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[考试] 2015年6月英语四级考试真题及答案(第1套)

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2015年6月英语四级考试真题及答案(第1套)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutesto write an essay based on the picture below.You should start your essay with a briefdescription of the picture and then comment on the kid's understanding of going toschool.You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

13.A.She learned playing the violin from a famous French musician.

B.She dreamed of working and living in a European country.

C.She read a lot about European musicians and their music.

D.She listened to recordings of many European orchestras.

14.A.She began taking violin lessons as a small child.

B.She was a pupil of a famous European violinist.

C.She gave her first performance with her father.

D.She became a professional violinist at fifteen.

15.A.It gave her a chance to explore the city.

B.It was the chance of a lifetime.

C.It was a great challenge to her.

D.It helped her learn classical French music.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages.At the end of each passage, you willhearsome questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After youheara question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B),C.and D).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single linethrough the centre.

Passage One

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

16.A.There are mysterious stories behind his works.

B.There are many misunderstandings about him.

C.His works have no match worldwide.

D.His personal history is little known.

17.A.He moved to Stratford-on-Avon in his childhood.

B.He failed to go beyond grammar school.

C.He was a member of the town council.

D.He once worked in a well-known acting company.

18.A.Writers of his time had no means to protect their works.

B.Possible sources of clues about him were lost in a fire.

C.His works were adapted beyond recognition.

D.People of his time had little interest in him.

Passage Two

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

19.A.Theft.

B.Cheating.

C.Air crash.

D.Road accidents.

20.A.Learn the local customs.

B.Make hotel reservations.

C.Book tickets well in advance.

D.Have the right documents.

21.A.Contact your agent.

B.Get a lift if possible.

C.Use official transport.

D.Have a friend meet you.

Passage Three

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

22.A.Cut down production cost.

B.Sell inexpensive products.

C.Specialise in gold ornaments.

D.Refine the taste of his goods.

23.A.At a national press conference.

B.During a live television interview.

C.During a local sales promotion campaign.

D.At a meeting of top British businesspeople.

24.A.Insulted.

B.Puzzled.

C.Distressed.

D.Discouraged.

25.A.The words of some businesspeople are just rubbish.

B.He who never learns from the past is bound to fail.

C.There should be a limit to one's sense of humour.

D.He is not laughed at, that laughs at himself first.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times.When the passage is read for thefirsttime, you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read for thesecondtime, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have justheard.Finally,when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what youhave written.

  Looking at the basic biological systems, the world is not doing very well.Yet economicindicators show the world is (26) Despite a slow start at the beginning of the eighties, globaleconomic output increased by more than a fifth during the (27) The economy grew, tradeincreased, and millions of new jobs were created.How can biological indicators show the 28 ofeconomic indicators?

  The answer is that the economic indicators have a basic fault: they show no differencebetween resource uses that( 29) progress and those uses that will hurt it.The main measureof economic progress is the gross national product (GNP).(30), this totals the value of allgoods and services produced and subtracts loss in value of factories and equipment.Developed ahalf-century ago, GNP helped (31) a common way among countries of measuring change ineconomic output.For some time, this seemed to work (32 )well, but serious weaknesses arenow appearing.As indicated earlier, GNP includes loss in value of factories and equipment, but itdoes not( 33 )the loss of natural resources, including nonrenewable resources such as oil orrenewable resources such as forests.

  This basic fault can produce a( 34 )sense of national economic health.According to GNP,for example, countries that overcut forests actually do better than those that preserve theirforests.The trees cut down are counted as income but no subtraction is made for (35 )theforests.

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select oneword for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by aletter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet2 with a single linethrough the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

  The U.S.Department of Education is making efforts to ensure that all students have equalaccess to a quality education.Today it is(36) the launch of the Excellent Educators for AllInitiative.The initiative will help states and school districts support great educators for thestudents who need them most.

  "All children are(37 )to a high-quality education regardless of their race, zip code orfamily income.It is (38 )important that we provide teachers and principals the support theyneed to help students reach their full (39)," U.S.Secretary of Education Arne Duncan said."Despite the excellent work and deep( 40 )of our nation's teachers and principals, students inhigh-poverty, high- minority schools are unfairly treated across our country.We have to dobetter.Local leaders and educators will (41 )their own creative solutions, but we must worktogether to (42) our focus on how to better recruit, support and(43) effective teachersand principals for all students, especially the kids who need them most."

  Today's announcement is another important step forward in improving access to a qualityeducation, a (44 )of President Obama's year of action.Later today, Secretary Duncan will leada roundtable discussion with principals and school teachers from across the country about the(45 )of working in high-need schools and how to adopt promising practices for supportinggreat educators in these schools.

A.Announcing

B.beneficial

C.challenges

D.commitment

E.component

F.contests

G.critically

H.develop

I.distributing

J.enhance

K.entitled

L.potential

M.properly

N.qualified

O.retain



Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached toit.Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs.Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Eachparagraph is marked with a letter.Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter onAnswer Sheet 2.

