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[TED] 【公开课】强迫症到底是怎么一回事?

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发表于 2019-9-7 01:50:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
你有强迫症吗?你真的了解强迫症吗?现在很多人都说自己在某方面有强迫症,比如经常洗手;不停检查某个东西在不在;反复检查有没有锁门。但是这些其实可能并不是强迫症,只是强迫性倾向的行为。



今天,普特君就和大家分享一个科普视频,一起来了解一下强迫症到底是怎么回事。



There's a common misconception that if you like to meticulously organize your things, keep your hands clean, or plan out your weekend to the last detail, you might have OCD.

有个常见的误解,如果你喜欢一丝不苟的整理你的东西,经常洗手,或者无微不至的计划你的周末,你就可能有强迫症。

In fact, OCD, which stands for obsessive compulsive disorder, is a serious psychiatric condition that is frequently misunderstood by society and mental health professionals alike. So let's start by debunking some myths.

事实上,强迫症的全名是强迫性神经官能症,是一个经常被社会和心理健康专业人士误解的精神疾病。我们今天就破解一下关于强迫症的迷思。

Myth one: repetitive or ritualistic behaviors are synonymous with OCD.

迷思之一:重复或仪式性的行为是强迫症的同义词。

As its name suggests, obsessive compulsive disorder has two aspects: the intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, known as obsessions, and the behavioral compulsions people engage in to relieve the anxiety the obsessions cause.

顾名思义,强迫性神经官能症包含了两方面:内在的想法、印象、或者冲动,又称为强迫思维,以及为了疏缓这种强迫思维导致的不安,而作出的强迫性行为。

The kinds of actions that people often associate with OCD, like excessive hand washing, or checking things repeatedly, may be examples of obsessive or compulsive tendencies that many of us exhibit from time to time.

一提起强迫症,大家通常会联想到的东西,比如频繁地洗手,或者一而再地查看东西。这些可能是有强迫性行为倾向的表现,大部分的人偶尔会有这种行为。

But the actual disorder is far more rare and can be quite debilitating. People affected have little or no control over their obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors, which tend to be time consuming and interfere with work, school or social life to the point of causing significant distress.

但是真正的病症极为罕见,而且会令患者十分虚弱。受影响的患者无法控制自己的强迫性想法和行为,这不仅耗费时间,还会影响工作、学习和社交生活,甚至会导致严重的忧虑。

This set of diagnostic criteria is what separates people suffering from OCD from those who may just be a bit more meticulous or hygiene obsessed than usual.

这一系列的诊断标准,将强迫症患者和比常人更一丝不苟或注意清洁的的正常人区分开来。

Myth two: the main symptom of OCD is excessive hand washing.

迷思之二:强迫症的一大症状为太常洗手。

Although hand washing is the most common image of OCD in popular culture, obsessions and compulsions can take many different forms.

虽然洗手是大多数人眼中的典型强迫症表现,但是强迫思维和行为是多种多样的。

Obsessions can manifest as fears of contamination and illness, worries about harming others, or preoccupations with numbers, patterns, morality, or sexual identity. And compulsions can range from excessive cleaning or double checking, to the fastidious arrangement of objects, or walking in predetermined patterns.

强迫思维主要体现为:对污染和疾病的极度恐惧;担心伤害到其他人; 或者对数字、图案、道德、性别认定的过分执着。强迫性行为可以从过度清洁到反复检查,到对物体过分苛刻的安排,或是走在一定的图形上。

Myth three: individuals with OCD don't understand that they are acting irrationally.

迷思之三:有强迫症的人不知道自己表现的很不寻常。

Many individuals with OCD actually understand the relationship between their obsessions and compulsions quite well. Being unable to avoid these thoughts and actions despite being aware of their irrationality is part of the reason why OCD is so distressing. OCD sufferers report feeling crazy for experiencing anxiety based on irrational thoughts and finding it difficult to control their responses.

许多有强迫症的人其实理解自己的癖好和强烈冲动的关系。尽管他们意识到它的不合理性,还是无法避免那些想法和行为,这是强迫症使人痛苦的原因之一。强迫症患者称自己像发了疯一样,因为不理性的想法而焦躁不安,可是又无法控制自己的反应。

So what exactly causes OCD? The frustrating answer is we don't really know. However, we have some important clues. OCD is considered a neurobiological disorder. In other words, research suggests that OCD sufferers brains are actually hardwired to behave in a certain fashion. Research has implicated three regions of the brain variously involved in social behavior and complex cognitive planning, voluntary movement, and emotional and motivational responses.

究竟是什么导致了强迫症?让人灰心的答案是我们并不清楚。但是我们有一些很重要的线索。强迫症被认为是神经错乱。换句话说,研究发现强迫症的大脑其实被某种一定的方式所限制。研究发现三个大脑区块,有很多种的社会行为和复杂认知,以及自主性动作、感情和动机反应。

The other piece of the puzzle is that OCD is associated with low levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that communicates between brain structures and helps regulate vital processes, such as mood, aggression, impulse control, sleep, appetite, body temperature and pain. But are serotonin and activity in these brain regions the sources of OCD or symptoms of an unknown underlying cause of the disorder. We probably won't know until we have a much more intimate understanding of the brain.

另一个误区是强迫症与低血清素相关。血清素是一个可以在大脑结构中交流,并且帮助控制情绪,如好斗、脉冲控制、睡眠、食欲、身体温度和疼痛等重要过程的神经传递素。但是血清素和大脑区块活动是否为强迫症的起因,或者其他不知原因的症状暗藏着病因。直到我们对大脑更理解之前,可能不得而知了。

The good news is there are effective treatments for OCD, including medications, which increase serotonin in the brain by limiting its reabsorption by brain cells, behavioral therapy that gradually desensitizes patients to their anxieties, and in some cases, electroconvulsive therapy, or surgery, when OCD doesn't respond to other forms of treatment.

好消息是已经有了有效的强迫症疗法了,包括可以增加大脑血清素的药物,阻止大脑细胞的再吸收,逐渐使者对焦虑麻木的行为疗法,有的时候甚至用电痉挛疗法,或者当其他疗法没反应时就做手术。

Knowing that your own brain is lying to you while not being able to resist its commands can be agonizing. But with knowledge and understanding comes the power to seek help, and future research into the brain may finally provide the answers we're looking for.

知道你的大脑在对你撒谎,但却无法拒抗它的指令是很苦恼的。但是有了知识与理解也就有求助的力量,以及未来对大脑的研究,或许最终能给我们想要的答案。



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