发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2024-6-11 01:56| 查看数: 158| 评论数: 0|

I came home from vacation recently, jet-lagged, tired, after delayed flights and a lost bag,

我最近度假回家, 时差。疲倦。航班延误、行李丢失,

with my cranky preschooler and my husband trudging behind me, and I forgot the code to my front door.

先得顾着我那学龄前小孩, 还得管着我身后的丈夫, 我居然忘了家门的密码。

We've lived in this house for seven years.


I'd put the code in the door hundreds of times before.


And as I stood there, staring at the keypad, I thought, "Oh boy, I'm finally losing my mind."

当我站在那里,盯着键盘时, 我想:“天啊,我终于失去理智了。”

Our brains have an incredible capacity to store memory, but not all of that information is accessible at once.

我们的大脑具有令人 难以置信的存储能力, 但并非所有这些信息都可以同时调取。

An article in "Scientific American" estimates the human brain can store 2.5 million gigabytes of data.


That's about 5,000 iPhones.

那大约是 5,000 部 iPhone。

But if you've ever forgotten a password before, you know that memory is not always easy to access because memory is not just one system.

但是,如果你以前忘记过密码, 你就会知道大脑内存 并不总是那么容易调取的, 因为内存不只是一个系统。

Those different systems have limits, and a number of factors in our daily lives can impact our memory efficiency.

这些不同的系统有局限性, 我们日常生活中的许多因素 都会影响我们的记忆效率。

There was a famous neuropsychology case study of a patient referred to as patient HM,

有一个著名的神经心理学案例研究, 该患者被称为 HM 患者,

who became like a real-life Ten-Second Tom after brain surgery to treat a seizure disorder.

在脑部手术治疗癫痫发作障碍后, 他变得像现实版的 只有 10 秒记忆的汤姆一样。

In terms of his seizures, the surgery was a success.


They were less severe and less frequent.


But after his surgery, HM became unable to consciously learn new things.

但是在手术后, HM 变得无法自觉地学习新事物。

For example, he worked with the same neuropsychologist for years.


He never remembered meeting her, he'd introduce himself each time.

他从来不记得见过她, 每次他都会自我介绍。

And he never remember doing the different tasks that she would bring to test his memory.

而且他从来不记得做过那些测试, 为检验他的记忆而设计的测试。

But here's the interesting part.


His performance got better on some of those tasks over time.

随着时间的推移,他在其中 一些任务上的表现变得更好了,

He never remember doing them.


He always thought he was doing them for the first time.


But his brain had learned the procedures without him being aware.

但是他的大脑在他没有意识到的情况下 就学会了这些程序。

We learned from patient HM and others like him that there are different types of memory.

我们从病人 HM 和其他像他一样的人那里了解到, 记忆有不同的类型。

Some memories come to mind almost automatically.


Like if you're walking through a garden and you smell the flowers that your grandma used to keep on her kitchen table, and all of a sudden,

就像你在花园里散步,闻到奶奶 以前放在厨房桌子上的花朵的味道, 突然之间,

you're thinking of your favorite memory with your grandma.

你想起了 你与奶奶在一起的美好回忆。

But other memories take more brainpower and effort to recall.

但是其他记忆需要 更多的脑力和精力才能回忆,

Like trying to remember my new computer password.


Because some memories take more brainpower and effort to recall, they're also more prone to interference.

由于有些记忆需要更多的 脑力和精力才能回忆, 因此它们也更容易受到干扰。

You're at the grocery store, and you're trying to remember 10 things that you need to pick up.

你在杂货店, 你正在努力记住需要买的 10 件东西。

But you run into your neighbor in the produce section, and after a few minutes of chit chat, hearing about their new car,

但是你在农产品区遇到了邻居, 在闲聊了几分钟, 听说他们的新车之后,

you can only remember two of those 10 things.

你只能记住这 10 件事中的两件事。

Even though our memory storage is pretty impressive -- 5,000 iPhones big -- the short-term memory that you're using to keep track of your grocery list is more like seven,

尽管我们的内存存储空间相当可观, 5,000 部 iPhone 的大小, 你用来记录购物清单的短期存储器 更像是七位,

plus or minus two, bits of information.


And it's really easy to throw that active short-term memory off track.


The problem?


We live in a very distracting modern world.