  The Changes Facing Fast Food

  A)Fast-food firms have to be a thick-skinned bunch.Health experts regularly criticise themseverelyfor selling food that makes people fat.Critics even complain that McDonald's, whoselogosymbolises calorie excess, should not have been allowed to sponsor the World Cup.Thesearethings fast-food firms have learnt to cope with.But not perhaps for much longer.Theburgerbusiness faces more pressure from regulators at a time when it is already adaptingstrategies inresponse to shifts in the global economy.

  B)Fast food was once thought to be recession-proof.When consumers need to cut spending,the logicgoes, cheap meals like Big Macs and Whoppers become even more attractive.Such"trading down"proved true for much of the latest recession, when fast-food companies picked upcustomers who could no longer afford to eat at casual restaurants.Traffic was boosted inAmerica, the home of fast food, with discounts and promotions, such as $1 menus and cheapcombination meals.

  C)As a result, fast-food chains have weathered the recession better than their moreexpensive competitors.In 2009 sales at full-service restaurants in America fell by more than 6%, but total sales remained about the same at fast-food chains.In some markets, such as Japan,France and Britain, total spending on fast food increased.Same-store sales in America atMcDonald's, the world's largest fast-food company, did not decline throughout thedownturn.Panera Bread, an American fast-food chain known for its fresh ingredients, performedwell, too, because it offers higher-quality food at lower prices than restaurants.

  D)But not all fast-food companies have been as fortunate.Many, such as Burger King, haveseen sales fall.In a severe recession, while some people trade down to fast food, many otherseat at home more frequently to save money.David Palmer, an analyst at UBS, a bank, sayssmaller fast- food chains in America, such as Jack in the Box and Carl's Jr., have been hitparticularly hard in this downturn because they are competing with the global giantMcDonald's, which increased spending on advertising by more than 7% last year as others cutback.

  E)Some fast-food companies also sacrificed their own profits by trying to give customersbetter value.During the recession companies set prices low, hoping that once they had temptedcustomers through the door they would be persuaded to order more expensive items.But inmany cases that strategy did not work.Last year Burger King franchisees (特许经营人)sued (起诉)the company over its double-cheeseburger promotion, claiming it was unfair for them to berepuired to sell these for $1 when they cost$1.10 to make.In May a judge ruled in favour ofBurger King.Nevertheless, the company may still be cursing its decision to promote cheapchoices over more expensive ones because items on its "value menu" now account for around20% of all sales, upfrom 12% last October.

  F)Analysts expect the fast-food industry to grow modestly this year.But the downturn ismakingcompanies rethink their strategies.Many are now introducing higher-priced items toentice (引诱)consumers away from $1 specials.KFC, a division of Yum! Brands, which also ownsTaco Belland Pizza Hut, has launched a chicken sandwich that costs around $5.And in MayBurger Kingintroduced barbecue (烧烤)pork ribs at $7 for eight.

  G)Companies are also trying to get customers to buy new and more items, includingdrinks.McDonald's started selling better coffee as a challenge to Starbucks.Its " McCafe" linenowaccounts for an estimated 6% of sales in America.Starbucks has sold rights to its Seattle'sBestcoffee brand to Burger King, which will start selling it later this year.

  H)As fast-food companies shift from "super size" to "more buys", they need to keepcustomer traffichigh throughout the day.Many see breakfast as a big opporttmity, and not justfor fatty food.McDonald's will start selling porridge (粥)in America next year.Breakfast has thepotential to bevery profitable, says Sara Senatore of Bernstein, a research firm, because themargins can be high.Fast-food companies are also adding midday and late-night snacks, such asblended drinks andwraps.The idea is that by having a greater range of things on the menu,"wecan sell to consumersproducts they want all day," says Rick Carucci., the .chief financial officerof Yum ! Brands.

  I)But what about those growing waistlines? So far, fast-food firms have cleverly avoidedgovernmentregulation.By providing healthy options, like salads and low-calorie sandwiches,they have at leastgiven the impression of doing something about helping to fight obesity (肥胖症).These offeringsare not necessarily loss-leaders, as they broaden the appeal of outlets togroups of diners thatinclude some people who don't want to eat a burger.But customers cannotbe forced to ordersalads instead of fries.

  J)In the future, simply offering a healthy option may not be good enough."Every packaged-food and restaurant company I know is concerned about regulation right now," saysMr.Palmer of UBS.America's health-reform bill, which Congress passed this year, requiresrestaurant chains with 20 ormore outlets to put the calorie-content of items they serve on themenu.A study by the NationalBureau of Economic Research, which tracked the effects onStarbucks of a similar calorie-postinglaw in New York City in 2007, found that the averagecalorie-count per transaction fell 6% andrevenue increased 3% at Starbucks stores where aDunldn Donuts outlet was nearby--a sign, it issaid, that menu-labelling could favour chainsthat have more healthy offerings.

