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十四五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2021-8-18 00:16| 查看数: 472| 评论数: 1|

中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要

Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and Vision 2035 of the People’s Republic of China

2021年3月13日

March 13, 2021


                               
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目录

Contents

第一篇 开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程

Part I A New Journey Towards a Modern Socialist Country

第一章 发展环境

Chapter 1 Development Environment

第二章 指导方针

Chapter 2 Guidelines

第三章 主要目标

Chapter 3 Main Objectives

第二篇 坚持创新驱动发展 全面塑造发展新优势

Part II Innovation-Driven Development to Build New Strengths

第四章 强化国家战略科技力量

Chapter 4 A Strategic Vision for Building Strength in Science and Technology

第五章 提升企业技术创新能力

Chapter 5 Technological Innovation Capability of Enterprises

第六章 激发人才创新活力

Chapter 6 Creativity and Talent Development

第七章 完善科技创新体制机制

Chapter 7 Mechanisms for Scientific and Technological Innovation

第三篇 加快发展现代产业体系 巩固壮大实体经济根基

Part III Industrial Modernization and the Foundation of Real Economy

第八章 深入实施制造强国战略

Chapter 8 Strengthening Manufacturing

第九章 发展壮大战略性新兴产业

Chapter 9 Emerging Industries of Strategic Importance

第十章 促进服务业繁荣发展

Chapter 10 Development of the Service Sector

第十一章 建设现代化基础设施体系

Chapter 11 Modern Infrastructure

第四篇 形成强大国内市场 构建新发展格局

Part IV A Robust Domestic Market and a New Development Paradigm

第十二章 畅通国内大循环

Chapter 12 Greater Domestic Circulation

第十三章 促进国内国际双循环

Chapter 13 Domestic and International Circulation

第十四章 加快培育完整内需体系

Chapter 14 Strategies to Boost Domestic Demand

第五篇 加快数字化发展 建设数字中国

Part V An Initiative to Build a Digital China

第十五章 打造数字经济新优势

Chapter 15 Pole Position in the Digital Economy

第十六章 加快数字社会建设步伐

Chapter 16 A Digital Society

第十七章 提高数字政府建设水平

Chapter 17 Digital Government

第十八章 营造良好数字生态

Chapter 18 A Healthy Digital Ecosystem

第六篇 全面深化改革 构建高水平社会主义市场经济体制

Part VI Comprehensive and In-depth Reform to Develop a Well-functioning Socialist Market Economy

第十九章 激发各类市场主体活力

Chapter 19 Market Dynamism

第二十章 建设高标准市场体系

Chapter 20 A Unified Market that Adheres to High Standards

第二十一章 建立现代财税金融体制

Chapter 21 Fiscal Policy, Taxation, and the Financial System

第二十二章 提升政府经济治理能力

Chapter 22 The Government’s Economic Governance Capacity

第七篇 坚持农业农村优先发展 全面推进乡村振兴

Part VII Agricultural and Rural Development and Rural Revitalization

第二十三章 提高农业质量效益和竞争力

Chapter 23 Quality Issues and Competitiveness in the Agricultural Sector

第二十四章 实施乡村建设行动

Chapter 24 Rural Development Initiatives

第二十五章 健全城乡融合发展体制机制

Chapter 25 Integrated Urban-Rural Development

第二十六章 实现巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果同乡村振兴有效衔接

Chapter 26 Rural Revitalization to Be Pursued by Building on Success in Poverty Alleviation

第八篇 完善新型城镇化战略 提升城镇化发展质量

Part VIII New Urbanization Strategy with a Focus on Quality Development

第二十七章 加快农业转移人口市民化

Chapter 27 Urban Residency Status for Rural Residents

第二十八章 完善城镇化空间布局

Chapter 28 Spatial Distribution of Urban Centers

第二十九章 全面提升城市品质

Chapter 29 Quality of Urban Living

第九篇 优化区域经济布局 促进区域协调发展

Part IX Improving Regional Economic Structures and Promoting Coordinated Regional Development

