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如何发掘超常儿童的潜能(1)

发布者: shunitang | 发布时间: 2008-9-8 13:06| 查看数: 1094| 评论数: 1|

Contrary to what many people believe, highly intelligent children are not necessarily destined for academic success. In fact, so-called gifted students may fail to do well because they are unusually smart. Ensuring that a gifted child reaches his or her potential requires an understanding of what can go wrong and how to satisfy the unusual learning requirements of extremely bright young people.

One common problem gifted kids face is that they, and those around them, place too much importance on being smart. Such an emphasis can breed a belief that bright people do not have to work hard to do well. Although smart kids may not need to work hard in the lower grades, when the work is easy, they may struggle and perform poorly when the work gets harder because they do not make the effort to learn. In some cases, they may not know how to study, having never done it before. In others, they simply cannot accept the fact that some tasks require effort [see “The Secret to Raising Smart Kids,” by Carol S. Dweck; Scientific American Mind, December 2007/January 2008].

If the scholastic achievement of highly intelligent children remains below average for an extended period, many teachers will fail to recognize their potential. As a result, such students may not get the encouragement they need, further depressing their desire to learn. They may fall far behind in their schoolwork and even develop behavior problems. Boys may turn aggressive or become class clowns. Girls often develop performance anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms such as stomachaches [see “Watching Prodigies for the Dark Side,” by Marie-Noëlle Ganry-Tardy; Scientific American Mind, April 2005].

One way to avoid such difficulties is to recognize that IQ is just one ingredient among many in the recipe for success. Children thrive or struggle in school for a host of reasons apart from IQ, according to psychologist Franz Mönks of the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. These include motivation and persistence, social competence, and the support of family, educators and friends. Emphasizing the importance of persistence and hard work, for example, will help a child avoid the laziness trap. Gifted children also need intellectual challenges—to teach them how to work hard.

最新评论

shunitang 发表于 2008-9-8 13:07:14
与许多人的想法相反,高智商儿童并不是注定会在学术上有所成就。事实上,由于聪明过人,这些通常所说的超常学生的学习成绩可能并不优秀。为了使得超常儿童发挥他们的潜能,教育者必须发现错误所在,并且懂得如何满足超常儿童的特殊学习要求。

超常儿童普遍都有一个问题,那就是他们自己还有周围的人们都把聪明看的太过重要了。这可能会滋生出聪明人不需要努力便能把事做好的想法。虽然聪明的小孩可能没有必要在学习简单的低年级功课时刻苦努力,但是当课程加深后他们会学地很费力而且成绩很差,原因在于他们并没有认真去学。在某些情况下他们可能不知道该如何学习,因为之前从来没有试过;另一些情况下,他们根本不能接受需要付出努力才能完成任务这个事实(参见The Secret to Raising Smart Kids)。

如果高智商学生的学习成绩持续低于平均水平,老师可能会误判他们的潜力。如此一来这些学生将得不到必要的鼓励,从而进一步抑制他们的学习欲望。他们的功课会远远落后,甚至会引发行为上的毛病。男孩可能会变得好斗或者变成班上的丑角;女孩则常常变得焦虑并患上像胃痛之类的身心疾病(参见Watching Prodigies for the Dark Side)。

避免这种困境的一种办法就是认识到智商仅仅是成功秘诀的许多因素之一。荷兰奈梅亨大学的心理学家Franz Mönks认为,除了智商以外还有许多因素影响着孩子们在学校里的成长或竞争。其中包括激励和坚持,社交能力,以及来自家庭、老师和朋友的支持。例如,强调坚持不懈和坚苦工作的重要性,将帮助孩子避免染上懒惰的毛病。具有天赋的孩子同样也需要智力上的挑战,这能教他们学会该如何努力工作。
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