  K)In order to avoid other legislation in America and elsewhere, fast-food companies willhave tocontinue innovating (创新).Walt Riker of McDonald's claims the change it has made in itsmenumeans it offers more healthy items than it did a few years ago."We probably sell morevegetables,more milk, more salads, more apples than any restaurant business in the world," hesays.But therecent proposal by a county in California to ban McDonald's from including toys inits high-calorie"Happy Meals", because legislators believe it attracts children to unhealthyfood, suggests there isa lot more left to do.

46.Some people propose laws be made to stop McDonald's from attaching toys to its foodspecials for children.

47.Fast-food finns may not be able to cope with pressures from food regulation in the nearfuture.

48.Burger King will start to sell Seattle's Best coffee to increase sales.

49.Some fast-food firms provide healthy food to give the impression they are helping totackle the obesity problem.

50.During the recession, many customers turned to fast food to save money.

51.Many people eat out less often to save money in times of recession.

52.During the recession, Burger King's promotional strategy of offering low-priced items oftenproved ineffective.

53.Fast-food restaurants can make a lot of money by selling breakfast.

54.Many fast-food companies now expect to increase their revenue by introducing higher-priceditems.

55.A newly-passed law asks big fast-food chains to specify the calorie count of what theyserve on the menu.

  Section C

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questionsorunfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A., B), C.andD ).Youshould decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with asingle line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

  If you think a high-factor sunscreen (防晒霜)keeps you safe from harmful rays, you may bewrong.Research in this week's Nature shows that while factor 50 reduces the number ofmelanomas(黑瘤)and delays their occurrence, it can't prevent them.Melanomas are the mostaggressive skin cancers.You have a higher risk if you have red or blond hair, fair skin, blue orgreen eyes, or sunburn easily, or if a close relative has had one.Melanomas are more common ifyou have periodic intense exposure to the sun.Other skin cancers are increasingly likely withlong-term exposure.

  There is continuing debate as to how effective sunscreen is in reducing melanomas theevidence is weaker than it is for preventing other types of skin cancer.A 2011 Australian studyof 1,621 people found that people randomly selected to apply sunscreen daily had half the rateof melanomas of people who used cream as needed.A second study, comparing 1,167 peoplewith melanomas to 1,101 who didn't have the cancer, found that using sunscreen routinely,alongside other protection such as hats,long sleeves or staying in the shade, did give someprotection.This study said other forms of sun protection not sunscreen seemed mostbeneficial.The study relied on people remembering what they had done over each decade oftheir lives, so it's not entirely reliable.But it seems reasonable to think sunscreen givespeople a false sense of security in the sun.

  Many people also don't use sunscreen properly applying insufficient amounts, failing toreapply after a couple of hours and staying in the sun too long.It is sunburn that is mostworrying recent research shows five episodes of sunburn in the teenage years increases the riskof all skin cancers.

The good news is that a combination of sunscreen and covering up can reduce melanomarates, as shown by Australian figures from their slip-slop-slap campaign.So if there is a heatwave this summer, it would be best for us, too, to slip on a shirt, slop on (抹上)sunscreen andslap on a hat.

56.What is people's common expectation of a high-factor sunscreen?

A.It will delay the occurrence of skin cancer.

B.It will protect them from sunburn.

C.It will keep their skin smooth and fair.

D.It will work for people of any skin color.

57.What does the research in Nature say about a high-factor sunscreen?

A.It is ineffective in preventing melanomas.

B.It is ineffective in case of intense sunlight.

C.It is ineffective with long-term exposure.

D.It is ineffective for people with fair skin.

58.What do we learn from the 2011 Australian study of 1,621 people?

A.Sunscreen should be applied alongside other protection measures.

B.High-risk people benefit the most from the application of sunscreen.

C.Irregular application of sunscreen does women more harm than good.

D.Daily application of sunscreen helps reduce the incidence of melanomas.

59.What does the author say about the second Australian study?

A.It misleads people to rely on sunscreen for protection.

B.It helps people to select the most effective sunscreen.

C.It is not based on direct observation of the subjects.

D.It confirms the results of the first Australian study.

60.What does the author suggest to reduce melanoma rates?

A.Using both covering up and sunscreen.

B.Staying in the shade whenever possible.

C.Using covering up instead of sunscreen.

D.Applying the right amount of sunscreen.

  Passage Two

  Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

  Across the rich world, well-educated people increasingly work longer than the less-skilled.Some65% of American men aged 62-74 with a professional degree are in theworkforce, compared with32% of men with only a high-school certificate.This gap is part of adeepening divide between the well-educated well-off and the unskilled poor.Rapidtechnological advance has raised the incomes of the highly skilled while squeezing those of theunskilled.The consequences, for individuals and society, are profound.

