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联合国成立75周年

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-8-5 02:03| 查看数: 211| 评论数: 0|



It was June 1945 in San Francisco California that the UN Charter was signed. Created to prevent a repeat of the atrocities of WW II, the United Nations was designed as a framework to peacefully resolve international disputes. The organization marks its 75th anniversary in a much different world, one gripped by global upheavals, says UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres. From Covid-19 to climate disruption,from racial injustice to rising inequalities, we are a world in turmoil. At the same time, we have an international community with an enduring vision— embodied in the Charter—to guide us to a better future. Our shared challenge is to rise to this moment.

1945年6月在加利福尼亚州的旧金山签署了《联合国宪章》。联合国是为防止第二次世界大战的暴行重演而创立的,它被设计为和平解决国际争端的框架。联合国秘书长安东尼奥·古特雷斯表示,现在的世界今非昔比,是一个被全球动荡所笼罩的世界,联合国在这样的条件下庆祝其成立75周年。从新冠肺炎到气候破坏,从种族不公正到日益加剧的不平等,我们身处一个动荡的世界。同时,我们的国际社会有一个长远的愿景——体现在《宪章》中——以指引我们走向更美好的未来。我们共同面临的挑战是迎接这一时刻。

But several of the UNs major founding powers are moving further away from one of its core principles: multilateralism. These smaller countries are embracing it. We really see this move towards investing UN with even more importance, because these countries collectively acknowledge, that many of the problems of our day cannot be solved except by multilateral diplomacy. Things like climate change,things like global health,as we see too clearly today, can only be solved through international cooperation. The UN Chief acknowledges that today's multilateralism needs to be more robust. The problem is not that multilateralism is not up to the challenges the world faces. The problem is that today's multilateralism lacks scale, ambition and teeth.

但联合国的几个主要创始国正在进一步偏离其核心原则之一:多边主义。这些较小的国家正在接受它。我们确实发现向联合国投资的这一举措更为重要,因为这些国家全都承认,只有通过多边外交才能解决当今的许多问题。我们现在明显发现,像气候变化、全球卫生等问题,只有通过国际合作才能解决。联合国秘书长承认,今天的多边主义需要更加强大。问题不在于多边主义不适应世界面临的挑战。问题在于,当今的多边主义缺乏规模、雄心和威力。

Over the years the UN has expanded its work, to include peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Today the organization feeds 87 million people in 83 countries, vaccinates half the world's children, and has nearly 100,000 peacekeepers deployed in 13 countries. While preventing another world war, the UN has struggled to curb conflicts in nearly every corner of the globe, making the body ineffectual, say critics, "The UN isn't what it was conceived to be in 1945. It's been largely ineffective in its political arms. Many of its humanitarian agencies do very good work, but on the political side it has not functioned as it was expected to. The UN is marking its anniversary during the Covid-19 pandemic, a disease that poses perhaps its single greatest challenge since its founding. But before the virus the UN was already facing a long to-do list. I think the overwhelming challenge for the UN in the next decades, will be coordinating international responses to climate change. Equally challenging, finding ways to balance power among its strongest members, so they will continue to cooperate and not paralyze the organizations work.

多年来,联合国扩大了其工作范围,包括维持和平和人道主义行动。今天,该组织为83个国家的8700万人提供食物,为世界上一半的儿童接种疫苗,在13个国家部署了近10万名维和人员。在防止另一场世界大战爆发的同时,联合国一直在努力遏制全球几乎每一个角落的冲突,这让这一机构失去效力,批评者表示,“联合国已经不是1945年构想的样子了。它在政治上基本无效。它的许多人道主义机构都发挥了很好的作用,但在政治方面,它并没有发挥预期的作用。联合国纪念日正值新冠肺炎疫情期间,这种疾病可能是其成立以来最大的挑战。但在病毒爆发之前,联合国已经面临着一份很长的待办事项清单。我认为未来几十年联合国面临的巨大挑战,是协调国际社会应对气候变化。同样具有挑战性的是,如何在最强大的成员国之间平衡权力,因此,他们将继续合作,而不是使该组织的工作陷于瘫痪。

China is gaining influence in the UN very rapidly as its economy grows, but that leaves American officials nervous, and it leaves diplomats from other countries worried, that they are losing their positions and their influence in the UN system. The organization which has a multi-billion dollar annual budget, is also facing the worst fiscal crisis in its history. The UN is incredibly cash-strapped right now, and that has real-world consequences, programmatic consequences. It has consequences for peace and security. It has consequences for things like global health as we see today. As the UN looks ahead, it will need the unity and political will of its 193 member states, to successfully tackle the many problems the world faces. Margaret Beshear VOA news New York

随着中国经济的发展,中国在联合国的影响力越来越大,但这让美国官员感到紧张,也让其他国家的外交官担心,他们正在失去自己在联合国系统中的地位和影响力。这个拥有数十亿美元年度预算的组织,也面临着历史上最严重的财政危机。联合国现在资金拮据,这对现实世界和规划都有影响。这对和平与安全有影响。就像我们今天看到的,它会对全球卫生产生影响。展望未来,联合国需要193个会员国的团结和政治意愿,才能成功解决世界面临的许多问题。美国之音新闻,记者玛格丽特·贝希尔,纽约报道



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