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研究:夜班可能致癌

发布者: ilovesunny | 发布时间: 2009-3-31 11:26| 查看数: 1690| 评论数: 1|

Night work cancer theory prompts compensation fears



Governments and employers worldwide are set to face pressure for compensation and changes to working patterns following research suggesting night shift work may cause cancer.Cancer patients' groups, researchers and trade unions are studying evidence of the link after Denmark's National Injuries Board approved compensation of up to DKr1m ($181,000, €134,000, £123,000) for 38 women who developed breast cancer after working one or more nights a week for at least 20 years.A review of recent studies by the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that night work disrupted the body's circadian rhythms, inhibiting the production of melatonin, a hormone important in fighting cancer. “Shift work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans,” it concluded, putting the risk at the same level as chemicals containing lead, anabolic steroids, creosote, diesel exhaust and sun lamps.Ahead of the full IARC findings to be published later this year, Australia's National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre cautioned that some studies indicated a “small increase in breast cancer risk . . . in limited groups of women . . . after 20 years or more of shift work”, findings were inconsistent and some “open to questions of bias and confounding”.But Grete Christensen, deputy president of the Danish Nurses' Organisation, seven of whose members won compensation, said: “Now you can be compensated for working night shifts just as if you were working with poisonous chemicals in some factory.”Other European countries including the Netherlands, Belgium and the UK are also examining looking at the link between night work and breast cancer and may move to granting compensation.The Cancer Society of Finland said a forthcoming study on work and cancer in Nordic countries would add to the evidence of a link between shift work and breast cancer in both men and women.Up to a fifth of employees in Europe and the US work shifts including nights. More than 30 per cent work at night in healthcare, manufacturing, mining, transport, communication and the leisure and hospitality sectors.“There is sufficient evidence that night work is causing damage to men's and women's health,” says Laurent Vogel, director of the health and safety department of the European Trade Union Confederation's Institute. “The point is to limit night work to social or technical reasons . . . [not] just for reasons of profitability.”Denmark's injuries board looked at 75 cases last year and approved compensation in 38. The board said it might recognise night working as an occupational disease once the full IARC report was published, speeding up approval of pay-outs.The board's decision has already prompted some Danish employers to change policy. SAS, the leading Scandinavian airline, took action when one of its Danish stewardesses won compensation for developing breast cancer after more than 20 years of long-haul flights. “We have given our crew members the option of not flying long haul if they are not comfortable doing that,” SAS said.

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ilovesunny 发表于 2009-3-31 11:27:00
研究表明,夜班工作可能导致癌症。世界各国的政府和雇主们势必面临要求赔偿和调整工作模式的压力。

丹麦国家伤害委员会(National Injuries Board)批准给予38位患乳癌的妇女最高100万丹麦克朗(合18.1万美元)的补偿,这些妇女在至少20年内,每周上一个或多个晚上的夜班。目前,癌症患者团体、研究人员和工会纷纷着手研究二者的关联。

国际癌症研究机构(IARC)一份回顾了近期相关研究的报告归纳道:夜班会扰乱人体昼夜节律,抑制褪黑激素的分泌,而褪黑激素是一种具有重要抗癌作用的激素。报告的结论是:“会扰乱昼夜节律的轮班工作,可能对人体具有致癌作用。”该报告将这种工作模式列为与含铅化学物、合成代谢类固醇、杂酚油、柴油机尾气和日光灯等具有同等致癌风险。

IARC的报告全文将于今年晚些时候发表。澳大利亚国家乳癌与卵巢癌中心(NBOCC)则警告称,一些研究指出,“在数量有限的女性中……经过20年或以上的轮班工作……患乳癌风险小幅上升”,各项研究结果不一致,其中一些“可能存在偏见和混淆”。

丹麦护士组织(Danish Nurses' Organisation)副主任格瑞特•克里斯腾森(Grete Christensen)表示:“如今你可以因上夜班获得补偿,就如同在某些工厂中与有毒化学物质为伍一样。”该组织有7名成员获得了补偿。

包括荷兰、比利时和英国等其它欧洲国家也在研究夜班工作与乳癌之间的关联,并可能提供相应补偿。

芬兰癌症协会(Cancer Society of Finland)表示,一份研究北欧国家工作与癌症关系的报告即将发表,将提供更多证据,说明轮班工作与乳癌之间存在关联,不管是男性还是女性。

包括夜班在内,欧洲和美国有多达五分之一雇员轮班工作。在医疗、制造、矿业、交通、通信和娱乐住宿行业,30%以上雇员在夜班工作。

“有充分证据表明,夜班工作对人体健康有害,无论男性还是女性。”欧洲工会联合会研究所(ETUI-REHS)安全卫生部主任洛朗•沃格尔(Laurent Vogel)表示:“关键是从社会或技术的角度减少夜班……而不仅仅是从盈利角度考虑。”

丹麦国家伤害委员会去年研究了75个案例,批准给予其中38例补偿。该委员会表示,一旦IARC的报告全文发表,它可能将夜班列入职业病范畴,加快补偿审批速度。

该委员会的决定已促使丹麦部分雇主调整相关政策。北欧主要航空公司SAS在一名丹麦籍空姐因患乳癌而获补偿后,采取了行动。这位空姐在远程航班服务了20多年。该航空公司表示:“乘务员如果感到不适,有权选择不飞远程航班。”
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