  The world is facing an astonishing rise in the number of old people, and they will livelonger than ever before.Over the next 20 years the global population of those aged 65 ormore will almost double, from 600 million to 1.1 billion.The experience of the 20th century,when greater longevity (长寿)translated into more years in retirement rather than more yearsat work, has persuaded many observers that this shift will lead to slower economic growth,while the swelling ranks of pensioners will create government budget problems.

  But the notion of a sharp division between the working young and the idle old misses a newtrend, the growing gap between the skilled and the unskilled.Employment rates are fallingamong younger unskilled people, whereas older skilled folk are working longer.The divide ismost extreme in America, where well-educated baby-boomers (二战后生育高峰期出生的美国人)areputting off retirement while many less-skilled younger people have dropped out of theworkforce.

  Policy is partly responsible.Many European governments have abandoned policies that usedto encourage people to retire early.Rising life expectancy (预期寿命), combined with thereplacement of generous defmed-benefit pension plans with less generous defined-contribution ones, means that even the better-off must work longer to have a comfortableretirement.But the changing nature of work also plays a big role.Pay has risen sharply for thehighly educated, and those people continue to reap rich rewards into old age because thesedays the educated elderly are more productive than the preceding generation.Technologicalchange may well reinforce that shift: the skills that complement computers, frommanagement knowhow to creativity, do not necessarily decline with age.

61.What is happening in the workforce in rich countries?

A.Younger people are replacing the elderly.

B.Well-educated people tend to work longer.

C.Unemployment rates are rising year after year.

D.People with no college degree do not easily find work.

62.What has helped deepen the divide between the well-off and the poor?

A.Longer life expectancies.

B.A rapid technological advance.

C.Profound changes in the workforce.

D.A growing number of the well-educated.

63.What do many observers predict in view of the experience of the 20th century?

A.Economic growth will slow down.

B.Government budgets will increase.

C.More people will try to pursue higher education.

D.There will be more competition in the job market.

64.What is the result of policy changes in European countries?

A.Unskilled workers may choose to retire early.

B.More people have to receive in-service training.

C.Even wealthy people must work longer to live comfortably in retirement.

D.People may be able to enjoy generous defined-benefits from pension plans.

65.What is characteristic of work in the 21st century?

A.Computers will do more complicated work.

B.More will be taken by the educated young.

C.Most jobs to be done will be the creative ones.

D.Skills are highly valued regardless of age.

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutesto translate a passage from Chinese into English.You should write your answer on Answer Sheet2.

中国是世界上最古老的文明之一。构成现代世界基础的许多元素都起源于中国。中国现在拥有世界上发展最快的经济,并正经历着一次新的工业革命。中国还启动了雄心勃勃的太空探索计划,其中包括到2020年建成一个太空站。目前,中国是世界最大的出口国之一,并正在吸引大量外国投资。同时,它也在海外投资数十亿美元。2011年,中国超越日本成为世界第二大经济体。







参考答案与解析



1.D)。选项中多次出现game和play chess,可以推测对话内容与下象棋有关。另外,从四个选项的内容审可以椎测,对话讲的府该县女士想放弃下象棋,男士给出建议或指导。

  本题的关键在于听懂反问句和反问的语调。女士说因为今天又输了,所以打算放弃下象棋。男士没有正面回应,而是反问了两句:Just because you lost?Is that any reaSon to quit?”仅仅是因为输了吗?那能算是放弃的理由吗?”言外之意就是不该放弃。换句话说就是,男士建议女士继续下棋。故本题答案为D)。

  2.C)。选项中出现了mail,address和contact等词,可以推测对话内容和邮件有关:由选项中的玛丽和萨利两个人名可知对话的内容涉及另外两个人,人物较多,听录音时应注意区分人物之间的关系,做好标记;另外,选项A)以the mail作主语,选项B)和D)以she作主语,可以推测该题会从女士的角度提问,女士的话为听音重点。

  本题的关键在于听到细节“Mary should know it.”男士想把萨利的邮件转寄给她,问女士是否知道她的地址。女士说自己很久没跟萨利联系了,但是结尾补充了一句:“玛丽应该知道地址。”故本题答案为C)。

  3.B)。选项中出现了handwriting,notes和class等词,可以推测对话内容应该与上课做笔记有关。另外,四个选项中,A)和B)以his开头,C)和D)以he为主语,可以推测该题会从男士的角度提问,男士的话为听音重点。

  解题的关键是听懂反意疑问句。女士想要借男士的笔记看,男士没有正面回答,而是反问道:You'venever seen my handwriting,have you?“你没看过我的笔迹,对吗?”言外之意就是自己的笔迹难以辨认,不易读懂。故本题答案为B)。

  4.A)。四个选项中反复出现了choose和restaurant等词,由此推测对话内容与选择饭店有关。另外,选项A)和D)均是讲男士选择饭店,而选项B)和C)则出现了dating和her,故可推测该题可能是从女士的角度看待男士所选择的饭店,女士的话为听音重点。男士说今晚要带女朋友去新开的饭店过生日。女士说她上周去过,太让她失望了。从rather disaDpointing可以听出女士话语中强烈的否定意味,言外之意就是建议男士不要去这家饭店了,应该另选一家。故本题答案为A)。

