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Lesson 1 Finding fossil man 发现化石人

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发表于 2006-11-13 10:16:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
北外视频



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First listen and then answer the following question.

听录音,然后回答以下问题。

Why are legends handed down by storytellers useful?

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.

But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends handed down from one generation of storytellers to another. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago.

But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first‘modern men’ came from.

Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds. They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even thebones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.

ROBINPLACE Finding fossil man New words and expressions生词和短语

fossil man(title)['fɔsl-'mæn]adj.化石人

ancestor(1.5) ['æn.祖先

recount(1.3)[ri'kaunt]v.叙述

Polynesian(1.6) [pɔl'ni:zjən]adj.波利尼西亚(中太平洋之一群岛)的

saga(1.3) ['san.英雄故事

legend(1.3)['ledʒənd] n.传说;传奇

Indonesia(1.7)[ˌIndəu n.印度尼西亚

migration(1.4)[mar'greʃən]n.迁移,移居

flint(1.11) [flint]n.燧石

anthropologist(1.5)[ˌænθrəˈpɔlədʒist] n.人类学家

rot(1.12)[rɔt]/v.烂掉

archaeologist(1.9) [ˌɑ:kiˈɔlədʒist] n.考古学家

Notes on the text课文注释

1read of,读到,和 read about是相同的意思。

2the first people,原始人。

3when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace, 这个以when引导的状语从句表示让步的意思,而when可以译成“虽然”,“尽管”。

参考译文

我们从书籍中可以读到5,000年前近东发生的事情,那里的人最早学会了写字。但直到现在,世界上仍然有些地方;人们还不会书写。他们保存历史的唯一办法是将历史当作传说讲述,由讲述人一代接一代地将史实描述为传奇故事口传下来。这些传说是很有用的,因为它们能告诉我们以往人们迁居的情况。但是;没有人能把他们当时做的事情记载下来。人类学家过去不清楚如今生活在太平洋诸岛上的波利尼西亚人的祖先来自何方,当地人的传说却告诉了人们:其中有一部分是约在2,000年前从印度尼西亚迁来的。

但是,和我们相似的原始人生活的年代太久远了;因此,有关他们的传说即使有如今也失传了。于是,考古学家们既缺乏历史记载,又无口头传说来帮助他们弄清最早的“现代人”是从哪里来的。

然而,幸运的是,远古人用石头制作了工具,特别是用燧石,因力燧石较之其他石头更易成形。他们也可能用过木头和兽皮,但这类东西早已腐烂殆尽。石头是不会腐烂的。因此,尽管制造这些工具的人的骨头早已荡然无存;但远古时代的石头工具却保存了下来。

Comprehension理解

Give short answers to these questions in your own words as far as possible. Use one complete sentence for each answer.

1How can anthropologists learn about the history of ancient peoples who have not left written records?

2Why did ancient men prefer to use flint for making tools?

Vocabulary词汇

Refer to the text to see how the following words have been used, then write sentences of your own using these words: preserve(1.3); recount(1.3); migrations (1.4); anthropologists (1.5); remote (1.5); decay (1.13); without trace(1.14).

Sentence structure句子结构

A Combine the following statements to make complete sentences. Add conjunctions and relative pronouns of your own and omit the words or phrases in italics. Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

1These legends are useful. They can tell us something about migrations of people. These people lived long ago. None could write down what they did. (11.4-5)

2The first people who were like ourselves lived long ago. Eventheir sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. (11.8-9)

3Archaeologists have no history to help them to find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from. Archaeologists have no legends to help them to find out where the first modern men came from. (11.9-10)

4Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint. This is easier to shape than other kinds.(11.11-12)

5They may also have used wood and skins. These have rotted away. (1.12)

B Write a sentence to describe the work of an archaeologist.

C Write three short sentences on the history of early man using the following words in each sentence:

1Written records.

2Sagas.

3Stone tools.

