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【双语】《牛津词典》公布2019年度词汇:“气候紧急状态”

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发表于 2019-11-22 11:16:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
“Climate emergency(气候紧急状态)”击败“气候危机”、“全球变热”、“否认气候变化”等热门词汇,当选《牛津词典》2019年度词汇。毫无疑问,“气候”是2019年最受关注的话题。



Photo by Li-An Lim on Unsplash

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Oxford Dictionaries has declared “climate emergency” the word of the year for 2019, following a hundred-fold increase in usage that it says demonstrated a “greater immediacy” in the way we talk about the climate.

近日,《牛津词典》公布了2019年度词汇——“气候紧急状态”,这一词汇的使用率在2019年增加了100倍。据称,当人们谈论气候问题时,使用这个词会“更加突出危机感”。

Defined as “a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it”, Oxford said the words soared from “relative obscurity” to “one of the most prominent – and prominently debated – terms of 2019.”

《牛津词典》将“气候紧急状态”定义为:需要采取紧急行动以减少或阻止气候变化,并避免由此造成的不可逆转的环境破坏。《牛津词典》出版方称,2019年“气候紧急状态”从“相对不为人知”转变为“2019年最引人注目、备受争议的词汇之一”。

According to the dictionary’s data, usage of “climate emergency” soared 10,796%.

根据《牛津词典》的数据,“气候紧急状态”一词的使用率飙升了10796%。

Oxford said the choice was reflective, not just of the rise in climate awareness, but the focus specifically on the language we use to discuss it. The rise of “climate emergency” reflected a conscious push towards language of immediacy and urgency, the dictionary said.

《牛津词典》出版方表示,这一选择不仅反映了人们对气候变化意识的增强,还特别关注了我们讨论气候变化时使用的语言。“气候紧急状态”使用率的增加反映出人们正有意识地采用更直接更具紧迫感的语言。

In 2019, “climate” became the most common word associated with “emergency”, three times more than “health emergency” in second.

2019年,“气候”成为与“紧急状态”相关的最常见词汇,比使用率位居第二的“卫生紧急状态”多三倍。

In May, the Guardian updated its style guide to clarify that “climate emergency” or “global heating” would be favoured over “climate change” or “global warming” – to better reflect the scientific consensus that this was “a catastrophe for humanity”.

今年5月,《卫报》更新了其风格指南,表明“气候紧急状态”或“全球变热”的使用将优先于“气候变化”或“全球变暖”,以更好地反映科学共识,即这是“人类的灾难”。

Hundreds of cities, towns and even countries have also declared “climate emergencies” during 2019 – from Scotland, the UK, Canada, France and the city of Sydney in Australia.

2019年,包括苏格兰、英国、加拿大、法国在内的国家以及澳大利也悉尼等数百个城镇也宣布进入“气候紧急状态”。

"In 2018, climate did not feature in the top words typically used to modify emergency, instead the top types of emergencies people wrote about were health, hospital, and family emergencies,” the selection panel said. "But with climate emergency, we see something new, an extension of emergency to the global level.”

《牛津词典》评选委员会表示:“在2018年,气候并不是最常用来修饰紧急状况的词,人们写的最常见的紧急情况是卫生、医院和家庭紧急情况。但从气候紧急状态的使用率上升可以看出,气候变化已经扩大成为全球层面的紧急问题。”

"Climate emergency” beat the words “climate crisis”, “climate action”, “climate denial”, “extinction”, “flight shame”, “global heating” and “plant-based”, which were on the shortlist.

在候选的年度词汇中,“气候紧急状态”击败了“气候危机”、“气候行动”、“否认气候变化”、“灭绝”、“飞行羞辱”、“全球变热”、“植物性”等词。

The dictionary’s word of the year is chosen to “reflect the ethos, mood, or preoccupations of the passing year” and should have “lasting potential as a term of cultural significance”.

被选中的《牛津词典》年度词汇要“反映过去一年的社会思潮、气氛或关注点”,并且应该“具有持久的文化意义”。

ethos[ˈiːθɑːs]: n. 民族精神;气质;社会思潮

Previous winners of word of the year include “toxic” in 2018 and “youthquake” in 2017.

2018年《牛津词典》的年度词汇是“有毒的”,2017年的年度词汇则是“青年震荡”。

英文来源:卫报

翻译&编辑:丹妮

本文来自:中国日报英语点津

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