第三十章 优化国土空间开发保护格局

Chapter 30 Land Use Planning and Environmental Protection

第三十一章 深入实施区域重大战略

Chapter 31 Major Regional Development Strategies

第三十二章 深入实施区域协调发展战略

Chapter 32 Coordinated Regional Development Strategies

第三十三章 积极拓展海洋经济发展空间

Chapter 33 Development of the Marine Economy

第十篇 发展社会主义先进文化 提升国家文化软实力

Part X Socialist Cultural Development and China’s Soft Power

第三十四章 提高社会文明程度

Chapter 34 Ethical Behavior

第三十五章 提升公共文化服务水平

Chapter 35 Public Cultural Services

第三十六章 健全现代文化产业体系

Chapter 36 Cultural Industries

第十一篇 推动绿色发展 促进人与自然和谐共生

Part XI Green Development and Harmonious Co-existence between Humanity and Nature

第三十七章 提升生态系统质量和稳定性

Chapter 37 Improving the Ecosystem

第三十八章 持续改善环境质量

Chapter 38 Continuous Environmental Improvement

第三十九章 加快发展方式绿色转型

Chapter 39 Faster Transformation for Green Development

第十二篇 实行高水平对外开放 开拓合作共赢新局面

Part XII Further Opening-up for Win-Win Cooperation

第四十章 建设更高水平开放型经济新体制

Chapter 40 A New Open Economy System

第四十一章 推动共建“一带一路”高质量发展

Chapter 41 Joint Pursuit of the Belt and Road Initiative

第四十二章 积极参与全球治理体系改革和建设

Chapter 42 Participating in the Reform and Development of the Global Governance System

第十三篇 提升国民素质 促进人的全面发展

Part XIII Promotion of Human Development

第四十三章 建设高质量教育体系

Chapter 43 Quality Education for All

第四十四章 全面推进健康中国建设

Chapter 44 A Healthy China

第四十五章 实施积极应对人口老龄化国家战略

Chapter 45 A National Strategy in Response to Population Aging

第十四篇 增进民生福祉 提升共建共治共享水平

Part XIV A Focus on the People’s Wellbeing: A Participatory Approach

第四十六章 健全国家公共服务制度体系

Chapter 46 National Public Services

第四十七章 实施就业优先战略

Chapter 47 An Employment-First Strategy

第四十八章 优化收入分配结构

Chapter 48 Improving the Income Distribution Structure

第四十九章 健全多层次社会保障体系

Chapter 49 A Multi-Tiered Social Security System

第五十章 保障妇女未成年人和残疾人基本权益

Chapter 50 Basic Rights and Interests of Women, Children, and People with Disabilities

第五十一章 构建基层社会治理新格局

Chapter 51 Community-Level Participatory Governance

第十五篇 统筹发展和安全 建设更高水平的平安中国

Part XV An Integrated Approach to Development and Security

第五十二章 加强国家安全体系和能力建设

Chapter 52 National Security and Capacity-building

第五十三章 强化国家经济安全保障

Chapter 53 National Economic Security

第五十四章 全面提高公共安全保障能力

Chapter 54 Public Security

第五十五章 维护社会稳定和安全

Chapter 55 Social Stability and Security

第十六篇 加快国防和军队现代化 实现富国和强军相统一

Part XVI Modernization of National Defense and the Armed Forces as We Build National Prosperity

第五十六章 提高国防和军队现代化质量效益

Chapter 56 Modernization of National Defense and the Military

第五十七章 促进国防实力和经济实力同步提升

Chapter 57 Strengthening National Defense in Tandem with Economic Growth

第十七篇 加强社会主义民主法治建设 健全党和国家监督制度

Part XVII Socialist Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Party and State Oversight Mechanisms

第五十八章 发展社会主义民主

Chapter 58 Socialist Democracy

第五十九章 全面推进依法治国

Chapter 59 Promotion of the Rule of Law

第六十章 完善党和国家监督体系

Chapter 60 Party and State Oversight Mechanisms

第十八篇 坚持“一国两制” 推进祖国统一

Part XVIII The Principle of “One Country, Two Systems” and National Reunification

第六十一章 保持香港、澳门长期繁荣稳定

Chapter 61 Lasting Prosperity and Stability in Hong Kong and Macao

第六十二章 推进两岸关系和平发展和祖国统一

Chapter 62 Peaceful Development of Cross-Straits Relations and National Reunification

第十九篇 加强规划实施保障

Part XIX Implementation of This Plan

第六十三章 加强党中央集中统一领导

Chapter 63 The Overall Leadership Role of the CPC Central Committee

第六十四章 健全统一规划体系

Chapter 64 Unified Planning

第六十五章 完善规划实施机制

Chapter 65 Mechanisms for Implementing This Plan

中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年(2021-2025年)规划和2035年远景目标纲要,根据《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标的建议》编制,主要阐明国家战略意图,明确政府工作重点,引导规范市场主体行为,是我国开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程的宏伟蓝图,是全国各族人民共同的行动纲领。

The Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and Vision 2035 of the People’s Republic of China, compiled on the basis of the proposals of the CPC Central Committee for such a plan and vision, clarifies China’s strategic intentions and the government’s priorities, and guides market participants in their activities. It is a blueprint for China’s new journey towards a socialist modern country and a joint action plan of the Chinese people.

