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中国共产党建党百年来外事工作的光辉历程和远大前景

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2021-7-21 01:25| 查看数: 204| 评论数: 2|

中国共产党建党百年来外事工作的光辉历程和远大前景

Foreign Affairs Work Since the Founding of the Communist Party of China: A Century of Glorious Achievements and a Future of Bright Prospects

杨洁篪

Yang Jiechi


                               
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今年是中国共产党成立一百周年。百年大党恰是风华正茂。我国即将全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标,乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军。站在“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史交汇点上,全面系统回顾我们党团结带领中国人民走过的辉煌历程,对于激励全党全国各族人民更加紧密地团结在以习近平同志为核心的党中央周围,走好全面建设社会主义现代化国家的新征程,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦不懈奋斗具有重要意义。

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Having been founded for 100 years, this major Party is right in its prime. China is now on course to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, thus realizing the first centenary goal. Building on this momentum, we will embark on a new journey toward the second centenary goal of fully building a modern socialist country. Around this historic point of advancing from the first centenary goal to the second one, it is of great significance that we take a thorough and systematic review of the glorious journey traveled by the Chinese people under the leadership of the Party. It will inspire the whole Party, the entire nation, and all ethnic groups to rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, press ahead on the new journey toward a modern socialist country, and work tirelessly for realizing the Chinese dream of great national rejuvenation.

党的外事工作是我们党百年来波澜壮阔奋斗史的重要内容,是党和国家总体工作的重要组成部分,见证了中华民族迎来从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃。当前,外事工作面临的形势更加复杂、任务更加繁重、使命更加光荣,需要我们从历史中汲取前行的力量,把准我国所处的历史方位和世界发展大势,奋力推进新时代中国特色大国外交。

The Party’s foreign affairs work forms an important part of the Party’s century-long history of extraordinary struggle, and represents a key component of the overall work of the Party and the nation. It is a testament to the Chinese nation’s great leap from standing up to growing rich and to becoming strong. Right now, our foreign affairs work faces a more complex situation, more onerous tasks, and a more glorious mission. It requires us to turn to history for the strength to forge ahead, to have a keen grasp of China’s historical position and the overriding development trend in the world, and to spare no effort in advancing major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

一、建党百年来外事工作发展历程

I. The development of the CPC’s foreign affairs work over the past century

一百年来,一代又一代中国共产党人紧紧依靠人民、团结带领中国人民接续奋斗,迎来实现中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景。在这一历史进程中,党的外事工作在各个历史时期,坚定维护国家利益和民族尊严,为我们党的发展壮大、国家的富强、民族的复兴作出了重要贡献。党的百年外事工作史可分四个时期。

Over the last hundred years, generation after generation of Chinese Communists have relied on the Chinese people and rallied and led them in an unrelenting endeavor to usher in bright prospects for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Throughout this historical process, the Party has made sure that its foreign affairs work conducted at every historical stage serves to defend China’s national interests and dignity and contribute to the development of the Party, the prosperity of the country, and the renewal of the nation. The Party’s foreign affairs work over the past century could be divided into four periods:

(一)1921—1949年,新民主主义革命时期。党的外事工作从无到有、由小到大,为实现新民主主义革命目标,为新中国发展建设和外交外事事业打下了坚实基础。

1. The New Democratic Revolution period (1921-1949)

In this period, our Party’s foreign affairs work started from scratch and steadily expanded in scope, laying a solid foundation for achieving the goals of the New Democratic Revolution and for the development and diplomatic endeavors of New China.

第一,探索形成党的对外方针政策和对外交往模式,提出党的创始阶段对外工作思想理论。我们党对外交往具有鲜明的政党性和国际主义性,主要工作对象是苏联和共产国际。日本发动侵华战争后,党确定了建立抗日民族统一战线和国际统一战线的策略方针。抗日战争胜利后和解放战争时期,根据国内外形势变化,毛泽东同志先后提出“两个阵营”、“一切反动派都是纸老虎”著名论断和“另起炉灶”、“打扫干净屋子再请客”、“一边倒”三大方针。

First, exploratory efforts were made to develop the Party’s foreign policy and approach to external exchanges, and to put forth thinking and theory for the external work at the Party’s founding stage. The Party’s foreign interactions were defined by a political party orientation and internationalism, largely involving the Soviet Union and the Communist International. After Japan staged its war of aggression against China, the Party adopted the strategic policy of forming national and international united fronts against Japanese invasion. During the war of liberation after Japan was defeated, Comrade Mao Zedong, in light of the changing circumstances at home and abroad, made the famous conclusions about the “two camps” in the world, pointing out that “all reactionaries are paper tigers.” He also laid down the three major policies of “setting up a separate kitchen,” “sweeping the house clean before inviting guests over,” and “leaning to one side.”