Key structures关键句型

ACompare these two sentences:

Instead of saying:

The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends which have been handed down from one generation of storytellers to another.

We can say:

The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends handed down from one generation of story tellers to another. (11.2-4)

Write sentences using the following phrases:

tools made of stone; legends recorded; remains found.

BNote the use of tell in this sentence:

They can tell us something about migrations of people. (11.4-5)

Supply the correct form of say or tell in these sentences:

1What did he ____ to you?

2He ____ everybody that he had been ill.

3Did you ____ that you have written a novel?

4I can't ____ you about it now.

CNote the use of where…from in this sentence:

Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples came from. (11.5-6)

Write two sentences using the same construction with the verbsget and buy.

DCompare these two sentences:

Instead of saying:

So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first‘modern men’ came from.(11.9-10)

We can say:

So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from.

Write two sentences using these expressions: help me to lift; helped me make.

ESupply the word the where necessary in this paragraph. Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

Fortunately, however, ____ ancient men made ____ tools of ____ stone, especially ____ flint, because this is easier to shape than ____ other kinds. They may also have used ____ wood and ____ skins, but these have rotted away. ____ stone does not decay, and so ____ tools of long ago have remained when even ____ bones of ____ men who made them have disappeared without trace. (11.11-14)

FCompare these two sentences:

Instead of saying: It is possible that they used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.

We can say:

They may have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. (1.12)

Write these sentences again using the construction with mayhave.

1It is possible that your mother called when you were out.

2It is possible that you left your umbrella in the waitingroom.

3It is possible that he changed his mind.

Special difficulties难点

AStudy the following pairs of words and then write sentences of your own to bring out the difference.

1parts (1.2)----places

Ancient rock paintings have been found in many parts of Spain and Portugal.

Of all the wonderful places in Italy, Florence and Venice are the two that most tourists wish to see.

2history (1.3)----story

We often know little about the history of our own times.

Climb into bed and I'll read you a bedtime story.

(Please note: a story is an account, often fictional, of what happened in someone's experience; history is a factual account of past public or universal events)

3wonder (1.5)----wander

I wonder if we've made a mistake here.

I love wandering around second-hand bookshops.

4like (1.8)----as

There's no one like you.

Please do as I say.

5find out (1.9)----find

What we have to do now is find out why the accident happened.

I'm sure I've already paid this bill, but I can't find the receipt.

6ancient (1.11)----old

Property developers often have little regard for ancient/oldbuildings. (old in terms of time; ancient = old in terms of history)

World leaders are often old men.

Mr. Briggs is an old friend of mine. (= one I have known for a long time)

7tool (1.11)----instrument

We need some basic tools like a hammer and a screwdriver.

A dentist's instruments need to be constantly sterilized.

8stone (1.11)----rock

The old church is full of beautiful stone sculptures.

Rocks had fallen from above, making the roads impassable.

9skin (1.12)----leather

I've such a bad skin, I'm always coming out in spots.

Shoes made of real leather have become so expensive.

BStudy the use of happen in these sentences:

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago…(1.1)

He happened to be an archaeologist.

It happened that he knew the answer.

Complete the following sentences:

1Do you happen ____?

2It so happens that ____.

3Can you tell me what ____?

Multiple choice questions多项选择题

Choose the correct answers to the following questions.

Comprehension 理解

1In illiterate societies, story-telling is a way of ____.

(a) teaching people how to write

(b) allowing us to find out about things that happened 5,000years ago

(c) passing knowledge of the past from one generation to another

(d) preserving sagas recounted by story-tellers

2It is extremely likely that ancient people ____.

(a) moved from one place to another

(b) came from Indonesia

(c} have left us information about their migrations

(d) preserved their sagas and legends

3Anthropologists have been curious about ____.

(a) how Indonesia came to be inhabited

(b) how the Polynesian islands came to be inhabited

(c) why the Polynesian people travelled from Indonesia

(d) how the sagas told by ancient people were written

4Though wood and skins rot away, anthropologists can learn a great deal from ____.

