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【双语】“师范大学”怎么就翻译成了“normal university”的呢?

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发表于 2019-11-7 02:27:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
我们都知道normal是“正常的”的意思,normal university 不就是“正常的大学”吗?这跟“师范”有什么关系呢?



A normal school is a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers. Its purpose is to establish teaching standards or norms, hence its name. Most such schools are now called teachers' colleges; however, in some places the term normal school is still used.

师范学校是培养高中毕业生成为教师的学校。它的目的是建立教学标准或规范(norms),因此得名。现在,大多数这种学校被叫做“teachers' colleges”;然而,在某些地方,“normal school”这个名字仍在沿用。

Normal schools in the United States and Canada trained teachers for primary schools, while in continental Europe, the equivalent colleges educated teachers for primary, secondary and tertiary schools.

美国和加拿大的normal schools是一般是培训小学教师的,而欧洲大陆的同等大学则为小学、中学和大学培训教师。

In 1685, St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, founded what is generally considered the first normal school, the École Normale, in Reims, Champagne, France. The term normal herein refers to the goal of these institutions to instill and reinforce particular norms within students. Normsincluded historical behavioral norms of the time, as well as norms that reinforced targeted societal values, ideologies and dominant narratives in the form of curriculum.

1685年,圣约翰·喇沙,天主教组织喇沙会的创办人,在法国香槟区的兰斯创立了被普遍认为是第一所师范学校的高等师范学校。这里的“normal”一词指的是这些机构立下的向学生灌输和强化特定规范(norms)的目标。规范包括当时的历史行为规范,以及以课程形式强化社会价值观、意识形态和主导叙事的规范。

Many comprehensive public or state-supported universities, such as the University of California, Los Angeles in the United States and Beijing Normal University in China, were established and operated as normal schools before expanding their faculties and organizing as research universities. Some of these universities, particularly in Asia, retain the word Normal in their name to recognize their historical purpose. In Canada, most normal schools were eventually assimilated into a university as its faculty of education.

许多综合性的公立或州立大学,如美国加州大学、洛杉矶大学和中国北京师范大学,在扩编师资和组建研究型大学之前,都是以师范学校的形式建立和运作的。其中一些大学,尤其是亚洲的大学,在他们的名字中保留了“Normal”这个词,以表明他们的历史目的。在加拿大,大多数师范学校最终被合并为一所大学,作为其教育学院存在。



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