第二,初步建立党的外事工作体制机制、组织架构和指导原则。1931年11月,中华苏维埃共和国临时中央政府在瑞金成立,设立了“九部一局”的政府机构,外交人民委员部是其中之一。1939年1月,中共中央南方局在重庆成立,周恩来同志为书记。1947年5月1日,中共中央外事组在山西临县三交镇正式成立。

Second, initial steps were taken to establish institutions, organizational framework, and guiding principles for the Party’s foreign affairs work. In November 1931, the Provisional Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic was set up in Ruijin. It consisted of nine commissariats and one bureau, including the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Affairs. In January 1939, the Southern Bureau of the CPC Central Committee was established in Chongqing with Comrade Zhou Enlai serving as its Secretary. On 1 May 1947, the Foreign Affairs Group of the CPC Central Committee was officially established in the town of Sanjiao in Linxian County, Shanxi Province.

第三,在处理对外关系方面积累了宝贵经验。中国共产党的创建得到了国际上的积极帮助。1935年1月遵义会议开始确立以毛泽东同志为主要代表的马克思主义正确路线在中共中央的领导地位,中国共产党更加坚定了处理对外关系的独立自主原则。抗战期间,我们党以更灵活方法来观察和分析外部世界,主动开展对美英等西方国家工作。

Third, valuable experience was accumulated in the process of handling external relations. The CPC was founded with a great deal of international assistance. At the Zunyi Conference held in January 1935, the leadership position of the correct Marxist guideline chiefly represented by Comrade Mao Zedong within the CPC Central Committee was established for the first time, and the Party’s principle of independence in handling foreign relations was reaffirmed. During the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the Party observed and analyzed the outside world with a more flexible approach, and took the initiative to engage with the United States, the United Kingdom and other Western countries.

第四,为新中国开展外交外事工作培养了干部队伍。党中央在延安13年间,建设了一支听党指挥、忠于人民的外事干部队伍。抗日战争胜利后,周恩来同志陪同毛泽东同志赴重庆同国民党进行谈判,随后率领我们党代表团同国民党当局进行了长达一年多的谈判斗争,很多同志成为新中国成立后外交外事工作中坚力量。1948年,中央外事学校成立,大多数学员在新中国成立后从事外交外事工作。很多饱经革命斗争考验的干部根据党中央的决定,投身外交外事工作。

Fourth, cadres were trained to carry out foreign-related work in New China. During its 13 years in Yan’an, the CPC Central Committee cultivated a contingent of foreign affairs cadres that followed the Party’s command with loyal commitment to the people. After the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression was won, Comrade Zhou Enlai accompanied Comrade Mao Zedong to Chongqing for talks with the Kuomintang (KMT), and subsequently led the CPC delegation in protracted negotiations with the KMT authorities for more than a year. Many participants in those negotiations went on to become the backbone of the foreign-related work after the founding of the People’s Republic. In 1948, the Central Foreign Affairs School was established, and most of its first group of students engaged in the foreign-related work of New China. Moreover, many cadres with rich experience in revolution followed the decision of the CPC Central Committee and switched to foreign-related work.

(二)1949—1978年,社会主义革命和建设时期。党的外事工作主要任务是冲破西方敌对势力对新中国的孤立、遏制、包围和威胁,维护民族独立、国家主权和安全,争取有利于社会主义建设的国际和平环境。

2. The socialist revolution and construction period (1949-1978)

In this period, the main task of the Party’s foreign affairs work was to break the isolation, containment, encirclement and intimidation against New China from hostile Western forces, safeguard our independence, sovereignty and security, and strive for a peaceful international environment conducive to socialist construction.

第一,着眼反对霸权主义和战争威胁,扩大对外友好合作,提出“和平共处五项原则”、“中间地带”、“三个世界”等重要理论思想。20世纪50年代,我国同印度和缅甸一致同意以和平共处五项原则作为指导相互关系的基本原则。50年代末60年代初和70年代,毛泽东主席先后提出“两个中间地带”和“三个世界”划分的战略思想。

First, to counter hegemonism and the threat of war and expand friendly cooperation with the outside, some important theories and concepts were introduced, including the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, the “intermediate zones,” and the “three worlds” theory. In the 1950s, China agreed with India and Burma to take the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence as the basic principles guiding their relations. Chairman Mao Zedong put forward the strategic thinking of “two intermediate zones” in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and the theory of the “three worlds” in the 1970s.

