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新概念二册语法总结 (新东方)

发布者: roy_duan | 发布时间: 2006-12-19 09:45| 查看数: 48374| 评论数: 82|

1. 简单句的结构: 主语+谓语+宾语+状语(地点状语+方式状语+时间状语)

时间状语还可以放在句首

2. 一般现在时,现在进行时感叹句:what+名词+主语+谓语, how+形容词/副词+主语+谓语

频度副词:位于主语和谓语之间,常见频度副词及其程度的深浅:

always, often, usually, frequently, sometimes, hardly, rarely, seldom, never

I always buy CDs on Sundays.

3. 一般过去时直接宾语和间接宾语:

主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语直接宾语是及物动词的直接对象,间接宾语是及物动词的动作所涉及的人或事务,也可以说间接宾语表示动作是对谁做的,或者是为谁做的。所以间接宾语要用名词或者宾格代词来担当。

He gives me a book.

me间接宾语, a book直接宾语

直接宾语和间接宾语的位置调换时要加一个介词to或for,to表示动作对谁而做, for表示动作为谁而做。

主语+及物动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语Give the book to me.

Send a letter to him.

I bought a coat for my mother.

4. 现在完成时,注意频度及时间副词的位置 receive/take

5. 复习:一般过去时与现在完成时的区别in the way/on the way/in this way/by the way/in a way/get out of my way/Don’t stand in my way./by the way/no way

spare/to spare

6. 冠词用法(一)1.不定冠词用于修饰单数可数名词,当一个单词的第一个发音为元音时要用冠词an, 如果是辅音用a即可。

2.不定冠词还可以用来修饰一类事物,有时候也可以省略:

A cat is a lovely animal. Cat is a lovely animal.

3.不可数名词加冠词表示一类事物:Apple is a fruit.

4.如果特制某人,某物或上文提过的人或物时要用定冠词the

5.Some表示一些,可以修饰可数名词及不可数名词。

6.在姓名,城市,地名,过名,月份,节日,星期前不加冠词,季节前也一般不加,特指时加。

put on/take off/look for/look after/knock at/knock sth. off/knock off/knock %off/knock over/knock out

7. 过去进行时,时间状语短语:在短语中动词后面的介词或副词叫小品词,有些小品词既可以紧跟在动词后面也可以跟在动词的宾语后面,而有些则只能紧跟着动词使用。

8. 形容词的比较级与最高级单音节词的比较级最高级:u 直接加-er, -est: small-smaller, smallest

u 以e结尾的加-r, -st: large-larger, largest

u 以辅音字母加y结尾的词变y为i加-er, -est: busy-busier, busiest

u 重读闭音节结尾的词,双写最后一个辅音字母再加-er, -est:big-bigger, biggest

以ow, er, le结尾的双音节词和个别单音节词也直接加-er, -est:narrow, common, clever, simple,polite, quiet…

多音节词及双音节词:more/less, most/lest不规则变化:good/bad/many/little/far…

少数单音节词也要通过加more/less, most/lest构成比较级和最高级:pleased, glad, tired, fond,

注意:形容词最高级前面要加定冠词the 不定代词的用法,如果不定代词做主语,谓语动词要用单数:Everyone is here.

enter/enter for

9. 介词(表示时间)u in:

表示一天中的某段时间:in the morning/afternoon/evening

表示月份/年份:in March, in 1990

表示季节:in spring/winter

in+一段时间可以表示在一段时间之内也可以表示在一段时间之后,可以与现在时,过去时和将来时连用。

u on:

表示星期:on Monday

表示具体日期:on June 1st

表示具体时间:on that day/that evening/on that night

u at:

表示确切时间:at 10 o’clock

表示用餐时间:at lunch time/teatime

表示其他时刻:at noon/night/midnight, at this time

u during+一段时间

u from…till

u till/untill直到

not any=no,语气更强

10.被动语态:结构:be+过去分词

用法:

u 主语不清或不需要提及时

I was born in 1999. The apple was eaten.

u 强调不同的主语时,为了说明动作是谁做的,用by+动作执行者

The policeman caught the thief. The thief was caught by the policeman.

