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【同义词辨析】 2019-01-21 突然precipitate-sudden

发布者: jason246 | 发布时间: 2019-1-27 10:01| 查看数: 982| 评论数: 0|

precipitate: stresses lack of due deliberation and implies prematureness of action: the army's ~ withdrawal.   (premature不成熟为时过早,工程界有句话premature optimization is the root of all evil过早的优化是万恶之源,premature babies/death产儿/英年离世)     (又如a precipitate decision/act仓促的决定/行为,本例撤退    注意precipitation不表示仓促,而是表示降水water that falls to the ground as rain, snow, etc.       另一形容词precipitous和precipitate同义,如a precipitous action仓促欠考虑的行为,但还表示steep陡的、急速变化的,如a precipitous decline in home sales房屋销售疾速下降)


headlong: stresses rashness and lack of forethought of persons or acts: a ~ flight from arrest.   rash不加考虑的lack of forethought,如a rash decision that you will regret later你会为这个仓促的决定后悔。 forethought顾名思义是预先思考,因此headlong比precipitate严重,precipitate是缺乏深思熟虑,而headlong是不顾后果甚至连考虑都没有)


abrupt: stresses curtness and a lack of warning or ceremony: an ~ refusal.    curt简短无礼: 简短到让人感到无礼disconcerting shortness and rude conciseness, 如a curt comment about the cause of the foul-up简短无礼地说出故障起因)   (ceremony仪式,原指正式活动,扩展为表示有礼貌polite and formal,如she presented the gifts with great ceremony礼貌的呈上礼物,又如he told them abruptly and without ceremony that they would have to leave她唐突无礼的让他们离开)


impetuous: stresses extreme impatience or impulsiveness: it is a bit ~ to propose marriage on the third date.   impulsive冲动: 受当前情绪影响去做事,未加思考形成意志to act under stress of emotion or spirit of the moment without thought or volition,如impulsive shopping/murder冲动购物/杀人,premeditated murder蓄意杀人即谋杀)       (impetusous虽说不上褒义,但贬义很弱甚至比较正面,如之前用它解释brash形容有冲劲不顾虑20181218。 在《君主论prince》倒数第2章,马基雅维利说: "...I certainly think that it is better to be impetuous than cautious, for fortune is a woman...",即"历史上有些君主因为慎重取得成就,有些因为冲动取得成就,但总体来说,我确信冲动好于慎重,因为命运像个女人...她喜欢1是胆大2是年轻的人",他的意思是时势造英雄,人本性难移,如果时局适合冲动,冲动的人就能取得成功,慎重也一样。马认为总的说来,冲动要比慎重或者保守好。impetuous是这一组里贬义最弱,甚至带褒义的词。这个词和解释也很好记,3个词都以imp开头)


sudden: stresses unexpectedness and sharpness or impetuousness of action: flew into a ~ rage.      sharp锐利形容快quick, 如a sharp knife锐利的刀快刀             没有将impetuous冲动译出,因为sudden主要表示未曾预料来得很快


precipitate仓促: 表示考虑不充分不成熟,headlong也是仓促: 强调完全没有考虑,更严重,abrupt唐突无礼: 表示说话做事过于简短不礼貌不事先提醒,impetuous冲动: 指非常冲动没耐心,sudden突然:  强调未曾预料,来得很快,因此感到突然


记忆方法:  1)首字母PHAIS组合成HAP IS运气总是<==突然降临         hap运气implies what falls or has already fallen to one's lot从天而降落入命运的运气,可以是幸运或厄运,如a position won by hap运气获到的职位。这里首字母hap is联想为运气总是(突然降临)                   ""是会意字,从,本义是"犬从洞穴中突然窜出",如突然突发突现冲突突出突兀唐突

                2)练习一下

                3)突然的意思是仓促出乎意料mean showing undue haste or unexpectedness.首字母PHAIS组合成HAP IS运气总是<==突然降临

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