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人类迈进太空探索的旅程,竟从这里出发……

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2023-9-19 04:30| 查看数: 94| 评论数: 0|

1961年4月12日,一阵火焰升腾而起,伴随着发动机巨大的轰鸣声,苏联宇航员尤里·加加林(Yuri Gagarin)乘坐“东方一号”载人飞船,进入太空。加加林也因此成为世界第一位宇航员。

该次任务使用的1号发射台,日后被亲切地称为“加加林启航处”,而发射台所在的哈萨克斯坦拜科努尔航天中心(Baikonur cosmodrome)也成为人类进入太空探索旅行的出发地。



拜科努尔航天中心 图源:央视新闻

哈萨克斯坦拜克努尔,位于哈萨克斯坦中西部半荒漠地区,地处北纬46度左右,是苏联纬度较低的地区,相较其他地区,更适合作航天器发射,可以节省燃料,提高发射效率。

哈萨克斯坦坐落于欧亚大陆的腹地,从该国出发,无论是到北冰洋、印度洋、太平洋还是大西洋,直线距离都在3000公里以上,其战略位置非常重要。

历史上哈萨克汗国的建立、发展与中国西域有密切的关系,今天哈萨克民族中的乌孙、康里、阿兰等部落名称即沿袭于汉代游牧民族在中亚与中国西北部的乌孙、康居、奄蔡等名称。



丝绸之路展 图源:新华社

古代丝绸之路干线主要穿越哈萨克斯坦南部。贸易商队从与中国接壤的边境出发,途经赛里木湖、亚西、讹答剌、塔拉兹等城市,然后前往中亚、波斯、高加索地区,再从那里抵达欧洲。

The main line of the ancient Silk Road in Kazakhstan lay across the country’s south. From the border with China, trade caravans moved through the cities of Sayram, Yassy, Otrar, Taraz and further to Central Asia, Persia, to the Caucasus and from there to Europe.

哈萨克斯坦与中国在1992年建立大使级外交关系,两国关系发展良好,各领域合作发展迅速。21世纪以来,中哈两国进入新的发展阶段。2011年两国建立了全面战略伙伴关系,两国在文化、经贸等领域的合作取得了前所未有的成果。

Kazakhstan and China established diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level in 1992, and relations between the two countries have been developing well, with thriving cooperation in various fields. Since the 21st century, China and Kazakhstan have entered a new stage of development. In 2011, the two countries established a comprehensive strategic partnership, and cooperation between the two countries in culture, economy and trade has achieved more fruitful outcomes than ever before.



纳扎尔巴耶夫大学 图源:新华社

2013年,国家主席习近平访问哈萨克斯坦期间,首次提出建设丝绸之路经济带的倡议,随后又提出共同建设“21世纪海上丝绸之路”,由此共同构成“一带一路”重大倡议。自此,哈萨克斯坦与“一带一路”倡议建立了密切的战略联系。

Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed in 2013 the building of the Silk Road Economic Belt in Kazakhstan, which, combined with the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, eventually became the Belt and Road Initiative. Since then, Kazakhstan has developed a close and strategic connection with the initiative.

近年来,中哈高层领导人一直保持积极对话,2013年、2015年、2017年习近平主席三次访哈,2019年托卡耶夫总统访华;自新冠疫情以来,两国元首以“云外交”方式保持密切沟通,如2022年1月中国同中亚五国建交30周年视频峰会、2月北京冬奥会开幕式、6月全球发展高层对话会,两国元首积极沟通交流,为加速两国合作开辟出广阔前景。

在两国元首的密切交流与合作框架下,中哈在经贸、技术、新能源等方面的合作都硕果累累。

两国在经贸合作上,从1992年到2021年不到30年间,中哈双边贸易额增长近70倍,从3.68亿美元到252.5亿美元。

In terms of economic and trade cooperation between the two countries, bilateral trade volume between China and Kazakhstan has increased nearly 70 times, from $368 million to $25.25 billion in less than 30 years from 1992 to 2021.



阿斯塔纳风光 图源:新华社

近年来,哈萨克斯坦实行的“光明之路”新经济政策成功对接中国的“一带一路”倡议,对稳步推动两国产能和投资合作,加强信息沟通和政策协调,推动更多竞争力强、附加值高的项目落地起到了积极作用。

In recent years, Kazakhstan’s new economic policy of “Bright Road” has successfully synergized with China’s Belt and Road Initiative, which has played a positive role in steadily promoting cooperation between the two countries in terms of domestic energy and investment, strengthening the communication of information and coordination of policies, and facilitating the landing of more projects with strong competitiveness and high value-addedness.



哈萨克斯坦工人正在检查新能源太阳能发电厂设施 图源:新华社

札纳塔斯风电场是中哈合作的首批能源项目之一。在“一带一路”倡议和哈萨克斯坦的“光明之路”新经济政策引领下,两国迄今已在52个项目上开展了合作,总价值超过212亿美元。

The Zhanatas wind farm is one of the first energy projects under China-Kazakhstan cooperation. Through the Belt and Road Initiative and Kazakhstan’s “Bright Road” new economic policy, both countries have cooperated on 52 projects so far worth more than $21.2 billion in total.

哈萨克斯坦VISOR公司执行合伙人Almas Chukin说:“札纳塔斯风力发电厂是哈萨克斯坦解决南北能源不平衡和过度依赖煤炭发电问题的重要组成部分。”

“The Zhanatas wind power plant is a big part of Kazakhstan’s energy solution to the north-south imbalance and overdependence on coal use in power generation,” said Almas Chukin, managing partner of Visor Kazakhstan.

与此同时,中哈两国在人文和文化领域的联系也在不断加强。哈萨克斯坦成立了五所孔子学院,鲁班工坊也开幕在即。在中国,四所大学建立了哈萨克斯坦研究中心,两所大学的学生可以主修哈萨克语。

Meanwhile, China and Kazakhstan are cementing bonds people-to-people and in the cultural sphere. Five Confucius Institutes have been founded in Kazakhstan and the Luban Workshop will soon be established too. In China, four universities have set up Kazakhstan research centers and students in two universities can major in the Kazakh language.



哈萨克斯坦孔子学院 图源:中新网

哈萨克斯坦谚语有云:“友谊是取之不尽的财富”。中哈两国将在建设友谊长久、高度互信、命运与共的人类命运共同体的道路上携手前行,开启互利合作的新篇章。

As a Kazakh proverb goes, “Friendship is an inexhaustible wealth.” China and Kazakhstan are expected to move forward hand in hand on the road toward building a community with a shared future for mankind featuring long-lasting friendship, high-level mutual trust and common destiny, and open a new chapter of mutually beneficial cooperation.


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