(a) materials that are easy to shape

(b) the bones of men who made tools

(c) stones that do not decay

(d) ancient tools made from stone

Structure句型

5In some parts of the world people are still ____ to write. (11.1-2)

a.incapable

b.impotent

c.enable

d.unable

6They can preserve their history ____ down legends. (1.3)

a.by hand

b.by handing

c.to hand

d.in hand

7The ____ why these legends are useful is that they tell us about migrations. (1.4)

a.cause

b.effect

c.why

d.reason

8There weren't ____ of them who could write down what they did.(1.5)

a. any

b. none

c. no one

d. no

Vocabulary 词汇

9The only way they can preserve their history is to ____ stories.(11.2-3)

a.tell

b.make

c.say

d.recount

10The people who lived long ago could not ____ their history.(1.5)

a.make

b.know

c.record

d.note

11Some sagas tell us about the ____ of Polynesian peoples.(11.6-7)

a.origin

b.ancestors

c.explanation

d.legend

12Tools made of stone, especially flint, were made by ____ (1.11)

a.old men

b.men who lived long ago

c.men of old

d.past men


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有答案吗?

汇报天数: 2 天

连续汇报: 1 天

[LV.1]初来乍到

发表于 2009-6-18 23:34:11 | 显示全部楼层
we can read of things that happened five thousand years ago in the near east.we peopl first learn to write,but there are some parts of the world where even now people can't write.The only way they can preserve history is to recount it as sagas and legends handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another.these legends are useful,because they can retell something about migrations of people who lived long ago.But none could write down what they did.Anthropologists wandered where the remote ancestors of Polynesian people now living in specific islands came from.The sagas of these people explain some of them came from Indoneisa about two thousand years ago.But the first people who are like ourselves lived so long ago that even sagas if they are hardly forgotten.So archaeologists have needed the history no legends to help them find out,with the first modern man came from.Fortunately,however,ancient men made tools of stone,especially flint,because this is easy to shape of its kinds,they may also use of wood,skins,but these have rotted away,stone does not decay,and so the tools long agohave remained.When Even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.

汇报天数: 2 天

连续汇报: 1 天

[LV.1]初来乍到

发表于 2009-6-20 09:54:57 | 显示全部楼层
Comprehension理解

Give short answers to these questions in your own words as far as possible. Use one complete sentence for each answer.

1How can anthropologists learn about the history of ancient peoples who have not left written records?

they learn about the history fromthe sagas or legends told by the storytellers.

2Why did ancient men prefer to use flint for making tools?

cuz it is easier to shape than other kinds.

Vocabulary词汇

Refer to the text to see how the following words have been used, then write sentences of your own using these words:

preserve(1.3); recount(1.3); migrations (1.4); anthropologists (1.5); remote (1.5); decay (1.13); without trace(1.14).

Sentence structure句子结构

A Combine the following statements to make complete sentences. Add conjunctions and relative pronouns of your own and omit the words or phrases in italics. Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

1These legends are useful. They can tell us something about migrations of people. These people lived long ago. None could write down what they did. (11.4-5) These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago,but none could write down what they did.

2The first people who were like ourselves lived long ago. Eventheir sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. (11.8-9)

The first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas,if they had any,are forgotten.

3Archaeologists have no history to help them to find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from. Archaeologists have no legends to help them to find out where the first modern men came from. (11.9-10)

Archaeologists have neither history nor legends to helpl them to find out where the first "mordern men" came from.

4Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint. This is easier to shape than other kinds.(11.11-12)

Fortunately,however,ancient men made tools of stone,especially flint,because this is easier to shape than other kinds.

5They may also have used wood and skins. These have rotted away. (1.12)

They may alos have used wood and skins,but these have rotted away.

B Write a sentence to describe the work of an archaeologist.