Be made in/be made of/be made from/be made by

双重名词所有格:

one of +形容词性物主代词/名词所有格+名词复数

单数名词+of+名词性物主代词/名词所有格

one of my father’s friends/a friend of my father’s

one of my friends/a friend of mine

one of your records/a record of yours

1. 复习动词不定式做宾补的用法:

want/help/ask/teach/advise sb. to do, 代词要用宾格形式

borrow/lend, salary/wages

2. 一般将来时:be going to结构的用法

be+副词词组:

be away/be back/be out/be in/be over/be on/be up to sb./sth.

set out=set off, set up=create

3. 将来进行时:名词所有格:

如果名词复数以S结尾一般只加‘,如果名词是以S结尾的专有名词如人名,可以加’S, 也可以直接加‘,如:Keats’ work, the Johns’ house 名词所有格也可以用来表示无生命的

1.时间:today’s, new centry’s

2.国家,城市名词:the country’s, the city’s

3.机构组织:the station’s waiting room, the university’s library

4.车,船,用具: the car’s wheel, the computer’s harddisk

5.专有结构:at one’s wit’s end,

6.价值:ten pound’s worth of meat,

7.时间:in twenty minutes’ time

4. 过去完成时:ask/ask for

except/except for/apart from

which of/neither of/both of/neither of

5. 直接引语/间接引语(一)如果引语的主句所用动词为过去时,那么间接引语要做相应变化时态,人称,时间地点及指示词

u 时态变化:一般现在时——一般过去时

现在进行时——过去进行时

一般过去时——过去完成时

现在完成时——过去完成时

一般将来时——过去将来时

be going to——was/were going to/would

can----------------could

may---------------might

u 时间地点及指示词的变化:here—there, tomorrow—the next day, the following day, this—that…

u 人称变化:根据句意改变人称。Nervous/irritable

Office/study/desk

afford6. 条件状语从句:主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时,有时为了强调“能够”,“必须”还可以用情态动词

police/policeman

pay attention to/care for/take care of

remind/remember

one/you可以指任何人: One must never tell lies. You must never tell lies.

7. 情态动词:must/have to

as作为介词,以…身份,与like相同

as作为连词,因为,正当。。。时候,以。。。方式,如同。。。那样

dress/suit/costume

grow/grow up

8. have用法give in, give away, give up, give up

beside/besides

9. can/could/may/might might as well表示“还是。。。的好”,“还不如。。。”

He will never pass. He might as well give up.

10.动名词:动名词

1. 动词的-ing形式在起名词作用时称为动名词。动名词可以做主语,标语,宾语,介词宾语定语(即复合名词)

2. 动名词的几种形式:





主动形式


被动形式


一般式


doing


being done


完成式


having done


having been done
3. 做主语:

Finding work is difficult now.

Watching TV is my favorite pastime.

4. 做表语:

My main hobby is reading.

One of her duties is growing roses.

My job is teaching.

5. 做宾语:

I like taking with famous people.

We enjoy learning English.

The flowers need watering.

6. 介词宾语:

He is fond of watching football matches.

He went away without saying a word.

常用的一些加动名词的动词词组(注意总结):take part in, look forward to , insist on, be interested in,

7. 做定语:

waiting room, swimming pool, washing machine, reading room, living room, drinking fountain(引水机), parking slot…

8. 动名词的否定:

在动名词前面加not,

I am sorry for not asking you.

Interested/interesting, excited/exciting, amused/amusing

最新评论

roy_duan 发表于 2006-12-19 10:07:35
1. 时态对比:将来完成时,将来进行时,将来完成时

cost/price/value

2. 时态对比:过去完成时/过去完成进行时

check/control

great/big

soil/ground

3. 间接引语(祈使句)

祈使句要变为不定式, 所使用的谓语要根据语气来选择

“Stay here,” the policeman said.

The policeman requested him to stay there.

“Close the window, please,” my mother said.

My mother asked me to close the window.

常用的动词: advise, ask, beg, command(命令), order, warn, tell, urge(催促), invite, persuade, remind, forbid

insist/suggest/order/demand后要用虚拟语态should+do,should 可以省略

He insisted that we should stay for dinner.