第二,努力建立和发展同世界各国友好合作关系,迎来两次建交高潮。1949年10月3日,苏联成为第一个与新中国建交的国家,掀起第一次建交高潮。20世纪70年代初,我们党抓住国际形势变化契机,迎来第二次建交高潮。到1976年,我国建交国已有113个,包括了当时世界上绝大多数国家。

Second, great efforts to establish and develop friendly and cooperative relations with countries around the world culminated in two major waves of establishment of new diplomatic ties. On 3 October 1949, the Soviet Union became the first country to establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic, setting off the first wave of diplomatic recognition. The second wave came in the early 1970s, when the Party seized the opportunity presented by changes in the international landscape. By 1976, China had established diplomatic relations with 113 countries, which accounted for the vast majority of countries in the world at the time.

第三,积极运筹大国关系,实现重大突破。着眼70年代世界格局变化,毛泽东主席、周恩来总理作出富有战略远见的重大决策。1972年2月,尼克松总统访华。2月28日,中美在上海发表《中美联合公报》,标志着两国关系正常化进程的开始,这是中美关系史上的一件大事。1972年9月,日本首相田中角荣访华,双方签署《联合声明》,实现中日邦交正常化。中国同欧洲共同体也建立了正式关系。

Third, proactive efforts to develop relations with major countries resulted in significant breakthroughs. Recognizing the evolving international configuration in the 1970s, Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai made a major decision of strategic foresight. In February 1972, US President Richard Nixon visited China. On 28 February, the Sino-US Joint Communiqué was issued in Shanghai, starting the process of normalization of relations. This was a momentous event in the history of China-US relations. In September 1972, Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka visited China and the two sides signed a joint communiqué, achieving the normalization of relations. China also established formal relations with the European Community.

第四,坚定维护国家主权安全,有力提升国际地位。经过艰苦卓绝斗争,我国赢得抗美援朝战争伟大胜利,极大增强中国人民民族自信心和自豪感,有力维护新中国主权安全和革命成果,空前提高我国国际地位。我国坚定维护国家主权和领土完整。国防和科技事业取得“两弹一星”等突破性成就。

Fourth, China’s national sovereignty and security were firmly upheld, and its international standing was significantly elevated. After a tenacious struggle, China won a great victory in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea. The victory boosted the Chinese people’s confidence and pride in their nation, safeguarded New China’s sovereignty, security and revolutionary achievements, and raised China’s international standing like never before. China firmly defended its national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Meanwhile, breakthroughs were made in the development of national defense and science and technology, including achievements in the project of “Two Bombs, One Satellite” (nuclear bombs, missiles and satellites).

第五,积极参与国际事务,维护世界和平与发展崇高事业。周恩来总理率团出席1955年4月在印尼举行的万隆会议,打开中国同亚非国家广泛交往的大门。1971年10月25日,第26届联合国大会以压倒性多数通过第2758号决议,恢复中华人民共和国在联合国的一切合法权利。中国作为联合国创始会员国和安全理事会常任理事国,为践行联合国宪章的宗旨和原则、维护世界和平与促进共同发展、加强各国友好合作、推动人类进步事业作出重要贡献。

Fifth, active steps were taken to take part in international affairs and uphold the noble cause of world peace and development. Premier Zhou Enlai headed a delegation to the Bandung Conference in Indonesia in April 1955, opening the door to extensive exchanges between China and countries in Asia and Africa. On 25 October 1971, the 26th session of the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758 by an overwhelming majority to restore all of the PRC’s lawful rights in the organization. As a founding member of the UN and a permanent member of its Security Council, China has contributed significantly to upholding the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, defending world peace, promoting shared development, strengthening friendship and cooperation between countries, and advancing the progress of humanity.

(三)1978—2012年,改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期。党的外事工作主要任务是配合国家经济建设,为改革开放营造良好合作环境、周边环境、安全环境、舆论环境,构建对外关系新格局。

3. The new period of reform and opening up and socialist modernization (1978-2012)

In this period, the main task of the Party’s foreign affairs work was to support China’s economic development, create an enabling environment for reform and opening up in terms of cooperation, neighborhood, security and public opinion, and break new ground in external relations.

