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【语法】细说英语的比较结构more than

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发表于 2018-12-5 12:08:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
more than 是典型的“比较结构”。因为这个结构被赋予了太多的含义和用法,以至于让人眼花缭乱,结果没有人去关心它是怎么变来的。

其实,任何事物都有其自身规律。表“程度”的more than结构,more 应该是程度副词much 的比较级。如果more表示数量,那么它就是限定词much或many的比较级,这要视情况而定。



我们具体剖析more than的本义,以及由此衍生的各种用法。因为太多,不宜在此罗列,那样反而影响阅读和理解。

一、more than 的基本含义:

1. 表示“数量”概念:“多于,超过”

The job needs more than three people.

这项工作需要三人以上去做。

There are more than fifty workers in this workshop.

这个车间里有五十多个工人。

I have seen this happen more than twice.

发生这种事我屡见不鲜。

This city has a population of more than 1,000,000.

这个城市人口超过一百万。

表示“数量”概念是more than 最基本的用法,可以说一目了然,无须解释。

2. 表示“程度”概念:“超过,胜过,不止,不仅,更加,非常”

He is more than a father.

他不仅仅是一位父亲。

(意味着他还起到了父亲以外的作用。)

Her room functions as more than a bedroom.

她的房间的作用超过了卧室。

I like this book more than you do.

我比你更喜欢这本书。

I'm afraid I've eaten more than enough.

恐怕我是吃得过多了。

It was more than flesh and blood could bear.

这是血肉之躯无法忍受的。

True friendship is worth more than money.

真正的友谊比金钱更有价值。

She was more than surprised when she saw the scene.

当她看到这一幕时,她感到非常惊讶(超出了惊讶)。

二、more和than的分离:

more than如果分开,than前后是两个并列平行的成分,那么该结构表示一种“取舍关系”,than前面的成分就是“取”,后面的成分就是“舍”。可译为“是A不是B”,或者“与其说是B,不如说是A”。

例如:

In some ways she is more like her father than her mother.

在某些方面,她更像她父亲而不像母亲。

He is more a writer than a scholar.

与其说他是学者,不如说是作家。

She thinks more of others than of herself.

她为别人而不为自己着想。

Tom is more foolish than stupid.

与其说汤姆笨,倒不如说他傻。

三、more than 的延伸:

1. more than 被程度副词所修饰:

这些程度副词一般是much, far, a little, little, a bit, twice等。

Eighty is much more than eight .

80比8大得多。

Teachers do much more than impart knowledge.

教师们所付出的远比传授知识要多。

My car has been using a lot of petrol lately, far more than usually.

近来我的车耗油量很大,远远超过了平时的水平。

In fact good artists do not only copy life. They do far more than that.

事实上,优秀的艺术家搞创作远不只单纯地临摹生活。

He spent a little more than 20 yuan yesterday.

昨天他花了20块多一点儿。

That's a little more than I want to pay.

价格有点贵。

The play lasts a bit more than two hours.

戏演了两个小时多一点儿。

As a matter of fact, it weights a bit more than it should.

实际上,份量比应该给的还多了点。

The Boulevard at that time was little more than a country road.

那条林荫大道当时和一条乡村大路差不多。

I accomplished the journey in little more than two hours.

我近用两个钟头就行完了旅程。

【说明】跟a little一样,little也是一个程度副词,只不过表“否定”含义罢了,little more than 跟no more than 意思十分接近。

2. no more than 和nothing more than:

no more than 和nothing more than,就是字面意思:“不多于,仅仅,只不过”。

It's no more than a misunderstanding.

这只是个误会。

It will take no more than five days to read the book.

只需五天,我就会把这本书读完。

His whole school education added up to no more than one year.

他所受的全部学校教育加起来不过一年。

It is nothing more than a made-up story.

它只不过是杜撰的故事而已。

Racing is nothing more than a hobby.

赛车只是一种爱好。

She wishes to be treated as nothing more than a common girl.

她希望被对待得只不过像一般的女孩子。

3. no more ... than +从句

“no more+形容词/副词+ than”也是一种比较结构。这种结构是对than前后两个并列成分的全部否定,意为“两者都不”。

He is no more hard working than she is.

他跟她一样都不用功。

Tom was no more surprised than (he was) disappointed at this news.

汤姆听见那消息既不惊讶也不失望。

He is no more considerate of others than his brother is.

他不体谅别人,就跟他弟弟一样。

4. not ... any more than +从句

“not ... any more than”也是一种比较结构,意味着主句和比较从句全都否定。翻译时可灵活掌握。

例如:

They cannot do the impossible any more than we can.

他们和我们同样不能做不可能的事情。

(the impossible 指“不可能的事情”,相当于 the impossible things)

He does not like classical music any more than I do.

他和我一样都不喜欢古典音乐。

He can not speak French any more than I can.

他不会说法语,我也不会。

This is not my job any more than it is yours.

这不是你的工作,同样也不是我的工作。

He is not a poet any more than I am a scholar.

我不是一个学者,他也不是一个诗人。

Man cannot live without food any more than plants can grow without sunshine.

人没有食物不能生存,植物没有阳光也不能生长。


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