  5.A)。四个选项中三个都提到了季节,由此推测对话内容可能与季节有关。另外,四个选项都是以he开头,故可判断该题会从男士的角度进行提问,男士的话为听音重点。

女士说,冬天终于结束了,可以把手套和靴子收起来了。男士回应说为此他已经等了好几个月了。显然男士和女士一样非常期待冬天的结束,也就是盼望春天的到来。故本题答案为A)。

  6.B).四个选项中,A)和D)以the woman为主语,B)和C)以the man为主语,选项在内容上较分散,可以推测该题并非针对男士或女士个人的话提问,而是考查对整个对话的理解,听音时应注意从全局把握对话内容。

对话开头,女士对男士说,谢谢他把书送回来,由此可知应该是男士借了女士的书,故首先排除C)项:男士说,他认为女士周末会用到,而且感谢女士让他使用这些书,故本题选择B)。

  7.A)。选项中涉及work,on foot,trip和walk等词,可推测对话和步行上班或旅行相关。四个选项均为动词短语,由此可推断该题会对建议或计划进行提问,应特别注意和建议或计划相关的表述。

女士问男士的工作时间是否可以变通,男士回答说,不能。但今天天气很好,他决定步行去上班。所以必须比平常早一个小时出发。男士话语中有明显的表示计划的动词decided,其后的内容就是本题的答案,故答案为A)。

  8.C)。四个选项均涉及飞机和机场,而且都和机场存在的问题有关,故听音的重点为机场在哪方面出现了问题。

  9.D)。由对话开头可知,男士在给女士打电话,女士问男士有什么事情,男士在说明来电目的前说,自己了解到女士的公司有家化学加工厂,故D)为答案。

  10.C)。对话中,男士先表明自己的身份,介绍了自己公司,说明了来电目的是想和格兰德先生讨论如何帮助TGC公司防止泄漏,同时节省开支的问题,实际上就是要推荐自己公司的产品,由此可推断男士是一名销售员,故C)为答案。

  11.B)。对话中,女士告知男士格兰德先生非常忙,没空与男士说话,男士想找其他人商谈,女士告诉他,他正和格兰德先生的私人助理说话,即女士就是格兰德先生的私人助理,故B)为答案。

  12.C)。对话中,女士说let me suggest Something,由此可知,其后就是女士对男士的建议,即为该题的答案。对话中,女士建议男士将其公司产品和服务的详情以及其他公司的推荐信一并寄送过来,之后会和男士联系,故C)为答案。

  13.D)。男士问女士是否想过会在西方世界生活和工作,女士回答说没有,但是自己一直都听欧洲大型管弦乐队的唱片,由此可知女士在到欧洲之前听过很多欧洲管弦乐队的唱片,故D)是答案。

  14.A)。男士问女士是否很小就喜欢古典音乐,女士给出肯定回答,并说自己六岁就开始在学校学习小提琴,故A)为答案。

  15.B)。对话末尾,女士提到自己十五岁获得奖学金到巴黎留学,男士询问女士父母对此有何感受,女士说她父母喜忧参半,因为这既是个千载难逢的机会,也意味着她要远离故乡。四个选项中只有B)与原文相符,故为答案。

  16.D)。短文中作者先提出“有多少人了解莎士比亚本人”的问题,接着指出学者们经过几个世纪的研究之后,仍然在不断探索他的个人史。由此可知,莎士比亚的个人史很少有人知道,故D)为答案。

  17.C)。本题考查对莎士比亚父亲的了解,由于使用的人称代词都是he,会对听前预测造成一定的干扰,在听录音时应注意将选项和短文内容进行匹配区别。文章中提到莎士比亚的父亲受人尊敬,是埃文河畔斯特拉特福镇议会的一名成员,故C)为答案。

  18.B)。文章中提到1666年伦敦的一场大火把很多重要文件烧毁了,而这些本来可能是了解莎士比亚的线索,因此莎士比亚的一部分生活将永远不为人所知,故B)为答案。

  19.A)。短文开头部分提到,人们在外出旅游时遇到的大部分人都是既友好又热情的,但也会遇到很多危险,而其中最为常见的就是盗窃,故A)为答案。

  20.D)。文中提到,在准备出国旅游时,一定要确保文件正确,谁都不想到了目的地却发现签证错误、护照过期等情况。选项D)中的documents与文中的paperwork是同义转述,故D)为答案。

  21.C)。文章最后给出建议:到达目的地后要选择乘坐正规的交通工具,故C)为答案。

  22.B)。短文提到,拉特纳在1984年接管了父亲的珠宝连锁店后,决定以最低的价格卖出低档产品,选项B)中sell inexpensive products是原文sell downmarket products的同义转述,故B)为答案。