4. 虚拟语态(过去条件句的虚拟)(见虚拟语态总结)

draw in/draw back/draw up/draw off

5. 情态动词:

1.Must/have to do表示必须做某事,must表示现在和将来,have to do 可以用在任何时态

2.Should do/ought to do都可以表示应该做某事,ought to do语气更强,一般用在肯定句。

3.Had to do 表示过去必须做某事,should have done, ought to have done表示过去本应该做某事而没做。

I should have told you the news earlier.

He ought to have known the rules.

4.Could have done表示本能够做某事而没做。

I could have saved more people.

5.Might/must have done表示对过去事实的推测

6.Couldn’t have done表示对过去事实的否定推测,表示不可能

He couldn’t have stolen the wallet.

Let sb. down, let sb. off, let sb. out, let sb. in

Agree/accept

Dress up/dress

6. Have用法:

have sth. done:

n使别人为我们做某事

I have the car repaired. He has his hair cut. The officer had the clock checked.

n表示某种遭遇:

I have my wallet stolen. He had his teeth knocked out. My sister has her bike stolen.

集合名词: 当这个名词作为一个整体使用时动词用单数,当这个名词作为一个组成整体的若干人时动词用复数。常见的有:family, crew, government, staff, class

7. 表示成功的做成某事:

managed to do, was able to do, succeeded in doing

表示没成功做某事:

did not manage to do, wasn’t able to do, didn’t succeed in doing

couldn’t do, tried to do

could do表示可能做某事

nsay:

表示说,讲时,后面不能跟间接宾语,如果加用间接宾语加to, say sth. to sb.

表示道别,背诵

表达思想,意见

表示据说

词组:say a good word, say a prayer

ntell:

表示说,讲后面可跟双宾语, tell sb. sth.

常用于讲(实话,谎话,秘密)

辨别,分辨

说出时间

8. 动名词:

有些动词和形容词词组后要加动名词:

nadmit, appreciated, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, finish, excuse, feel, keep, like, forgive, mention, mind, miss, practise, resist, risk, suggest

nlook forward to, be accustomed to, be used to, give up, can’t help, can’t stand, take to, object to, keep on, put off, burst out

nopposed to, consent to ,dedicate to, devote to, admit to, confess to, fall to, in addition to, stick to, lead to, attribute to, get to

nbe busy/worth/no good/use doing, have trouble/difficulty/problem/, spend time or money doing, have difficult time doing

动名词完成式的被动结构:having been done

当一个行为动作由另一个行为动作紧跟着时,第一个动作可以用after doing,来表达,动名词完成式强调第一个行为动作在第二个行为动作开始之前完成。

After he had been asked to drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence.

After having been asked to drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence.

After I had been elected drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence.

After having been elected drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence.

practise/advise, pratice/advice

enjoy/entertain/amuse

9. licence/license

1. 复习:

official/employee/shop assistant/clerk/officer

hang/hung, hang/hanged

2. 复习:

summary of unit 4

74.get out(滚出去,出去)/get into(进去)/get on(进展)/get on with(继续,相处)/get off(逃脱)/get sth. off(取下)/get over(恢复,结束)/get though(通过考试,吃完)

变成:

grow: 渐渐变成,强调过程,比get更正式

get: 口语中最常用,同grow

turn: 变得和以往完全不同,往往是变坏,变色,变声,变质,turn red/pale/sour

go: 进入某种状态,不好的状态,go bad ,go sour

come: 强调结果,come real, come true, come loose,

fall: 陷入,变成某种状态,后面不能加形容词比较级,fall asleep, fall ill

As usual/than usual

between/among

manager/director/headmaster/headmistress/principal/president

75.非限定性定语从句

1.用who, which引导,前面用逗号隔开,起补充说明的意思,如去掉不影响整个句子的意思。

The managers, who knew the event, held an emergent meeting.

2.Which可以指代前面的一句话

He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like.

3.与限定性定语从句的区别,限定性定语从句是对先行词修饰限定,如果没有定语从句整个句子的意思就会改变,而非限定性从句只是起补充说明的作用,去掉以后不影响句意。例:

The visitors who knew the danger could not go any further.

那些知道危险的游客们不敢再往前走,(一部分人)

The visitors, who knew the danger, could not go any further.