第一,科学判断时代主题和世界大势,提出对外方针政策和指导思想。党的十一届三中全会以后,邓小平同志提出和平与发展是当代世界两大问题、世界大战打不起来的判断,把党的工作重心转移到经济建设上来。在苏东剧变关键时刻,邓小平同志强调要坚持四项基本原则,确保我国正确发展方向。党的十三届四中全会以后,我们打破西方国家制裁。江泽民同志提出推动建立公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序,倡导尊重世界文明多样性。胡锦涛同志提出同各国人民携手努力,推动建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界。我国新兴大国地位和影响力得到世界公认。

First, on the basis of sound assessment of the theme of the times and the underlying global trend, the policies and guidelines for foreign affairs were put forward. Following the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in late 1978, Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forth the judgment that peace and development are the two great issues for the world of the times and that a world war is not likely to happen, and the focus of the Party’s work was shifted to economic development. At the critical juncture of drastic changes in Eastern Europe, Comrade Deng Xiaoping stressed that we must uphold the Four Cardinal Principles1 to keep China on the right course. Following the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee in 1989, sanctions imposed on China by Western countries were broken. Comrade Jiang Zemin put forward the building of a new political and economic order that is just and equitable and called for respect for diversity of civilizations. Comrade Hu Jintao put forward the building of a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity through joint efforts with people of all countries. China’s standing and influence as a major emerging country were universally recognized.

第二,同主要各方关系走向深入,提出“大国是关键、周边是首要、发展中国家是基础、多边是重要舞台”的外交总体布局。1979年1月,中美建交。1978年8月,中日签订《中日和平友好条约》。1989年5月,中苏关系正常化。1991年,中国同东盟开启对话进程。世纪之交,我国深入推动同主要大国建立面向21世纪双边关系,积极发展同周边国家睦邻友好关系,加强同其他发展中国家友好合作关系。

Second, relations with other major players were deepened under an overall diplomatic agenda that identifies major countries as the key, the neighborhood as the priority, developing countries as the foundation, and multilateral fora as an important stage. In January 1979, China and the United States established diplomatic relations. In August 1978, China and Japan signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship. In May 1989, relations between China and the Soviet Union were normalized. In 1991, China and ASEAN launched the dialogue process. At the turn of the century, China worked actively to steer relations with other major countries toward the 21st century, to enhance friendly ties with neighboring countries, and to strengthen friendship and cooperation with other developing countries.

第三,拓展深化对外开放格局,取得重要发展成就。我国于2001年加入世界贸易组织,妥善应对1997年亚洲金融危机和2008年国际金融危机,经济总量从1978年世界第11位跃居2010年世界第2位。

Third, the overall layout of opening up was expanded and deepened, with major development achievements scored. China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, and coped well with the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the international financial crisis in 2008. China’s economy became the second largest in the world in 2010 from the 11th in 1978.

第四,多边外交领域日趋活跃,深入参与或创建国际机制。2001年6月,第一届上海合作组织峰会在上海举行。2001年10月,亚太经合组织第九次领导人非正式会议在上海成功举办。2008年8月,我国在北京成功主办第29届夏季奥运会。2010年5月,我国在上海成功主办第41届世界博览会。

Fourth, through more active engagement in multilateral diplomacy, China became deeply involved in international mechanisms and played a part in creating new mechanisms. In June 2001, the first Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was held in Shanghai. In October that same year, the ninth APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting was held in Shanghai. In August 2008, China hosted the 29th Summer Olympics in Beijing. In May 2010, China hosted the 41st World Expo in Shanghai.

(四)2012年党的十八大以来,中国特色社会主义进入新时代。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指导下,党和国家事业取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革。在新的历史起点上,习近平总书记以大国领袖的战略远见和使命担当,着眼中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,带领我们不断开创新时代中国特色大国外交新局面,党的外交外事工作取得了举世瞩目的重大成就。中国国际地位和影响力提升到前所未有的高度,日益走近世界舞台中央,不断为人类发展进步作出新的更大贡献。

4. A new era for socialism with Chinese characteristics, since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012

In this period, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, historic achievements have been scored and historic changes made in the cause of the Party and the country. At this new historical starting point, General Secretary Xi Jinping, demonstrating the strategic vision and sense of mission of the leader of a major country and keeping in mind the overarching strategic context of the Chinese nation’s great rejuvenation and major changes unseen in a century in the world, has led us in continuously breaking new ground in major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era, resulting in major, remarkable achievements in the Party’s foreign-related work. China’s international standing and influence have risen to unprecedented heights, and China is moving ever closer to the center of the world stage and making new and greater contributions to the development and progress of humanity.

