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科学家:气候变化可能引发灾难性海啸

发布者: 顾含爱学习 | 发布时间: 2021-9-14 09:52| 查看数: 98| 评论数: 2|

英国科学家警告,随着冰盖融化减轻下方的地壳所承受的重量,释放高强度的地震活动,全球变暖可能引发灾难性的地震和海啸。

全文共581个词,by Clive Cookson in Chelmsford

The world is underestimating the geological consequences of global warming, which could trigger catastrophic earthquakes and tsunamis as the melting of ice sheets reduces the weight on the crust below and unleashes intense seismic activity, a leading earth scientist has warned.
一位主要的地球科学家警告称,世界正在低估全球变暖的地质后果;随着冰盖融化减轻下方的地壳所承受的重量,释放高强度的地震活动,全球变暖可能引发灾难性的地震和海啸。

The biggest threat in the north Atlantic comes from the thinning of Greenland’s ice cap, Bill McGuire, professor of earth sciences at University College London, told the British Science Festival in the UK town of Chelmsford on Thursday. Within decades, that could spark huge submarine earthquakes off the coast of Greenland, causing tsunamis with disastrous consequences for North America and probably Europe, he said.
伦敦大学学院(University College London)地球科学教授比尔•麦奎尔(Bill McGuire)周四在英国切尔姆斯福德镇举行的英国科学节(British Science Festival)上表示,在北大西洋,最大威胁来自格陵兰岛冰盖变薄。他说,在几十年内,这可能会导致格陵兰岛沿海发生巨大的海底地震,进而引发海啸,给北美——很可能还有欧洲——带来灾难性后果。

A possible precedent was the “great Storegga tsunami” that devastated the coasts of Scandinavia and the British Isles 8,200 years ago. An offshore earthquake, triggered by the release of pressure after northern Europe’s ice sheets had melted, set off a vast landslide of submarine sediments under the Norwegian Sea. Geological evidence shows the resulting tsunami wave reached 15 to 20 metres high in the Shetland islands and 3 to 6 metres high further down the North Sea.
一个可能的先例是8200年前发生的“大斯托雷加海啸”(great Storegga tsunami)摧毁斯堪的纳维亚和不列颠群岛海岸。当时,由欧洲北部冰盖融化后压力释放造成的一场海底地震,引发了挪威海海底沉积物的巨大滑坡。地质证据表明,由此产生的海啸波在设得兰群岛(Shetland islands,位于苏格兰本土以北约170公里处——译者注)达到15米至20米高度,在北海更深处达到3米至6米高度。

“As the Greenland ice cap melts, the uplift in the crust is going to trigger earthquakes,” said McGuire. “We don’t know enough about the sediments off the Greenland coast to predict confidently what might happen there, but it is certainly possible that within decades there could be a tsunami right across the north Atlantic.”
“随着格陵兰冰盖融化,地壳隆起将会引发地震,”麦奎尔表示。“我们对格陵兰海岸外的沉积物了解不多,无法有信心地预测那里可能发生什么,但肯定有可能在几十年内发生横扫北大西洋的海啸。”

Its impact might be comparable to the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami that killed more than 200,000 people around the Indian Ocean, he said.
他说,这场海啸的影响可能与2004年节礼日(12月26日)在印度洋沿岸国家导致20多万人遇难的海啸相当。

Greenland has lost 4tn tonnes of ice over the past 20 years through melting and iceberg calving, raising global sea levels by about 1cm, Donald Slater, a glaciologist at Edinburgh university, told the science festival. It will contribute a further 10cm rise this century.
爱丁堡大学(University of Edinburgh)冰川学家唐纳德•斯莱特 (Donald Slater)在英国科学节上表示,冰层融化和冰山崩解使格陵兰岛在过去20年里流失了4万亿吨冰,进而使全球海平面上升约1厘米。这一过程在本世纪内还将使海平面再上升10厘米。

The loss of ice from Greenland and to a lesser extent Iceland and Svalbard is lifting up the earth’s crust around the north Atlantic, McGuire said. Sensitive GPS instruments on coasts around the ocean are beginning to detect this uplift, which is taking place at a rate ranging from a few millimetres to 2.5cm a year.
麦奎尔表示,格陵兰岛以及(在较小程度上)冰岛和斯瓦尔巴群岛(Svalbard,位于北极地区的群岛,在挪威本土以北——译者注)的冰层流失,正在抬升北大西洋周边的地壳。在北大西洋周边沿岸设置的高灵敏度GPS仪器正开始探测到这种抬升,其速度从每年几毫米到2.5厘米不等。

“The whole central part of Greenland is below sea level, forced down by the weight of the 3km thick ice cover, so the crust has a long way to bounce back,” he said.
“格陵兰岛的整个中部目前在海平面以下,被3公里厚的冰盖压着,所以那里的地壳有很大的回弹余地,”他说。

On the other side of the Arctic, Alaska — the most seismically active part of North America — is already experiencing more frequent earthquakes. On July 28 a magnitude 8.2 quake, the strongest in the US for 50 years, occurred just off the coast of south-west Alaska.
在北极的另一侧,阿拉斯加——北美地震活动最活跃的地区——已经在经历更为频繁的地震。7月28日,阿拉斯加西南海岸外发生8.2级地震,这是美国50年来最强的地震。

“When it comes to the geological impact of climate change, Alaska can be seen as the canary in the coal mine,” said McGuire.
“就气候变化的地质影响而言,阿拉斯加可以被视为‘煤矿中的金丝雀’,”麦奎尔说。

He denied being alarmist. “When global temperatures may be rising at the fastest rate in the history of our planet, I’m proud to be raising the alarm,” he said. “Almost every forecast so far about climate change has been an underestimate.”
他否认自己在危言耸听。“在全球气温在以也许是地球历史上最快的速度上升之际,我对拉响警报引以为傲,”他表示。“到目前为止,关于气候变化的几乎所有预测都低估了形势。”

本文2021年9月10日发布于FT中文网,英文原题为Climate change risks triggering catastrophic tsunamis, scientist warns,more reading on essay.lxws.net


最新评论

youthy 发表于 2021-9-14 19:02:52
应该是必然引发吧。
sam1688 发表于 2021-9-15 08:32:23
Thank you very much!
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