游客们知道了危险不敢再往前走。(所有人)

skin/leather/complexion

wax/candle

78.keep on/keep off/ keep away from/ keep up/ keep up with/ keep out/ keep sb.in

79.倒装句:

1.条件句中的倒装, (见虚拟语态)

2.否定意义的副词放在句首,整个句子要倒装:never, seldom, little, not only, scarely, hardly, no sooner, on no occasion

Hardly had he stolen the wallet when he was caught by the police man.

No sooner had he arrived the cinema than the film began.

3.Only+ 状语, only after, only then

Only in this way could I finish the work timely.

Only after he had taken off his hat did I recognize him.

take off/take after/take up/take to/take in/take down/take over

80.on display/on show/on business/on foot/on duty/on the whole/on fire/on purpose/on the

average/on any account/on second thoughts

80.Cloth, clothing, clothes , salute, greet,clear/clean

81.形容词修饰名词顺序:

特性——形状,大小,长短——颜色——名词

a beautiful broad red carpet

a small blue case

an ugly long face

laugh/laugh at

wash/wash up

82.在主句用though, if, although, until, when, while引导,可以省略主语和系动词

Though (he is) poor, he is satisfied with his conditions.

Until (you are) invited, you should not come.

If she (is in need), she will borrow money from her parents.

Temper/mood

83.当宾语是不定式短语,动名词或从句时如果后面有宾语补语,必须用it做形式主语,think, find, feel, consider, make

He thought it easy to pass the examination.

I feel if right that he should be punished.

I think it wrong for people to behave like that.

84.Too…to的用法

to/enough的区别

85.Out of

1.Out of the way/fashion/order/sight/danger/sight(与in介词相反)

2.Out of breath/work/pring/cash/stock(没有,不足)

3.Out of politeness/kindness/pity/curiosity(出于)

Enough/fairly

Enough: 修饰形容词或副词/修饰名词/做代词使用

88.Run out of/run after/run over/run in/run into

89.free/single

queue/row

funny-amusing

90.And 连接的两个名词如果作为一个整体出现则用单数谓语动词

needle and thread, bacon and eggs, bread and butter, cheese and wine, fish and chips, a knife and fork, sausage and mash

91.Make for/make out/make up/make up for

92.So/neither的倒装句

so/neither+be+ 主语

so/neither+助动词+ 主语

so/neither+情态动词+ 主语

一般现在时, do, does/am, is, are

现在进行时, am, is, are

一般过去时, did

现在完成时, have, has

一般将来时, will, shall,

过去进行时,was, were

过去完成时,had

过去将来时, would

93.重音:

重音在第一个音节上为名词,重音在第二个音节为动词:

present, insult, produce, record, process, protest, contrast, contest, rebel, conduct, export, import, increase, permit

94.介词:

appear:强调观察者的主观看法

He appears to want to go.

It appears as if she would win.

He appears like a king.(别人觉得他像)

seem:根据某种迹象得出一种结论或看法

It seems to rain.

He seems like a king.(他的外表举止给人感觉像)

look:根据外表推断

He looks like a king.(他看起来像,但实际不是。)
roy_duan 发表于 2006-12-19 09:51:52
1. 被动语态(二)

will/must/can/would/could/have to be done

have/has been done

must have been done

drive 用法

home/house

2. 介词用法:见书

3. 复习

there be句型

it做为虚主语可以用来表示时间,天气,温度,距离,人或指代一个句子或不定式。

4. Summary of Unit two

5. 并列句

我们可以将几个简单句连在一起,组成并列句,常用以下连词:

and, but, so, yet, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but …as well, not only…but also

主谓一致:

当主语由and , both…and 连接时,通常用复数谓语.

Both the girls and the boy are his friends.

当主语由neither… nor, either…or, not only…but also或or 连接时,谓语动词与 nor, or, but also后面的一致,在英语语法中,这被称为就近一致.

Neither he nor I am going to the airport.

Not only Mary but also her parents have gone abroad.

6. 一般现在时的复习,状态动词,标点符号的使用.