第一篇 开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程

Part I A New Journey Towards a Modern Socialist Country

“十四五”时期是我国全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标之后,乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军的第一个五年。

The period covered by the 14th Five-Year Plan will be the first five years during which China begins its march towards the second Centenary Goal of building a modern socialist country by building on the success of achieving the first Centenary Goal of building a moderately well-off society.

第一章 发展环境

Chapter 1 Development Environment

我国进入新发展阶段,发展基础更加坚实,发展条件深刻变化,进一步发展面临新的机遇和挑战。

China has now entered a new stage of development on a stronger foundation, though profound changes have taken place in the conditions under which we pursue our development goals. We are facing new opportunities and challenges.

第一节 决胜全面建成小康社会取得决定性成就

I. A decisive victory in building a moderately well-off society

“十三五”时期是全面建成小康社会决胜阶段。面对错综复杂的国际形势、艰巨繁重的国内改革发展稳定任务特别是新冠肺炎疫情严重冲击,以习近平同志为核心的党中央不忘初心、牢记使命,团结带领全党全国各族人民砥砺前行、开拓创新,奋发有为推进党和国家各项事业。全面深化改革取得重大突破,全面依法治国取得重大进展,全面从严治党取得重大成果,国家治理体系和治理能力现代化加快推进,中国共产党领导和我国社会主义制度优势进一步彰显。

The 13th Five-Year Plan period was the decisive stage in building a moderately well-off society. In the face of the complicated international situation and formidable domestic issues related to advancing reforms and development while maintaining stability, particularly under the grave impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, has stayed true to the CPC’s original aspiration and kept the Party’s missions firmly in mind. It has united and led the entire Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to pioneer and forge ahead, and worked hard to advance various undertakings of the Party and the country. China has made major breakthroughs in deepening reforms in all areas, made substantial progress in law-based governance in all respects, and has achieved remarkable results in ensuring full and strict governance over the Party. China’s system and capacity for governance have been modernized at an accelerated pace. These achievements comprehensively demonstrate the strong leadership of the CPC and the institutional strengths of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

经济运行总体平稳,经济结构持续优化,国内生产总值突破100万亿元。创新型国家建设成果丰硕,在载人航天、探月工程、深海工程、超级计算、量子信息、“复兴号”高速列车、大飞机制造等领域取得一批重大科技成果。决战脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利,5575万农村贫困人口实现脱贫,困扰中华民族几千年的绝对贫困问题得到历史性解决,创造了人类减贫史上的奇迹。农业现代化稳步推进,粮食年产量连续稳定在1.3万亿斤以上。1亿农业转移人口和其他常住人口在城镇落户目标顺利实现,区域重大战略扎实推进。污染防治力度加大,主要污染物排放总量减少目标超额完成,资源利用效率显著提升,生态环境明显改善。金融风险处置取得重要阶段性成果。对外开放持续扩大,共建“一带一路”成果丰硕。人民生活水平显著提高,教育公平和质量较大提升,高等教育进入普及化阶段,城镇新增就业超过6000万人,建成世界上规模最大的社会保障体系,基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人,基本养老保险覆盖近10亿人,城镇棚户区住房改造开工超过2300万套。新冠肺炎疫情防控取得重大战略成果,应对突发事件能力和水平大幅提高。公共文化服务水平不断提高,文化事业和文化产业繁荣发展。国防和军队建设水平大幅提升,军队组织形态实现重大变革。国家安全全面加强,社会保持和谐稳定。