An archaeologist studies this history of human being with records,sagas and legends,ect.

C Write three short sentences on the history of early man using the following words in each sentence:

1Written records.

2Sagas.

3Stone tools.

1.in the ancient times,there were no written records left because none knew how to write that time.

2.nowadays even in some parts of the world the people there still dont know how to write,we can know their history from the sagas or legends handed down from one generation of storytellers to another.

3.in the ancient times,the stones tools were widely used,the ancient peopl made tools of stones,esp.flint,cuz it is easier to shape and does not easily decay and can preserve a long time.



Key structures关键句型

ACompare these two sentences:

Instead of saying:

The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends which have been handed down from one generation of storytellers to another.

We can say:

The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends handed down from one generation of story tellers to another. (11.2-4)

the first sentence is ok,but the second is better and simpler.

Write sentences using the following phrases:

tools made of stone; legends recorded; remains found.



BNote the use of tell in this sentence:

They can tell us something about migrations of people. (11.4-5)

tell +双宾语

Supply the correct form of say or tell in these sentences:

1What did he __say__ to you? say+内容

2He __told__ everybody that he had been ill.

3Did you __say__ that you have written a novel?

4I can't __tell__ you about it now.



say 强调说话内容,一般用作及物动词。表示对某人说,可用 say to sb。如:

Did you say anything (to him)? (对他)说了些什么?

He said (that) he wanted to go. 他说他想去。 

注:以下句型值得注意:

据说他病了。

正:It is said that he is ill.

正:He is said to be ill. (from www.yywords.com)

tell 表示告诉,可接双宾语,双宾语易位时用介词 to 引出间接宾语。如:

I told him my name. 我把名字告诉了他。

He told his parents the good news. / He told the good news to his parents. 他把这个好消息告诉了他父母。

注:还可接不定式的复合结构作宾语。如:

Tell her to come at once. 叫她马上来。

He told the children not to play in the street. 他叫孩子们不要在街上玩。

另外,有时与介词 from 连用表示区分辨别等。如:

I cannot tell which is which. 我分不清哪个是哪个。

Can you tell true friends from false friends? 你能分清真

假朋友吗?



CNote the use of where…from in this sentence:

Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples came from. (11.5-6)

where在这里引导宾语从句,做wander的宾语,而在从句中做from的宾语

Write two sentences using the same construction with the verbsget and buy.

buy 才是真正 买的意思

get 的意思很多,任何途经去得到(包括 买)都可以用 get


DCompare these two sentences:

Instead of saying:

So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first‘modern men’ came from.(11.9-10)

We can say:

So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from.

Write two sentences using these expressions: help me to lift; helped me make.



ESupply the word the where necessary in this paragraph. Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

Fortunately, however, __/__ ancient men made __/__ tools of __/__ stone, especially __the__ flint, because this is easier to shape than ___/_ other kinds. They may also have used __/__ wood and __/__ skins, but these have rotted away. ___/_ Stone does not decay, and so _the___ tools of long ago have remained when even ___the_ bones of __the__ men who made them have disappeared without trace. (11.11-14)

http://bbs.dict.cn/redirect.php?tid=38699&goto=lastpost

当名词的所指对象为确定特指时前面一定要用定冠词

名词所指为泛指时,单数可数名词用定冠词或不定冠词,可数名词复数和不可数名词用零冠词。

当一个单数可数名词表泛指时,既可在其前用定冠词也可用不定冠词;当为复数形式时用零冠词


FCompare these two sentences:

Instead of saying: It is possible that they used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.

We can say:

They may have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. (1.12)

may+完成时态 表推测可能,也许

Write these sentences again using the construction with mayhave.

1It is possible that your mother called when you were out.

your mother may have called when you were out.

2It is possible that you left your umbrella in the waitingroom.

You may have left your umbrella in the waiting room.

3It is possible that he changed his mind.

he may have changed his mind.