以下一些动词很少用与进行时态:

appear(看起来), appreciate(鉴赏), believe(相信), feel(感觉到), forget(忘记), hear(听见), know(知道), like(喜欢), look like(看起来像), notice(注意到), remember(记得), resemble(形似), see(看到), think(认为), understand(理解), have(拥有),love(爱), seem(看起来), show(显示), mind(介意), sound(听起来), hate(讨厌), detest(憎恨), desire(意欲),

引号:

引号位于一行之上,应该在句尾其他标点符号, 如逗号,句号,问好之外.

引语的第一个词以大写字母开头.

在said, asked, 等词后面用逗号,只有当它们位于句尾时才在它们后面用句号.

当said, asked等词置于引语之间时,句子的后半部分以小写开头.

当一个新的说话人开始讲话时, 要另起一个段落.

7. 复习一般过去时/不规则过去式和过去分词

常用不规则动词过去式和过去分词在英语里约有300多个

put up(搭建), put out(扑灭), put on(穿上), put sb. up(为某人安排住宿), put up with(容忍), put down(抄写), put off(推迟), put away(放好,放到一边去)

8. 现在完成时复习/定语从句(见复合句部分)

l与现在完成时连用的时间副词:

yet, just, before, recently, lately, ever, never,

so far(迄今为止), up till now(直到现在), up to now(直到现在), since(自从), for a long time(很长时间), in the past/in the last few years(在过去的几年里), these days(目前),

l某些非延续性动词(动作开始变终止的动词), 在现在完成时中不 能与表示一段时间状语搭配:

例如:die, arrive, join, leave, go, refuse , fail, finish, buy, marry, divorce, awake, buy, borrow, lend, 这些动词并非不能用在现在完成时,而是不能接由for引导的时间状语.但是用在否定句中,非延续动词的现在完成时可以与表示一段时间的状语连用.

Jane has gone away for a month. (wrong)

Jane has been away for a month.(right)

His father has died for two years. (wrong)

His father has been dead for two years.(right)

has gone to (去了某地,指人还在那里), have been to (去过某地, 人已经不在那里了)。

9. 一般过去时对比过去完成时,现在分词/过去分词

refuse/deny, bring/take/fetch, very/too

10.冠词用法

定冠词用法

(1)特指

(2)地理名词前加定冠词

l河流the yellow river

l山脉 the Alps, the Himalayas

l海峡海湾the Taiwan Straits, the English Channel

(3)由普通名词构成的专有名词前要加定冠词

l国名及政治组织名the United States, the United Kingdom

l某些机构学校及建筑名 the British Museum

l由普通名词构成的报刊杂志名 the New York Times, the Times

零冠词

1.街名

2.广场名

3.车站, 机场, 公园, 桥梁名: Kennedy Airport, Beijing Railway Station, London Bridge

4.大学名 Yale University, Cambridge University

5.节日名National Day, May Day, News Years’ Day

6.多数杂志名 Time, Reader’s Digest

7.物质名词一般意义 Water boils at 100 degrees. We can not live without air.

8.抽象名词Life is short. Art is difficult to appreciate.

1.used to do 用法



Used to do 表示过去常常做某事现在不做了



I used to get up at seven o’clock.



Experience, save, very/too

2.比较级/最高级, 比较状语从句(见复合句-比较状语从句)



A/one的区别

3.介词用法



Passed/past, next/other

4.被动语态总结



一般现在时: is/am/are done

一般过去时: was/were done

现在进行时: is/am/are being done

现在完成时: have/has been done

过去完成时: had been done

一般将来时: will be done

过去将来时: would be done

过去进行时: was/were being done

情态动词: can be done, must be done, could be done, may be done, might be done,

情态动词完成式: can have been done,must have been done,could have been done, may have been done,might have been done,

Call at(拜访某地), call out at(大声喊), call on(拜访某人), call sb up(给某人打电话), call off(取消)

5.主语+谓语(感官动词)+doing表示正在发生的事情,+do 表示已经完成的动作.



So/such

So+adj. /adv.

such+n.

固定用法:so many

6.一般将来时will/be going to do



will/be going to do一般情况下可以相互替换,但是要表示说话人决定做某事或者表示建议,请求, 肯定或不肯定等含义时只能用will.



