channels and the Internet.

随着一些博主对非典的 各种添油加醋,甚至传播阴谋论,

As bloggers added to the hysteria

随着一些博主对非典的 各种添油加醋,甚至传播阴谋论,

by spreading unfounded conspiracy theories,

随着一些博主对非典的 各种添油加醋,甚至传播阴谋论,

tourism in Hong Kong and other affected cities ground to a halt,

香港和其他受影响的城市 游客的数量急剧降低,

costing businesses more than 10 billion U.S. dollars.

损失了将近一百亿美元的生意。

One business, however, did very well.

而一种生意,就非常好。

Above all, SARS was a reminder that pandemics have always been associated with panic.

综上所述,非典乃至于 其他流行病带给我们的都是痛苦回忆。

If history teaches us anything,

历史教训我们,

it's that while pandemics may start small,

传染病一开始可能很小型,

their impacts can be as dramatic as wars and natural disasters.

然而它们的破坏力戏剧般地 与战争和自然灾害一样强大。

The difference today

不同于往日,

is that science gives us the ability to detect pandemics

科技给我们带来第一时间

right at the very beginning

察觉到传染病的机会,

and to take action to mitigate their impacts

同时在它们传播得更远之前

before they spread too widely.

减轻它们的影响。

(music)

(音乐)



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