Overall, China’s economy has performed stably and its structure has been consistently improved, with the country’s GDP now exceeding RMB 100 trillion. China has accomplished much towards becoming an innovative country and has made major advances in manned spaceflight, lunar exploration, deep-sea engineering, supercomputing, quantum information, “Fuxing” high-speed trains, large aircraft manufacture, and other fields. We have attained a decisive victory in the fight against poverty and the rural poor residents, 55.75 million in total, have been lifted out of poverty. The problem of absolute poverty, which had plagued the Chinese nation for thousands of years has been solved—a miracle in the history of mankind. Agricultural modernization has been steadily advanced, and the annual grain output has surpassed 650 million tons for several years. The goal of granting urban residency to 100 million people from rural areas and other permanent residents without local household registration has also been met. Solid steps have been taken to implement major regional development strategies. Pollution prevention and control efforts have been intensified, the target of reduction in the discharge of major pollutants has been exceeded, resources and energy have been used more efficiently, and there has been a notable improvement in the environment. Important progress has been made in addressing financial risks in this period. China has opened its door wider to the world, and the joint pursuit of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has yielded fruitful results. The living standards of the Chinese people have increased significantly. Considerable headway was made in ensuring the provision of equitable, quality education. Higher education is becoming universal. Over 60 million urban jobs were added, and the world’s largest social security system was established. China’s basic medical insurance covers 1.3 billion people and its basic old-age insurance covers nearly 1 billion people. More than 23 million housing units in urban shanty towns have now been renovated. The country has had major strategic success in the response to COVID-19, and the preparedness and capacity for coping with emergencies have been substantially improved. The country’s public cultural services have been consistently improved, and the cultural sector flourished. Notable advances have been made in the development of national defense and the armed forces, and the organizational structure of the military has undergone major changes. China’s national security has been comprehensively strengthened, and social harmony and stability have been maintained across the country.

“十三五”规划目标任务胜利完成,我国经济实力、科技实力、综合国力和人民生活水平跃上新的大台阶,全面建成小康社会取得伟大历史性成就,中华民族伟大复兴向前迈出了新的一大步,社会主义中国以更加雄伟的身姿屹立于世界东方。

The goals and tasks of the 13th Five-Year Plan have been successfully completed. China’s economic strength, scientific and technological strength, comprehensive national strength, and people’s living standards have now reached a new high. The country has made great and historic achievements in building a moderately well-off society and has taken a new and big stride towards the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Today, socialist China stands taller and stronger in the East.

第二节 我国发展环境面临深刻复杂变化

II. Profound changes in China’s development environment

当前和今后一个时期,我国发展仍然处于重要战略机遇期,但机遇和挑战都有新的发展变化。当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,新一轮科技革命和产业变革深入发展,国际力量对比深刻调整,和平与发展仍然是时代主题,人类命运共同体理念深入人心。同时,国际环境日趋复杂,不稳定性不确定性明显增加,新冠肺炎疫情影响广泛深远,世界经济陷入低迷期,经济全球化遭遇逆流,全球能源供需版图深刻变革,国际经济政治格局复杂多变,世界进入动荡变革期,单边主义、保护主义、霸权主义对世界和平与发展构成威胁。

China is now in an important period of strategic opportunity for development, and will remain so for some time to come, but the opportunities and challenges it faces are changing. The world today is undergoing major changes unprecedented in a century. The new round of technological revolution and industrial transformation is gaining momentum, and there is a profound shift in the balance of international power. Peace and development remain the themes of the times, and the concept of a community with a shared future for mankind is deeply rooted in people’s minds. At the same time, the international environment has become increasingly complex with obviously increased instability and uncertainty. The COVID-19 pandemic is exerting an extensive, far-reaching impact around the world – the global economy is in the doldrums, economic globalization is encountering headwinds, and dramatic changes are taking place in the global energy supply and demand landscape. The international economic and political landscapes are complex and changeable, and the world is entering a period of turbulent changes, with unilateralism, protectionism, and hegemonism posing a threat to world peace and development.

我国已转向高质量发展阶段,制度优势显著,治理效能提升,经济长期向好,物质基础雄厚,人力资源丰富,市场空间广阔,发展韧性强劲,社会大局稳定,继续发展具有多方面优势和条件。同时,我国发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出,重点领域关键环节改革任务仍然艰巨,创新能力不适应高质量发展要求,农业基础还不稳固,城乡区域发展和收入分配差距较大,生态环保任重道远,民生保障存在短板,社会治理还有弱项。

China has moved to a stage of development with a focus on quality improvement. It has significant institutional advantages, improved performance in governance, sound long-term economic fundamentals, a solid material foundation, rich human resources, vast market potential, strong economic resilience, and social stability, thus enjoying favorable conditions and strengths for further development. At the same time, unbalanced and inadequate development is still a prominent problem, and reform in key links and major fields remains a formidable task. China’s capacity for innovation cannot yet meet the need of pursuing development with a focus on quality improvement. The foundation of agriculture is not yet solid. There are still disparities in development between urban and rural areas and between regions and in income distribution. We have a long way to go in protecting the environment. In work on public wellbeing and social governance, there are still areas where we fall short.