Watch/look at/follow, solid/firm/stable

7.将来完成时



Hold/look, look forward to(期望), look out(当心), look up (查询,), look sb. up(拜访某人)

8.as if /though+虚拟语气, 过去完成时总结



as if /though 常在描述行为的动词后面使用, 如act/look/feel/appear/smell/sound, 后面要用虚拟语气



He looks as if he were a king.



Her skin feels as if it were silk.



The song sounds as if it were a sad story.



He looked as if he had never lived in England.







No sooner…than, hardly…when, country/countryside, continuously, continually,



No sooner…than 一…就…与过去完成时连用

I had no sooner come into the room than it began to rain.

The bell had no sooner rung than the game began.

如果no sooner 放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装

No sooner had I come into the room than it began to rain.

No sooner had the bell rung than it began to rain.

Hardly…when 几乎没来得及…就…与过去完成时连用



He had hardly got the money when the policeman caught him.

I had hardly finished the last question when the exam ended.

如果hardly…when放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装

Hardly had he got the money when the policeman caught him.

Hardly had I finished the last question when the exam ended.





9.直接引语变间接引语



1.引语前用that, 口语中可以省略

2.根据句意改变人称

3.时态变化: 一般现在时-一般过去时, 一般过去时-过去完成时, 一般将来时-过去将来时, 现在进行时-过去进行时, 现在完成时-过去完成时, can-could, may-might, must-had to,



4.一些指示代词及表示地点及时间的词



this-that, these-those, now-then, today, tonight-that day, that night, this week-that week, yesterday-the day before, the previous day, last week- the week before, two days ago-two days before(earlier), tomorrow-the next (following) day, next week-the following week, here-there, come, bring-go, take

如果意思上没有必要改变就不用变了,比如在同一天说的话.

She said she would come again tonight.

He said he arrived yesterday morning.

几种特殊的间接引语



n特殊疑问句, 语序要变为陈述语序

“Where are you going?” he asked.

He asked me where I was going.

n一般疑问句, 要加if/whether



“Will you come tomorrow?” he asked.

He asked if I would come the next day.

n祈使句要变为不定式, 所使用的谓语要根据语气来选择

“Stay here,” the policeman said.

The policeman requested him to stay there.

“Close the window, please,” my mother said.

My mother asked me to close the window.

常用的动词: advise, ask, beg, command(命令), order, warn, tell, urge(催促), invite, persuade, remind, forbid

10.虚拟语气在条件句中的用法, make/do



对现在事实的虚拟, if从句中谈论的是想象的情况,主句则推测想象的结果

结构: 主句用过去时, 从句用过去将来时

If you came here earlier, you would catch the train.

If you spent more time on studying, you would get better result.

If I were you, I would accept this offer.

注意: 如果if从句中的动词是be, 那么应该在第一和第三人称单数名词后用 were.

Make/do用法



make conversation(聊天), make the bed(铺床), make a promise(许诺), make trouble(找麻烦), make progress(取得进步), make money(赚钱), make a speech(演讲,讲话), make mistakes(犯错误), make up one’s mind(下定决心)

do one’s best(尽最大努力), do one’s homework(做家庭作业), do a few jobs(做家务), do sb. a favour(帮忙), do work(工作), do exercise(做练习), do shopping(购物), do business(做生意)

[ 本帖最后由 roy_duan 于 2006-12-19 09:54 编辑 ]
roy_duan 发表于 2006-12-19 10:01:34
1. 情态动词 need, must, have to

1.need 一般作为实义动词使用

l需要某物He needs a hat. Does he need a hat?

l需要做某事need to do

I need to have a rest. You need to finish your work.

l需要被…,主语与need 后的动词为被动关系:need doing=need to be done

The flowers need watering. =The flowers need to be watered.

2.need用做情态动词时一般为否定形式needn’t(不必要), 可以用来回答含有must, have to 的一般疑问

句, 与 don’t have to 同义

Must I wash the dishes? No, you needn’t.

3.need 完成式needn’t have done

4.mustn’t 表示不应该,一般口气比较强硬,没有商量.

You mustn’t get up late.

Remark/observe, notice

2. have 用法总结

have a ride(骑), have a look(看), have a wash(洗), have a swim(游泳), have a fight(打架), have quarrel(吵架), have a try(尝试), have a rest(休息), have a smoke(吸烟), have a good sleep(睡觉)

Pick sb up(接), pick up(拿出,学习,找到), pick out(挑出),

3. 情态动词can/could/be able to do

1.can 表示可能性

If you want, I can go with you.

