发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-7-29 01:41| 查看数: 72| 评论数: 0|

President Donald Trump has been trying toencourage firms to hire more American workers byincreasing restrictions on visas for skilled foreignworkers, including by suspending the H-1B visaprogram in June.


But a new study found that blocking out skilled laboractually encourages companies to move jobs abroad,where they can hire locally or more easily obtain avisa. That means more new jobs in countries likeCanada, India, and China, not in the US, as president Donald Trump has claimed.


"It's not that a company really only has two options, which is either hire an immigrant in the USor hire an American in the US," said Britta Glennon, the National Bureau of Economic Researcheconomist who wrote the study. "They actually have more options than that."


Glennon looked at data from millions of H1-B applications and multinationals' employment inforeign countries over a 10-year period to track whether less access to visas changed hiringpractices. She found that it did, whether it was because the US lowered its annual visa cap (asit did in 2004,) or because visas became harder to get after US Citizenship and ImmigrationServices implemented a lottery system to grant them.


When she looked at the lottery's effects, for example, she found that for each visa applicationdenied, companies created the equivalent of .3 jobs abroad, at least.


Companies in the tech sector were more likely to hire a foreign worker at their offices outsidethe US. They were also more likely to place those workers in Canada, which has less restrictivevisa policies than the US, as well as India and China, where many of the hires were from.


When USCIS denied a visa to a prestigious MBA graduate from China or India, the companytrying to hire them would often assign them to an auxiliary office in cities like Vancouver orToronto.


Some companies reacted by transferring entire teams or tasks abroad. "They would say, 'Yeah,we just decided to open up a foreign affiliate in India because we got so tired of this wholeprocess'." she said.


She also saw a shift towards job candidates with master's degrees to increase the chances ofgetting them a visa—there's an additional cap of 20,000 for H1-B visas for applicants withadvanced degrees.


Though Glennon's analysis focused on past changes to visa policies, her research suggests thesame situation is true now that US government restrictions on foreign workers are even tighter.


By blocking immigration, the US misses out on other benefits, like new patents, additionalforeign investment, and new jobs in highly-skilled fields, Glennon said. Research has also shownimmigrants are much more likely to start new companies compared to Americans—nearly half ofFortune 500 firms were founded by an immigrant or a child of one—and are more often "jobcreators" than "job takers."


Glennon said a better policy to help Americans get jobs would be through additionalinvestments in education. "Make sure that Americans have the right set of skills," she said. "It'sa much more sensible way to go about this than trying to block skilled workers from othercountries. The reason why they're getting hired is because companies can't find Americans to dothose jobs."



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