我们生活在一个非常 分散注意力的现代世界中。

You're at a meeting at work,


and you're trying to remember all the details of a project that you're working on so that you can share it with your team.

你正在努力记住你正在开发的项目的 所有细节, 以便与你的团队共享。

But at the same time, your brain is paying attention to what your colleagues are saying,

但与此同时, 你的大脑确实正专注于同事的话,

trying to ignore all the email alerts popping up on your computer, distracted by text messages from your family asking what's for dinner,

却试图忽略电脑上 弹出的所有电子邮件提醒, 家人发来的询问晚餐吃什么的短信,

and wondering if they're going to take a break soon because you could really use some more coffee.

同时还在想着会间休息是什么时候, 因为你真的可以多喝点咖啡。

Ignoring all those distractions and competing priorities takes up a lot of energy.

忽视所有这些干扰因素和相互竞争的优先事项 会消耗大量精力。

When our brains are juggling 400 things, we're more likely to make a memory error,

当我们的大脑在处理 400 件事时, 我们更有可能犯下记忆错误,

like forgetting a colleague's name in a meeting or missing a key part of your presentation,

比如在会议上忘记了同事的名字 或错过了演示文稿的关键部分,

and then beating yourself up for the rest of the day for making that mistake.

然后在一天余下的时间里 因为犯了这个错误 而自欺欺人。

Which brings us to another brain-draining habit that can mess up your memory and make it hard to remember where you left your keys: stress.

这使我们养成了另一种 消耗大脑的习惯, 这种习惯可能会破坏你的记忆力, 让你难以记住你把钥匙放在哪里:压力。

Doesn't have to be huge or major stressors, either.


All those day-to-day stresses, pressures and deadlines take up brain space, too, and force our brain to do a bunch of mental multitasking.

所有这些日常焦虑、压力 和最后期限也占用了大脑空间, 迫使我们的大脑进行大量的多任务处理。

Last summer, I locked myself in a stairwell twice in the same week because I was trying to do this mental multitasking.

去年夏天,我在同一周 把自己锁在楼梯间里两次, 因为我正在一心多用。

I was packing up at the end of the day, and at the same time, I was thinking about phone calls I needed to make tomorrow,

一天结束时我正在收拾行装, 同时,我在想明天要打的电话,

and ideas for a project that I was working on and what I was going to make for supper that night and whether I should pick up my daughter before or after I get groceries.

以及我正在做的一个项目的想法, 以及那天晚上我打算做些什么做晚饭, 以及我应该在买到杂货 之前还是之后去接我的女儿。

And I left my keys in my office.


Twice in the same week.


Apparently, door locks aren't my thing.


An article from Queen's University estimates we have 6,200 thoughts each day.

女王大学的一篇文章 估计,我们每天有 6,200 个想法。

That's a lot of potential for distractions.


There was a study at the University of California that found when we're interrupted, like with distractions or multitasking,

加州大学的一项研究发现, 当我们受到干扰时, 例如分心或一心多用,

we try to compensate by working faster.


But this makes us feel more stressed.


And as you can imagine, it's not very efficient.

正如你可以想象的那样, 它的效率不是很高。

We've all been in situations where we feel a bit stressed out and overwhelmed by our never-ending to do lists.

我们都遇到过这样的情况:永无止境的待办事项 清单让我们感到压力和不知所措。

Between emails and phone calls and Zoom meetings and project deadlines, we're coming home from work feeling tired, and our brains are burnt out.

在电子邮件和电话 、Zoom 会议和项目截止日期之间, 我们下班回家时感到疲倦,大脑也精疲力尽。

There was an article published in the journal "Science of Learning" that showed stress not only impacts our memory retrieval,

在《学习科学》杂志上发表的一篇文章 表明,压力不仅会影响我们的记忆恢复,

so it's hard to remember that door code when you need it, stress also makes it hard for our brains to problem-solve and think of creative solutions,

因此在需要时很难记住门禁密码, 压力也使我们的大脑难以解决问题 和想出创造性的解决方案,

like how I'm going to get into my house when I can't remember my door code.

比如当我记不起门禁密码 改如何进入我的房子。

We know all those day-to-day stresses, pressures and deadlines can mess up our memory.