必须统筹中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,深刻认识我国社会主要矛盾变化带来的新特征新要求,深刻认识错综复杂的国际环境带来的新矛盾新挑战,增强机遇意识和风险意识,立足社会主义初级阶段基本国情,保持战略定力,办好自己的事,认识和把握发展规律,发扬斗争精神,增强斗争本领,树立底线思维,准确识变、科学应变、主动求变,善于在危机中育先机、于变局中开新局,抓住机遇,应对挑战,趋利避害,奋勇前进。

We must keep in mind both the broad strategic goal of national rejuvenation and the profound changes unseen in a century in the world, and clearly understand the new features and requirements brought about by the changes in the principal contradictions in our society, as well as the new contradictions and challenges arising from the complicated international environment, while enhancing our awareness of opportunities and risks. We must keep in mind the basic fact that China is still in the primary stage of socialism, maintain a strategic resolve, and run our own affairs well. We should fully understand the laws governing development, be ready to fight, build our ability, evaluate worst-case scenarios, accurately perceive changes and scientifically respond to them, take the initiative to seek changes, be good at fostering opportunities amid crises and opening up new vistas in a shifting landscape, seize opportunities and deal with challenges while weighing up pros and cons, and forge ahead with confidence and courage.

第二章 指导方针

Chapter 2 Guidelines

“十四五”时期经济社会发展,必须牢牢把握以下指导思想、原则和战略导向。

During the period covered by the 14th Five-Year Plan, economic and social development will be guided by the following guidelines, principles, and strategic direction.

第一节 指导思想

I. Guidelines

高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,深入贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的基本理论、基本路线、基本方略,统筹推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设的总体布局,协调推进全面建设社会主义现代化国家、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党的战略布局,坚定不移贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,以推动高质量发展为主题,以深化供给侧结构性改革为主线,以改革创新为根本动力,以满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要为根本目的,统筹发展和安全,加快建设现代化经济体系,加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,实现经济行稳致远、社会安定和谐,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家开好局、起好步。

We must hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics; thoroughly implement the guiding principles of the 19th National Congress of the CPC and of the second, third, fourth, and fifth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee; and follow the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We must fully act on the Party’s basic theory, line, and policy, coordinate efforts to achieve economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress, and implement the strategy to make comprehensive efforts to build a great modern socialist country, deepen reform, advance law-based governance, and ensure full and strict governance over the Party. We must be committed to the new development philosophy of innovation, coordination, green development, opening-up, and sharing; uphold the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability; pursue development with a focus on quality improvement; promote supply-side structural reforms as the main task; and make reforms and innovation the primary driving force in our endeavor to meet the fundamental goal of satisfying the people’s growing needs for a better life. We should ensure coordination in pursuing development and upholding security, accelerate the building of a modern economic system and expedite our efforts to create a new development paradigm with the domestic market as the mainstay and domestic and overseas markets reinforcing each other. We should also modernize China’s system and capacity for governance and realize long-term and stable economic development and social stability and harmony. By doing so, we will set the stage for building a modern socialist country in all respects.

第二节 必须遵循的原则

II. Principles to follow

——坚持党的全面领导。坚持和完善党领导经济社会发展的体制机制,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,不断提高贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局能力和水平,为实现高质量发展提供根本保证。

– Uphold the overall leadership of the CPC. We will adhere to and improve the Party’s institutions and mechanisms for leading economic and social development, adhere to and improve the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, continuously boost our capacity for implementing the new development philosophy and building a new development paradigm, and provide a fundamental guarantee for development with a focus on quality improvement.

——坚持以人民为中心。坚持人民主体地位,坚持共同富裕方向,始终做到发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享,维护人民根本利益,激发全体人民积极性、主动性、创造性,促进社会公平,增进民生福祉,不断实现人民对美好生活的向往。

– Commit to a people-centered approach. We must ensure the principal position of the people, and work towards common prosperity. We must insist that our development is for the people and depends on the people, and that its fruits are shared by the people. We must safeguard the fundamental interests of the people, stimulate their enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity, promote social equity, improve people’s wellbeing, and constantly help realize people’s aspiration for a better life.