  23.D)。短文明确提到,在一次英国上层商人会议上,拉特纳出席并解释了自己成功的秘密,故D)为答案。

  24.A)。短文提到,听到拉特纳的评论后,人们觉得受到了侮辱并远离拉特纳的商店,故A)为答案。

  25.C)。短文开头就点明了主题,提到英国人以自嘲闻名,但即使是对他们来说,幽默也应该有限度,接着短文以拉特纳的故事为例说明这个主题,文末再次强调“这个玩笑的代价太大了”,以此首尾呼应,告诉我们开玩笑要有度,故C)为答案。

  26.prospering。此处应该填人一个现在分词或形容词,作is的表语。prospering意为“繁荣的”。

  27.decade。此处应该填入表示时间的名词,与前面的介词during搭配。decade意为“十年”。

  28.opposite。此处应该填入名词。opposite意为“对立面”。

  29.sustain。此处应该填入动词原形作从句谓语,上文的先行词reSource uses充当其主语。sustain意为“保持,维持”。

  30.In simple terms。此处应该填入副词或介词短语作状语。in simple terms意为“简言之”。

  31.establish。此处应该填入动词原形,与其前面的help搭配,并且能和后面的way搭配。estabfish意为“建立,设立”。

  32.reaSonably。此处应该填入副词修饰well。reaSonably意为“尚可,还可以”。

  33.take into account。此处应该填入动词原形或动词短语。take into account意为“考虑,重视”。

  34.misleading。此处应该填入形容词来修饰sense。misleading意为“令人误解的”。

  35.using up。此处应该填人动名词或动名词短语来作介词for的宾语,并和forests进行搭配。usingup意为“耗尽,用光”。

  36.A)announcing。动词辨析题。句首出现时间状语today,空格位于系动词is和名词短语thelaunchof…之间,因此空格处需要填人动词的现在分词形式,构成现在进行时。前一句提到,美国教育部正在努力确保所有学生享有接受高质量教育的平等权利。因此,空格处需要填人一个能够与名词launch构成动宾搭配的动词,表示“宣布开始实施一项方案或活动”。由此确定announcing为本题答案,意思是“宣布”。备选词中,distributing意思是“分发,散布”,与此处文意不符,且无法与launch构成动宾搭配,故排除。

  37.K)entitled。动词辨析题。空格前面是系动词are,后面是介词to及其宾语,因此空格处需要填入形容词作表语或者动词的被动语态,并与介词to搭配。上文提到,美国教育部今天宣布开始实施为所有学生提供优秀教育工作者的活动方案,本句解释了实施此方案的原因,即所有孩子都应有权利接受高质量的教育。因此,空格处需要填人一个表示“有权利”或“有资格”的形容词,且能够与介词to搭配,备选形容词中只有entitled同时符合这两项要求,由此确定其为本题答案。be entitled to意思是“有……资格”。备选词中,beneficial意思是“有利的,有益的”,与此处文意不符,排除;qualified意思是“有资格的”,但不能与介词to

搭配使用,因此也可以排除。

  38.G)critically。副词辨析题。空格前面是系动词is,后面是形容词important,因此空格处需要填入一个副词,用来修饰形容词important。上句提到,所有的孩子,不分种族、居住地及家庭收入,都应有权利接受高质量的教育,本句承接上句,表明为教师和校长们提供帮助学生发挥全部潜力所需支持的重要性。因此,空格处需要填入一个表示“非常,相当,很”的副词,与important表达“至关重要”的意义,由此确定副词critically为本题答案,意思是“很大程度上,极为重要地”。备选词中,properly意思是“合理地,正确地”,与此处文意不符,因此可以排除。

  39.L)potential。名词辨析题。空格前面为形容词性物主代词their及形容词hill,因此空格处需要填人一个名词。本句提到要为教师和校长们提供支持,而这些支持是为了帮助学生发挥其全部潜力。因此,空格处需要填入一个能与动词reach相搭配的名词,且表达“潜力,能力”的意义,由此确定名词potential为本题答案,意思是“潜力”。备选词中,challenges意思是“挑战”,commitment意思是“投入,承诺”,component意思是“组成部分,部件”,contests意思是“比赛”,均与此处文意不符,且不能与动词reach搭配,可以排除。

  40.D)commitment。名词辨析题。空格前面为形容词deep,后面为介词of,因此空格处需要填人名词。根据连词and可以判断,该名词与and前面的excellentwork在意义上应该是并列的,且根据上下文,此处要表达的意义是教师和校长们工作出色且努力。因此,空格处的名词表达的是“努力”或“投入”的意思,且为不可数的抽象名词,备选词中只有commitment一词符合要求,由此确定其为本题答案。备选词中的challenges和contests均为可数名词复数形式,可以排除;component意思是“组成部分,部件”,与此处文意不符,且不能用deep进行修饰,可以排除;potential已经用过,直接排除。