这里可以复习情态动词的完成时态,总结归类。



汇报天数: 2 天

连续汇报: 1 天

[LV.1]初来乍到

发表于 2009-6-20 11:23:34 | 显示全部楼层
Special difficulties难点

AStudy the following pairs of words and then write sentences of your own to bring out the difference.

1parts (1.2)----places

Ancient rock paintings have been found in many parts of Spain and Portugal.

Of all the wonderful places in Italy, Florence and Venice are the two that most tourists wish to see.

2history (1.3)----story

We often know little about the history of our own times.

Climb into bed and I'll read you a bedtime story.

(Please note: a story is an account, often fictional, of what happened in someone's experience; history is a factual account of past public or universal events)

3wonder (1.5)----wander

I wonder if we've made a mistake here.

I love wandering around second-hand bookshops.

4like (1.8)----as

There's no one like you.

Please do as I say.

5find out (1.9)----find

What we have to do now is find out why the accident happened.

I'm sure I've already paid this bill, but I can't find the receipt.

6ancient (1.11)----old

Property developers often have little regard for ancient/oldbuildings. (old in terms of time; ancient = old in terms of history)

World leaders are often old men.

Mr. Briggs is an old friend of mine. (= one I have known for a long time)

7tool (1.11)----instrument

We need some basic tools like a hammer and a screwdriver.

A dentist's instruments need to be constantly sterilized.

8stone (1.11)----rock

The old church is full of beautiful stone sculptures.

Rocks had fallen from above, making the roads impassable.

9skin (1.12)----leather

I've such a bad skin, I'm always coming out in spots.

Shoes made of real leather have become so expensive.

BStudy the use of happen in these sentences:

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago…(1.1) 发生

He happened to be an archaeologist.

碰巧,偶然发生;巧遇;发生(某事件);对…产生影响

It happened that he knew the answer.

巧合的意外,恰好

Complete the following sentences:

1Do you happen ____?

2It so happens that ____. 偶然,碰巧

3Can you tell me what _happened___?

Multiple choice questions多项选择题

Choose the correct answers to the following questions.

Comprehension 理解

1In illiterate societies, story-telling is a way of ____.

(a) teaching people how to write

(b) allowing us to find out about things that happened 5,000years ago

(c) passing knowledge of the past from one generation to another

(d) preserving sagas recounted by story-tellers

2It is extremely likely that ancient people ____.

(a) moved from one place to another

(b) came from Indonesia

(c} have left us information about their migrations

(d) preserved their sagas and legends

3Anthropologists have been curious about ____.

(a) how Indonesia came to be inhabited

(b) how the Polynesian islands came to be inhabited

(c) why the Polynesian people travelled from Indonesia

(d) how the sagas told by ancient people were written

4Though wood and skins rot away, anthropologists can learn a great deal from ____.

(a) materials that are easy to shape

(b) the bones of men who made tools

(c) stones that do not decay

(d) ancient tools made from stone

Structure句型

5In some parts of the world people are still ____ to write. (11.1-2)

a.incapable

b.impotent

c.enable

dunable

6They can preserve their history ____ down legends. (1.3)

a.by hand

b.by handing

c.to hand

d.in hand

7The ____ why these legends are useful is that they tell us about migrations. (1.4)

a.cause

b.effect

c.why

dreason

8There weren't ____ of them who could write down what they did.(1.5)

a. any

b. none =no one.

c. no one

d. no

Vocabulary 词汇

9The only way they can preserve their history is to ____ stories.(11.2-3)

a.tell

b.make

c.say

drecount

10The people who lived long ago could not ____ their history.(1.5)

a.make

b.know

c.record

d.note

11Some sagas tell us about the ____ of Polynesian peoples.(11.6-7)

a.origin 这个可以么?

b.ancestors

c.explanation

d.legend

12Tools made of stone, especially flint, were made by ____ (1.11)

a.old men

bmen who lived long ago

c.men of old

d.past men
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