——坚持新发展理念。把新发展理念完整、准确、全面贯穿发展全过程和各领域,构建新发展格局,切实转变发展方式,推动质量变革、效率变革、动力变革,实现更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续、更为安全的发展。

– Stay true to the new development philosophy. We must ensure the new development philosophy is applied in full, in both letter and spirit and in every stage and aspect of development. We must build a new development paradigm, effectively change the development model, work hard for better quality, higher efficiency, and more robust drivers of economic growth through reform, and strive to achieve higher-quality development that is more efficient, equitable, sustainable and secured.

——坚持深化改革开放。坚定不移推进改革,坚定不移扩大开放,加强国家治理体系和治理能力现代化建设,破除制约高质量发展、高品质生活的体制机制障碍,强化有利于提高资源配置效率、有利于调动全社会积极性的重大改革开放举措,持续增强发展动力和活力。

– Continue to deepen reform and opening-up. We must be fully committed to reform and opening-up and modernize China’s governance system and capacity. We must get rid of the institutional ailments that restrict development with a focus on quality improvement and high-quality life, strengthen major reform and opening-up measures that are conducive to improving the efficiency of resource allocation and mobilizing the enthusiasm of the whole society, and continuously enhance the driving force and vitality of development.

——坚持系统观念。加强前瞻性思考、全局性谋划、战略性布局、整体性推进,统筹国内国际两个大局,办好发展安全两件大事,坚持全国一盘棋,更好发挥中央、地方和各方面积极性,着力固根基、扬优势、补短板、强弱项,注重防范化解重大风险挑战,实现发展质量、结构、规模、速度、效益、安全相统一。

– Uphold system-based thinking. We must think ahead, plan the big picture, deploy strategically, and advance in a holistic manner. We must keep in mind both our internal and international imperatives, and balance development and security. By adhering to the national strategy, we need to give full play to the initiative of the central and local governments and people in various sectors, solidify our foundation, foster strengths, and tackle areas of weaknesses. We need to pay attention to preventing and resolving major risks and challenges, and ensure a balance between the quality, structure, scale, speed, efficiency, and security in terms of development.

第三节 战略导向

III. Strategic direction

“十四五”时期推动高质量发展,必须立足新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局。把握新发展阶段是贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局的现实依据,贯彻新发展理念为把握新发展阶段、构建新发展格局提供了行动指南,构建新发展格局则是应对新发展阶段机遇和挑战、贯彻新发展理念的战略选择。必须坚持深化供给侧结构性改革,以创新驱动、高质量供给引领和创造新需求,提升供给体系的韧性和对国内需求的适配性。必须建立扩大内需的有效制度,加快培育完整内需体系,加强需求侧管理,建设强大国内市场。必须坚定不移推进改革,破除制约经济循环的制度障碍,推动生产要素循环流转和生产、分配、流通、消费各环节有机衔接。必须坚定不移扩大开放,持续深化要素流动型开放,稳步拓展制度型开放,依托国内经济循环体系形成对全球要素资源的强大引力场。必须强化国内大循环的主导作用,以国际循环提升国内大循环效率和水平,实现国内国际双循环互促共进。

To promote development with a focus on quality improvement during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, we must ground our efforts in the new stage of development, apply the new development philosophy and create a new development paradigm. Understanding the new development stage is the realistic basis for implementing the new development philosophy and creating the new development paradigm. Implementing the new development philosophy provides a guide for understanding the new development stage and fostering the new development paradigm. Building the new development paradigm is a strategic choice in response to the opportunities and challenges in the new development stage and for implementing the new development philosophy. We must continue to deepening supply-side structural reforms, foster new demand through pursuing innovation-driven development and ensuring high-quality supply, and enhance the resilience of the supply system and its adaptability to domestic demand. We must build an effective system to boost domestic demand, expedite the establishment of a complete demand system, strengthen demand-side management, and build a robust domestic market. We must unswervingly push forward reform, get rid of institutional obstacles to economic circulation, and promote the flows of production factors and the integration at the stages of production, allocation, distribution, and consumption. We must be fully committed to greater opening-up, continue to deepen the opening-up based on the flow of production factors, stably expand the institution-based opening-up, and leverage the flows of the domestic economy to make China a major magnet for global production factors and resources. We must strengthen the leading role of domestic circulation, improve its efficiency and level via international circulation, and realize the mutual reinforcement of domestic and international circulation.