我们知道所有这些日常压力 和最后期限都可能弄乱我们的记忆。

But what about bigger stresses, like the uncertainty and change of living through a multi-year pandemic, financial pressure, family stress?

但是,更大的压力呢?比如多年疫情中生活的不确定性和变化、 经济压力、家庭压力。

These stresses drain brain resources, too, making us more likely to make mistakes and making it harder to remember the things we need to remember.

这些压力也消耗了人脑资源, 使我们更容易犯错误, 也使我们更难记住需要记住的事情。

So memory errors are normal, especially when you're tired, overworked or stressed out.

因此,记忆错误是正常的, 尤其是当你感到疲倦、劳累过度 或压力过大时。

That's great to know, but I still need to get into my house at the end of my vacation.


How do we boost our memory in these situations and recharge those brain cells?

在这种情况下,我们如何增强记忆力, 为脑细胞充电?

It's tempting to try and just think harder, but that doesn't always work.

尝试更努力地思考很诱人, 但这并不总是奏效。

Have you ever been trying to think of the name of a movie or an actor, and it's right on the tip of your tongue, but you can't quite remember it?

你有没有想过电影或演员的名字, 这个名字就在你的舌尖上, 但你记不清了?

And then four hours later, you're driving home from work and that name comes to you out of the blue?

然后四个小时后,下班开车回家, 你突然想到了这个名字?

Yeah, me too.


Totally normal.


When it comes to our memory, thinking harder doesn't always work.

当谈到我们的记忆时, 用力思考并不总是奏效。

Because of a process of competitive inhibition of the neurons in your brain.


Basically, when you try to think too hard about one super specific piece of memory, like a name or a code,

基本上,当你试图认真 思考一个超级特定的记忆片段, 比如名字或密码,

the brain cells in that part of your brain get overloaded and blocked.

大脑那部分的脑细胞 就会超负荷并被阻塞。

They need time to recharge.


That's why, four hours later, that memory comes back to you.

这就是为什么四个小时后, 那段记忆又回到了你身边。

It's still there, still in your memory storage, just the access route has been exhausted and needs time to reset.

它还在那里,还在你的内存存储中, 只是访问路径已用尽,需要时间才能重置。

Plus, remember how stress makes our brains less efficient?

另外,还记得压力如何降低 我们的大脑效率吗?

When we're worried about making mistakes, we're more likely to make more mistakes.

当我们担心犯错误时, 我们更有可能犯更多的错误。

Do this instead: if you're feeling more forgetful than usual, or your brain feels stuck and you can't seem to find the memory you need,

改为这样做:如果你感觉比平时更健忘, 或者你的大脑感觉卡住了, 似乎找不到你需要的记忆,

it might be a sign that your brain needs a reset.


Can't remember a code or a password, standing at your door like me, and you can think of every four-digit code you know, except the one you need?

记不起密码或密码了, 像我一样站在你家门口, 除了你需要的那个之外, 你能想出你所知道的每一个四位数的密码?

Think about something else for a few minutes.


Anything else.


Chat with the store clerk at the grocery store about the weather instead of staring at the debit machine, trying to remember your bank code,

与杂货店的店员聊一聊天气情况, 而不是盯着借记机, 试图记住你的银行密码,

or pull out your phone and scroll social media for a few minutes.

或者拿出手机在 社交媒体上滚动几分钟。

This works because instead of exhausting the brain cells you need to find that memory, you activate other parts of your brain,

之所以奏效, 是因为你不需要耗尽脑细胞来寻找记忆, 而是激活大脑的其他部分,

giving those memory centers a chance to recharge and reset.


Making more mistakes than normal at work, you can't seem to send an email without a typo or you're stumbling over your words in a meeting ...

在工作中犯的错误比平时多, 你似乎无法在没有错字的情况下 发送电子邮件, 或者你在会议中偶然发现自己卡壳……

get up and take a real break.


Go for a walk around your office or do something fun for a few minutes.

去办公室里散步 或者做点有趣的事情几分钟。

These micro breaks refresh your mental resources and give your brain back the energy and focus it needs to find that information.

这些微小的休息可以刷新你的心理资源, 让你的大脑恢复寻找这些信息 所需的能量和注意力。

Memory errors aren't a sign you're losing your mind.


They might be a sign your brain needs a little break and a reset.


Thank you.



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