  41.H)develop。动词辨析题。空格前面为助动词will,后面为名词短语their own creativeSolutions,因此空格处需要填入动词原形,与will构成一般将来时态,并与名词Solutions构成动宾短语。Solutions意思是“解决方案”,因此填入的动词应该表达“想出,找到”或“研究出,制定出”的意义。由此可以确定,动词develop为本题答案,意思是“形成”。备选词中,enhance意思是“增强,提高”,retain意思是“留用”,均不能与Solutions搭配,且与此处文意不符,因此可以排除。

  42.J)enhance。动词辨析题。空格前面是动词短语work together及动词不定式符号to,后面是名词短语our focus,因此空格处需要填入动词原形,且与Our focus构成动宾搭配。根据上下文,教育部长认为我们必须共同努力增强对于某些问题的关注。因此,空格处填人的动词应该表达“增强,增加”的意义,由此可以确定,动词enhance为本题答案,意思是“增强,提高”。备选词中,develop已经用过,直接排除;retain意思是“留用”,与此处文意不符,也可以排除。

  43.O)retain。动词辨析题。根据and前面的两个动词recruit和support及其形式可以判断,空格处需要填入的是动词原形,且与recruit和support构成并列关系,recruit意思是“招募”,support意思是“支持,配备”,宾语都是空格后的effective teachers and principals,由此可以确定,动词retain为本题答案。

  44.E)component。名词辨析题。空格前面是不定冠词a,后面是介词of,因此空格处需要填入可数名词的单数形式。前面讲到,今天的公告是改善获得高质量教育权利的又一重要步骤,而介词of后面又提到了奥巴马总统行动年,因此可以判断今天的公告内容是奥巴马总统行动年的行动内容之一,空格处应填入表示“内容,组成部分”的名词。由此可以确定名词component为本题答案,意思是“组成部分”。备选词中,commitment和potential已经用过,直接排除;challenges和contests均为可数名词的复数形式,也可以排除。

  45.C)challenges。名词辨析题。空格前面是定冠词the,后面是介词of,因此空格处应填入名词形式。本句介绍的是邓肯部长将带领召开与来自全国各地的校长和学校教师展开的圆桌会议内容,根据上下文,在高需求的学校工作必将面临更多的挑战或困难。因此,空格处填入的名词可能表达“困难,问题”或“挑战”的意义,由此可以判断,名词challenges为本题答案,意思是“挑战”。备选词中,commitment,potential和component均用过,直接排除;contests意思是“比赛”,与此处文意不符,也可以排除。

  46.K)由题干中的propose laws和toys定位到文章K)段画线处。

  47.A)由题干中的cope with,pressures和food regulation定位到文章A)段画线处。

  48.G)由题干中的Burger rang和Seattle’sBest coffee定位到文章G)段画线处。

  49.I)由题干中的healthy food,give the impression和obesity定位到文章I)段画线处。

  50.B)由题干中的recession,customers和fast food定位到文章B)段画线处。

  51.D)由题于中的eat out,save money和recession定位到文章D)段西线处。

  52.E)由题干中的Burger King,strategy和low-priced items定位到文章E)段画线处。

  53.H)由题干中的selling breakfast定位到文章H)段画线处。

  54.F)由题干中的introducing higher-priced items定位到文章F)段画线处。

  55.J)由题干中的a newlypassed law,specify the calorie count和menu定位到文章J)段画线处。

  56.B)推理判断题。文章开篇即指出,如果你认为高指数的防晒霜能够使你免遭有害射线的辐射,那你可能就错了。由此可见,对于防晒霜能够保护皮肤不受伤害的这种误解是非常普遍的,因此,人们对于高指数防晒霜的普遍预期是它将保护人们不被太阳晒伤.故答案为B)。

  57.A)事实细节题。文章首段第二句提到,本周《自然》杂志的一项研究表明,尽管防晒指数为50的防晒霜能够减少黑瘤的数量,并延缓其出现,但却并不能阻止其发生。由此可见,此项研究表明高指数的防晒霜并不能有效阻止黑瘤的发生,故答案为  A)。

  58.D)推理判断题。文章第二段首句指出,对于防晒霜减少黑瘤的有效性一直存在争议,第二句则举例说明,提到2011年澳大利亚一项涉及1,621人的研究发现,随机抽取的每天使用防晒霜的人群患黑瘤的几率是需要时才使用面霜的人群的一半。由此可知,根据此项研究,每天使用防晒霜的确能够降低患黑瘤的几率,即坚持使用防晒霜是有一定效果的,故答案为D)。

  59.C)推理判断题。该段第三、四句承接上文,介绍了澳大利亚的第二项相关研究,第五句则是作者对研究过程与结果的主观评论,指出,由于此研究基于人们对他们一生中每个十年所采取防晒措施的回忆,因此并不完全可靠。由此可见,此研究并不是基于对被研究对象的直接观察,故答案为C)。