第三章 主要目标

Chapter 3 Main Objectives

按照全面建设社会主义现代化国家的战略安排,2035年远景目标和“十四五”时期经济社会发展主要目标如下。

In accordance with the strategic arrangement for comprehensively building China into a modern socialist country, Vision 2035 and the main objectives for economic and social development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period are as follows.

第一节 2035年远景目标

I. Vision 2035

展望2035年,我国将基本实现社会主义现代化。经济实力、科技实力、综合国力将大幅跃升,经济总量和城乡居民人均收入将再迈上新的大台阶,关键核心技术实现重大突破,进入创新型国家前列。基本实现新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化,建成现代化经济体系。基本实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,人民平等参与、平等发展权利得到充分保障,基本建成法治国家、法治政府、法治社会。建成文化强国、教育强国、人才强国、体育强国、健康中国,国民素质和社会文明程度达到新高度,国家文化软实力显著增强。广泛形成绿色生产生活方式,碳排放达峰后稳中有降,生态环境根本好转,美丽中国建设目标基本实现。形成对外开放新格局,参与国际经济合作和竞争新优势明显增强。人均国内生产总值达到中等发达国家水平,中等收入群体显著扩大,基本公共服务实现均等化,城乡区域发展差距和居民生活水平差距显著缩小。平安中国建设达到更高水平,基本实现国防和军队现代化。人民生活更加美好,人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展。

By 2035, China will basically achieve socialist modernization. Our economic and technological strength, and comprehensive national strength will increase significantly. We will make new strides in economic aggregate and the per capita income of urban and rural residents. Making major breakthroughs in core technologies in key areas, we will be a global leader in innovation, and will also achieve new industrialization, enhanced IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization, and complete building a modern economic system. We will have modernized the governance system and capacity, and the rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals will be adequately protected. The rule of law for the country, the government, and society will be comprehensively in place. China will become a powerful country in terms of culture, education, human capital, sports, and health. The well-rounded development of the people and social etiquette and civility will be significantly enhanced. China’s cultural soft power will grow much stronger. Eco-friendly work and lifestyle will be advanced to cover all areas of society. Carbon dioxide emissions will steadily decline after reaching a peak, and there will be a fundamental improvement in the environment after the goal of building a Beautiful China is met. The opening-up will reach a new stage with substantial growth in the country’s capabilities for participating in international economic cooperation and competition. The per capita GDP will reach the level of moderately developed countries and the size of the middle-income group will be significantly expanded. Equitable access to basic public services will be ensured. Disparities in development between urban and rural areas and between regions, and in living standards will be significantly reduced. The Peaceful China initiative will be pursued at a higher level. The modernization of national defense and the military will be achieved. People will lead a better life, and more notable and substantial progress will be achieved in well-rounded human development and in common prosperity for all.

第二节 “十四五”时期经济社会发展主要目标

II. Main objectives for economic and social development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period

——经济发展取得新成效。发展是解决我国一切问题的基础和关键,发展必须坚持新发展理念,在质量效益明显提升的基础上实现经济持续健康发展,增长潜力充分发挥,国内生产总值年均增长保持在合理区间、各年度视情提出,全员劳动生产率增长高于国内生产总值增长,国内市场更加强大,经济结构更加优化,创新能力显著提升,全社会研发经费投入年均增长7%以上、力争投入强度高于“十三五”时期实际,产业基础高级化、产业链现代化水平明显提高,农业基础更加稳固,城乡区域发展协调性明显增强,常住人口城镇化率提高到65%,现代化经济体系建设取得重大进展。

– China will strive to make new strides in economic development during the period. Development is the foundation and the key for solving all of China’s problems. We must be fully committed to the new vision for development and realize sustained and healthy economic development based on a marked improvement in quality and efficiency. We will fully tap China’s growth potential, keep the average annual growth of GDP within an appropriate range, set annual targets for GDP growth on the basis of actual conditions, and ensure that overall labor productivity grows faster than GDP. The domestic market will be stronger, the economic structure will be further optimized, and the innovation capacity will be significantly improved. China’s R&D spending will increase by more than 7% annually, and is expected to account for a higher percentage of GDP than that during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. The upgrade of the industrial base and modernization of the industrial chains will be significantly improved, and the agricultural foundation will be strengthened. The balance of development between urban and rural areas and between regions will be significantly enhanced. The permanent urban residents will increase to 65% of the population, and significant progress will be made towards a modernized economy.

