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江西这座不起眼的小建筑,竟然藏着这么多老故事?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2024-4-30 03:52| 查看数: 121| 评论数: 0|

了解中国近现代史的人都知道,江西瑞金也曾经是首都。1931年,在大大小小的军阀围追堵截中,年轻的中国共产党就在这里成立了中华苏维埃共和国,正式建立了苏维埃政权。

从此直到1934年红军踏上长征之路,四年的时间里瑞金始终是这个政权的中央政府所在地。

I was wandering in the Cradle of the Republic tourist garden in Ruijin city, Jiangxi province. From 1931 to 1934, it was capital of the then-Soviet Republic of China, a major regime founded by the Communist Party of China when large parts of the nation were under the governance of Kuomintang in the name of the Republic of China.



中华苏维埃共和国中央政府旧址旁的红军烈士纪念碑(王冠摄)

当年中央政府的旧址今天已经保护起来,是一处兼有纪念与教育性质的特色建筑。比起同时代南京总统府的气派与森严的壁垒,苏区中央政府可谓局促、简陋加寒酸:

Compared with those of Kuomintang's central authorities in then-capital Nanjing, the buildings of the Soviet central government were rather shabby:

一座木结构的三米高的礼堂,里边摆几张木凳子,就是中央领导开会的地方;两间后门相对相通的土砖房,一间是财政部一间是中央银行。

而且这个中央银行是能够办理个人业务的,几尊旧社会老百姓打扮的塑像正在排队,队首之人半弯下腰探身对着窗口,或许是在和银行职员交流;最有意思的当属中央银行的金库,在一间顶多十平米的低矮房间里,墙角是一横一竖两排货架,一架上堆着纸币和硬币,另一架上则放着耀眼的金条。

A few wooden rooms, roughly built and barely decorated both inside and outside, served as the meeting hall of the central leaders and offices of various ministries. The Central Bank was open to local residents and companies alike, with three or four statues of the former lining its only window.



中华苏维埃共和国国家银行旧址中的群众塑像(吴彦鹏摄)



中华苏维埃共和国国家银行旧址中的工作人员塑像(吴彦鹏摄)

当然今天这里摆的金条是复制品,但在将近九十年前这里摆的可是真金白银。

考虑到这些房子很多还是租的,有当地居民作为房东同住,这个志在解放全人类、最低也要解放全中国的政权就这样对自己的核心资产不太设防,让周围每天要下地种田的居民们住在这些财富的隔壁,夸张点说就是睡在金山上。

Like all central banks, the Soviet one also had its gold and banknotes reserved in a wooden room that's not any better than the others, without any visible security measures at the door. On one shelf there were some models of golden bricks, which were placed in place of the real ones about nine decades ago during the Soviet Republic period.

Considering that many of the houses were rented and the house owners lived together, it could be said that about 90 years ago the central Soviet government hardly kept its gold reserve guarded, or almost open, to the public.



中华苏维埃共和国妇女生活改善委员会旧址(王冠摄)

放眼全世界,这是多么罕见的特例;回顾人类历史,这又是怎样的气魄与胸襟!

A rare precedent among all central banks all through the human history.

财富分配问题是贯穿整个人类历史的核心问题。自从人类摆脱矇昧状态、建立国家以来,为自己谋取利益始终是打着形形色色旗号的统治者要关心的重要问题,聚敛财富也是一代代统治者内卷的重要领域。无论在哪个国家,国家银行和财政部在普通人心中都是高大上的象征,作为其资产所在地的金库更是重兵把守。

解放战争中的长春围城战中,守城的国民党军队就把银行地下室作为自己的司令部所在地,原因是看中了这里适合防御的厚厚的内外墙。对他们来说,财富要和老百姓隔绝开来,藏的越深越安全。

Since the beginning of history, to collect fortune and put it under close guard has been a major concern of various ruling groups of the world. In the same 1930s, the ruling Kuomintang so carefully guarded its gold reserve that their banks were often used by troops as commanding headquarters because their walls were so thick as to be bullet or even light-artillery-fire-proof. For them, fortune must be hidden and separated from the people, the deeper the better.

中华苏维埃共和国的金库则相反,那幢低矮的土砖房不仅象征着这个政权对人民群众的信任,更说明了这个政权的理念,重视的不是冷冰冰的财富而是活生生的人。胜利完成长征后,中国共产党保持了这一优良作风,中央领导人在延安住的是和老百姓一样的窑洞,掌管千军万马的领导人隔壁睡的就是他们的房东,再普通不过的老百姓。

这种重视人胜过重视财的理念又能追溯到马克思主义的基本原理,在那个人类工业化加速推进、工人被视作机器附庸的年代,马克思恩格斯为工人说话,指出人类劳动才是创造财富的源泉,没有人类劳动的机器什么都不是。

The Soviet Republic of China was an exception in not only trusting the public, but also cherishing the people more than the cold metal, which originated from the basic principles of Marxism, almost the only major ideology that valued the labor of people in the 1800s and early 1900s when the capitalism-dominated world developed one generation of machines after another without caring a bit about the workers operating them. Karl Marx and Frederich Engels talked about alienation of humans and worked for workers.



中华苏维埃共和国金库旧址(王冠摄)

对财富的淡然是全世界共产党人的共性之一。人类历史上第一个无产阶级政权巴黎公社建立后,占领了全巴黎却没有干涉里边的法兰西银行办业务,作为领导者的委员们给自己定的年薪则是六千法郎。

没有对比就没有伤害,被他们推翻的梯也尔和梯也尔之前的拿破仑三世给自己定的年薪都是三百万法郎,各是公社委员的五百倍,两人更比千人强。

如果能坐时光机穿越回去,我们就会看到将近九十年前那一尊尊塑像背后的活人。当苏区的老百姓可以去国家银行办业务、可以茶余饭后在国家金库前散步,与之相比几百公里外的南京国民政府金库就是壁垒森严,那么这场斗争的胜负与中国历史的走向我想大家都不难判断。


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