  60.A)推理判断题。文章第四段第一句提到,正如澳大利亚人“套上一涂上一扣上”运动的数据所显示的,综合使用防晒霜和皮肤遮盖措施能够降低黑瘤发病率,第二句据此提出作者自己的观点和建议:如果今年夏天有热浪,我们也最好套上T恤,抹上防晒霜,并且扣上帽子。也就是说,作者建议我们同时使用防晒霜和衣服、帽子等其他防护措施,故答案为A)。

  61.B)事实细节题。文章开篇即指出,在发达国家,与技术水平较低的人相比,受教育程度较高的人工作年限越来越长。由此可见,目前在发达国家的劳动力大军中,学历较高的人工作时间更长,故答案为B)。

  62.B)事实细节题。文章首段第三句承接上文指出,这一差距正是不断加剧的高学历高收入富人与无技术低收入穷人之间两极分化的部分表现。第四句进一步分析了原因,即迅速发展的技术使高技术人群的收入增加,同时也压缩了那些无技术人群的收入。由此可见,迅速发展的技术就是加剧贫富差距的主要原因,故答案为B)。

  63.A)事实细节题。文章第二段第三句指出,20世纪,更加长寿造成了退休生活的年份更长而不是工作的年份更长,这一经历使得观察家们相信,这一变化将导致经济增长减缓,同时,退休金申领人数的激增将产生政府预算问题。由此可知,根据20世纪的经历,观察家们预测到的问题之一是经济增长将减缓,故答案为A)。

  64.C)事实细节题。文章第四段第二句和第三句提到,许多欧洲国家政府已经摒弃了曾鼓励人们尽早退休的政策。预期寿命的延长以及慷慨的固定养老金计划被不再慷慨的固定缴费养老金计划所替代,这些都意味着甚至有钱人也必须延长工作年限以获得舒适的退休生活。由此可知,政策的变化带来的后果是甚至有钱人也不得不为了在退休后过上舒适的生活而延长工作年限,故答案为C)。

  65.D)推理判断题。文章第四段第四句提到,工作性质的变化也起到了很大作用,第五句进而对工

作性质的变化进行了分析,指出对那些高学历人士而言,工作报酬在大幅增加,这些人将继续获得较高的收入,直到老年,因为当今的老龄高学历人群比上一代人工作更有成效,第六句对上文进行了总结,得出结论,技术革新可能将进一步增强这一转变:作为计算机的补充的技能,从经营管理技巧到创新能力,都不会随着年龄的增长而衰退。由此可见,21世纪的工作特点是,比起年龄问题,经营管理技巧、创新能力等技能将更加被看重,故答案为D)。

  参考译文:

  China is one of the most ancient civilizations across the world, from which many elementsthat construct the foundation of the modem world are derived.Now China has the world'sfastest growing economy and is experiencing a new industrial revolution.It has alSo launchedan ambitious space exploration plan, including the building of a space station by2020.Currently, being one of the largest exporters in the world, China is attracting massiveforeign investment.Meanwhile, it has invested billions of dollars overseas as well.In 2011, Chinasurpassed Japan, becoming the second largest economic entity in the world.

  1.翻译第一句时需要注意,“……之一”的表述中,名词使用复数形式,“最古老的文明之一”刚译为one ofthemost ancient civilizations或one of the oldest civilizations。

  2.翻译第二句时,需要注意句子的主干为“元素起源于中国”,谓语动词“起源于”可译为be derived from或originate from;定语“构成现代世界基础的”较长,可处理为定语从旬来修饰先行词“元素”;“构成……基础”可译为cons.Ia-uct the foundation of或form the basis of。由于第一句和第二句均为简单句,都出现了“中国”一词,翻译时既可以单独成句,也可以合二为一。本译文采用后者,将第一句作为主句,第二句处理为定语从句,用介词+which来引导,修饰第一句中的China,从而使译文更加简洁连贯。

  3.翻译第三句时,需要注意该句主语为“中国”,旬中有两个并列谓语“拥有”和“经历”。“拥有”表示的是客观事实,可采用一般现在时,“正经历着”强调当前的情况,可采用现在进行时;“工业革命”可译为industrialrevolution。

  4.第四句中“太空探索计划”可直译为space exploration plan,也可意译为plan for exploring theouter space;“启动”可译为launch或start。

  5.第五句和第三句结构相似,该句有两种译法。可以翻译为两个并列的简单句,也可以将“中国正在吸引大量外国投资’’译为主句,时态为现在进行时;“是世界最大的出口国之一”采用非谓语结构,译为being one ofthelargest exporters in the world,避免单调和重复。

  6.第六句为简单句,“在海外投资”译为invest overseas,“数十亿”译为billions of。

  7.翻译最后一句时应注意时态。该句表述的是过去的事实,应使用一般过去时。“超越”译为surpass;“成为”这个短语有两种译法,可以将“超越”和“成为”处理为两个并列的动作,译为became the secondlargesteconomy in the world:也可以将“成为”处理为现在分词作状语,表示结果,译为becoming thesecond largesteconomic entity in the world。

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