——改革开放迈出新步伐。社会主义市场经济体制更加完善,高标准市场体系基本建成,市场主体更加充满活力,产权制度改革和要素市场化配置改革取得重大进展,公平竞争制度更加健全,更高水平开放型经济新体制基本形成。

– New steps will be taken in reform and opening-up. China will further improve its socialist market economy with a high-standard market system in place. Market entities will be increasingly dynamic, and major progress will be achieved in the reform of the property rights system and the market-based allocation of factors of production. A more robust system of fair competition will prevail, and a new system of higher-standard open economy will take shape.

——社会文明程度得到新提高。社会主义核心价值观深入人心,人民思想道德素质、科学文化素质和身心健康素质明显提高,公共文化服务体系和文化产业体系更加健全,人民精神文化生活日益丰富,中华文化影响力进一步提升,中华民族凝聚力进一步增强。

– China’s social etiquette and civility will be further enhanced. Core socialist values will be widely embraced, and significant improvement will be made in the intellectual, moral, scientific, cultural, and health standards of Chinese citizens. The systems for public cultural services and cultural industries will be further improved, the intellectual and cultural life of the Chinese people will become richer, the international influence of the Chinese culture will be further increased, and an even stronger bond will be forged among all the people of the Chinese nation.

——生态文明建设实现新进步。国土空间开发保护格局得到优化,生产生活方式绿色转型成效显著,能源资源配置更加合理、利用效率大幅提高,单位国内生产总值能源消耗和二氧化碳排放分别降低13.5%、18%,主要污染物排放总量持续减少,森林覆盖率提高到24.1%,生态环境持续改善,生态安全屏障更加牢固,城乡人居环境明显改善。

– New progress will be made in building an ecological civilization. The territorial space will be better developed and protected. Remarkable results will be achieved in a shift towards eco-friendly work and lifestyle. Energy and resources will be more rationally allocated and much more efficiently used. Energy consumption per unit of GDP and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be reduced by 13.5% and 18%, respectively. The total discharge of major pollutants will be consistently reduced. The forest coverage will reach 24.1%, and the environment will be consistently improved with a stronger defense for ecological security. The living environment in urban and rural areas will also be significantly improved.

——民生福祉达到新水平。实现更加充分更高质量就业,城镇调查失业率控制在5.5%以内,居民人均可支配收入增长与国内生产总值增长基本同步,分配结构明显改善,基本公共服务均等化水平明显提高,全民受教育程度不断提升,劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限提高到11.3年,多层次社会保障体系更加健全,基本养老保险参保率提高到95%,卫生健康体系更加完善,人均预期寿命提高1岁,脱贫攻坚成果巩固拓展,乡村振兴战略全面推进,全体人民共同富裕迈出坚实步伐。

– The well-being of people will be boosted. We will increase employment and create better quality jobs, while maintaining the surveyed urban unemployment rate within 5.5%. Per capita disposable income will grow in line with GDP growth, and the income distribution structure will be significantly improved. The access to basic public services will be much more equitable. All Chinese people will enjoy better education opportunities, with the average years of schooling among the working-age population rising to 11.3. The multi-tiered social security system will be improved, with basic old-age insurance covering 95% of the population. The health care system will be improved, and the average life expectancy will be increased by 1 year. What we have achieved in poverty alleviation will be consolidated and expanded, the rural revitalization strategy will be comprehensively carried forward, and solid strides will be made towards common prosperity for all.

——国家治理效能得到新提升。社会主义民主法治更加健全,社会公平正义进一步彰显,国家行政体系更加完善,政府作用更好发挥,行政效率和公信力显著提升,社会治理特别是基层治理水平明显提高,防范化解重大风险体制机制不断健全,突发公共事件应急处置能力显著增强,自然灾害防御水平明显提升,发展安全保障更加有力,国防和军队现代化迈出重大步伐。

– Further progress will be made in China’s governance capacity. Socialist democracy and the rule of law will be enhanced, so will be social fairness and justice. With improvements in the administration system, the government will better exercise its role, and its performance and credibility will be significantly enhanced. Social governance, especially primary-level governance, will be remarkably improved. Systems and mechanisms for forestalling and defusing major risks will be constantly improved, with the capacity to handle public emergencies significantly enhanced. Notable progress will be seen in preventing natural disasters, development security will be more effectively ensured, and major steps will be taken in the modernization of the national defense and armed forces.


最新评论

sam1688 发表于 2021-8-18 09:17:00
Today, socialist China stands taller and stronger in the East.
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