2.表示天生或学到的能力, 可以用can/could/be able to do, 三者都可以用在现在时和过去时中,在将来时中要用will be able to

3.表示现在正在发生的事要用can

Look! He can stand on his head.

4.表示成果的完成某个具体动作时通常不用could而用be able to, 表示某动作没有成功用couldn’t

Can he borrow a book successfully?

Yes, he was able to borrow a book from his sister. No, he couldn’t.

At 词组

At first(开始), at once(立即), at present(目前), at last(最后), at any rate(无论如何), at heart(本质上), at least(至少), at times(不时), at a loss(不知所措)

4. 复习动名词用法

1. 动名词可以做句子的主语,表语,宾语,介词宾语

2. 在含有介词的动词短语后面要用动名词, 如: look forward to, be accustomed to, be used to,be tired of , be thirsty of, go on, insist on etc.

3. 有些动词后面既可用动名词也可以用不定式,所表达的意思没有区别,常见的词: start, begin, continue, delay, mean,

4. 有些动词后面加不定式表示一件具体的事情,加动名词表示一种习惯.

I like drinking coffee, but today, I like to drink some tea.

5. 复习Steal/rob, pay back

Steal表示偷偷摸摸的偷, 其宾语一般为物品

rob表示抢劫,其宾语一般是人或者某个处所

pay back 还钱, 报复

6. 介词用法

7. 复习

suggest 用法, 当建议用时后面加虚拟should +动词原形, should 可以省略.

8. 复习Summary of Unit 3

9. 复合句的构成:

u 用现在分词构成复合句:现在分词的动作的主语需与主句的主语一致。

u 用过去分词构成复合句,用语较正式的文体,代替被动语态,

Wounded in the war, his are can not move freely.

Born in a happy family, he has never tasted the bitterness of life.

u 不定式构成复合句,不定式表示目的:

To buy a new car, the young man saved up for years.

I went into the garden to pick some flowers.

u 通过从句构成复合句:名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同谓语从句), 关系从句(定语从句), 状语从句(时间,地点,原因,条件,方式,目的,结果,比较,让步)

10.复合句:

lose/loose/miss

expect/wait for

1. 一般过去时复习:

raise/rise, lay/lie, beat/win

2. 现在完成进行时

形容词变副词:

1. 直接在形容词后加-ly,careful-carefully, slow-slowly,

2.以辅音字母加y结尾的形容词,把y变I, 加-ly, happy-happily, lucky-luckily

3.有些词形容词和副词的形式相同,不需要做任何变化fast, hard, late

4.有些词加上-ly后意思与原词相差很远:near-nearly, high-highly, late-lately,

3. 时态对比:一般过去时,现在完成时,现在完成进行时

throw to,/throw at/throw away

quite/quiet

cause/reason

drop/fall

4. Some, any的用法

nsome, any 修饰可数名词或不可数名词,some用于肯定句,any用于否定句和疑问句,注意,当期待对方的答案为肯定回答时用some

nmany修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词,在口语中表示很多一般不用many, much, 而用a lot of, 在否定句中表示很多用many, much.

I have a lot of money. I don’t have much money.

n当一个名词在词组中表示主要目的时不要定冠词:

in bed, at church, at class, college, hospital, market, prison, school, sea, university,

go to school/church/work/

go to the cinema/theatre

nmost表示大多数或非常:

Most students came to class today. We are most excited.

The most是many/much的比较级,或者构成形容词副词的比较级,只能表示最多或用在形容词或副词前面,

This is the most interesting book I have ever seen.I have the most books in my class.

5. Would/used to do

would do 表示过去习惯的动作,也可以用来表示过去经常性的行为,与used to do有时可以替换。不能替换的情况:

nused to do表示与现在强烈对照时,不可以用would

I used to get up early every day, but I get up very late now.

nused to do描写过去状态,would只表示过去特有的习惯和行为。

I used to be a teacher. I used to have a company.

I would walk along the river everyday after dinner.

n一个故事的开头不能用would表示过去习惯的动作,只能用used to do或者一般过去时:

When I was a little girl, I always went to the cinema(I used to go to the cinema). I would sit there for hours.

used to do(过去常常做某事)/be used to doing(习惯做某事)

6. 比较级最高级复习:

很多:many/much/a great deal of/a lot of/lots of/plenty of/a large sum of/a large amount of/a great many

handsome/beautiful/pretty/good-looking

reach/arrive

take part in/take place

7. 介词用法:

at表示某个具体的位置

in表示在。。。里面

off表示离开

in/with还可以表示穿戴,with可以表示带有或长有:a woman in a blue dress, a girl with a hat, a man with a beard

u make sb. do迫使某人做某事,变被动时要加to

His father made to quit his job. He was made to quit the job.

u Let sb. do表示允许某人做某事

Let’s表示建议:

Let’s go out for a walk. Let us go out please.

否定:Don’t let us…/Let’s don’t…

8. 被动语态/强调句型:

据说:it is said/ it was said that

强调:It is/was+ 被强调部分+that/who从句

I ate the apple two hours ago.

It was I who ate the apple two hours ago. It was the apple that I ate two hours ago.

I was tow hours ago that I ate the apple.

强调谓语用do+动词原型

I did eat the apple two hours ago.

Increase/grow

Gain/earn

Pick/cut

9. 表示目的的几种方式:

u 带to的不定式及其变体:in order to, so as to

I came to this school to/in order to/so as to learn English.

I came here not to study Chinese but to study English

So as not to/in order not to

Every morning I got up very early in order not to be late.

Want/bring/buy/need/take/use常用宾语+不定式,不定式常表示宾语的目的:

I want something to drink.

I need a pen to write.

Bring me a chair to sit.

u So that/in order that 引导的目的状语从句,

主句一般用现在时,现在完成时或一般将来时时,从句要用shall, may, can, will

He speaks very loudly in order that his grandpa can hear him.

She studies very hard so that she can enter university.

主句是一般过去时,过去进行时,过去完成时时,从句要用should, could, might, would

The teacher wrote the excerises on the blackboard so that the students would see them when they came in.

He sent a letter to his mother so that she could learn the good news.

如主句主语和从句主语不同时还可以用不定式+for+名词/代词

He sent a letter for his mother to learn the good news.

10.现在进行时表示将来发生的动作:

arrive, come, go, leave用在现在进行时句子里可以表示不远的将来发生的事情。

Spring is coming. I am leaving Beijing in two days.

I’m meeting a guest this evening.

名词修饰名词:

car key, world record, flower shop, fur coat, gold watch, cigarette ends, horror film, chair leg
心海 发表于 2006-12-19 10:21:50
好东西抢先拿哦!谢谢!

love12315 发表于 2007-1-17 17:16:19
这么详细,谢谢你,又把语法复习了一遍!
SALLY猫 发表于 2007-3-17 19:21:52
谢谢版主,好东西也,正求之若渴...
panp99 发表于 2007-3-22 11:54:41
不错不错,谢谢总结
jesseyuan 发表于 2007-3-28 10:23:59
谢谢分享!thanks!
米兰 发表于 2007-4-17 15:35:28
谢谢啊,如果都是这种文本不用下载多好,很方便
凡若梦 发表于 2007-4-29 15:15:39
好东西.正需要.谢谢了!
yifei520 发表于 2007-5-3 12:38:11
谢谢楼主提供!
寒江雪柳 发表于 2007-5-4 20:15:15
辛苦楼主了

努力把3和4的也发出来啊
1980lengbing 发表于 2007-5-4 21:03:03
好东西!!!支持!!
晚枫飞红 发表于 2007-5-4 21:10:50
兄弟不错 有其他册的没有
feiam 发表于 2007-5-5 18:26:03
不错不错,谢谢分享了!
AngelDream 发表于 2007-5-22 17:18:47
谢谢,很喜欢...
jiangniao117 发表于 2007-5-24 14:18:30
谢谢了,楼主辛苦了
sammysun137 发表于 2007-5-25 10:44:05
好东西,谢谢,辛苦了
走在浪花尖 发表于 2007-6-1 01:37:58
谢谢楼主!!!!!!!
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