第一,形成并确立了习近平外交思想的指导地位。习近平外交思想是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要组成部分,是马克思主义基本原理同中国特色大国外交实践相结合的重大理论结晶,是以习近平同志为核心的党中央治国理政思想在外交领域的集中体现,是新时代我国对外工作的根本遵循和行动指南。习近平外交思想以“十个坚持”为核心要义,明确了新时代我国对外工作的历史使命、总目标和必须坚持的一系列方针原则,深刻揭示了新时代中国特色大国外交的本质要求、内在规律和前进方向。习近平总书记牢牢把握中国和世界发展大势,作出当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局、我国发展仍处于重要战略机遇期等一系列重大论断,提出了推动构建人类命运共同体、构建新型国际关系、共建“一带一路”等一系列富有中国特色、体现时代精神、引领人类发展进步潮流的新理念新主张新倡议。

First, Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy has been developed and its guiding position established. As an important part of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy represents a major theoretical outcome of applying the fundamental tenets of Marxism to the practice of major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, a crystallization of the governance philosophy of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core on the diplomatic front, and a fundamental philosophy and guide to action for China’s external work in the new era. Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy has ten core principles2. It spells out the historical mission and the overall objectives of China’s external work in the new era and outlines the set of policies and principles that must be upheld. It profoundly reveals the essential requirements, inherent laws, and future direction of major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era. With a firm grasp of the prevailing trends in domestic and international development, General Secretary Xi Jinping has drawn a series of important conclusions, including that the world is undergoing changes unseen in a century and that China’s development is still in a period of important strategic opportunity. General Secretary Xi has put forward a series of new ideas, propositions and initiatives that have distinct Chinese features, reflect the ethos of the times, and lead the trend of human development and progress. They include building a community with a shared future for mankind, fostering a new type of international relations, and jointly pursuing Belt and Road cooperation.

第二,充分发挥元首外交战略引领作用,积极开展主场外交和重大对外活动。习近平总书记成功出席纪念联合国成立70周年和75周年高级别会议、二十国集团领导人峰会、金砖国家领导人会晤、上海合作组织元首峰会、亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、世界经济论坛达沃斯年会等重要多边会议,就事关世界和平发展和人类前途命运的重大问题深刻阐述中国主张,维护和践行多边主义,有力引领世界变局发展方向。习近平总书记成功主持二十国集团领导人杭州峰会、北京亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛、中非合作论坛北京峰会、上海亚信峰会、中国国际进口博览会、亚洲文明对话大会、中国共产党与世界政党高层对话会、中国—中东欧国家领导人峰会等一系列重大主场外交活动,发挥主导引领作用,取得一系列重大突破性成果,我国全球影响力和国际议程塑造力显著增强。疫情下,习近平总书记出席二十国集团领导人应对新冠肺炎特别峰会、第73届世界卫生大会视频会议开幕式,主持中非团结抗疫特别峰会并发表重要讲话,宣布重大抗疫合作举措,呼吁国际社会携手构建人类卫生健康共同体。习近平总书记在领导人气候峰会上提出应对气候变化挑战、加强全球环境治理的“六个坚持”主张,倡导共同构建人与自然生命共同体。疫情发生以来,习近平总书记同百余位外国领导人及国际组织负责人通过线下线上方式会谈会见、通电话、互致电函,为我国同世界各国关系发展、推动国际社会团结抗疫指明了前进方向,注入了强劲动力。

Second, the strategic and guiding role of head-of-state diplomacy has been fully leveraged as China actively engages in home-ground diplomacy and major international events. General Secretary Xi Jinping has attended a host of important multilateral meetings: the high-level events commemorating the 70th and 75th anniversaries of the United Nations, the G20 Summit, the BRICS Summit, the SCO Summit, the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting, and the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos. At these meetings, General Secretary Xi expounded China’s propositions on major issues concerning world peace and development and the future of humanity, upheld and acted out multilateralism, and effectively charted the course for global transformation and development. General Secretary Xi successfully presided over major home-ground diplomatic events, including the G20 Hangzhou Summit, the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting in Beijing, the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, the 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), the Shanghai Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), the China International Import Expo (CIIE), the Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations (CDAC), the CPC in Dialogue with World Political Parties High-Level Meeting, and the China-Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) Summit. With China playing a leading role, these events have yielded a host of important breakthroughs and significantly enhanced China’s global influence and its ability to shape the international agenda. In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, General Secretary Xi attended the Extraordinary G20 Leaders’ Summit and the virtual opening of the 73rd World Health Assembly, and chaired the Extraordinary China-Africa Summit on Solidarity Against Covid-19. In his important remarks delivered on those occasions, General Secretary Xi announced major cooperation measures to fight the coronavirus, and called on the whole world to build a global community of health for all. At the Leaders Summit on Climate, General Secretary Xi put forward six initiatives3 to be followed when tackling the challenge of climate change and strengthening global environmental governance, and called for joint efforts to foster a community of life for man and Nature. Since the start of the pandemic, General Secretary Xi has had online and in-person talks and meetings, telephone conversations, and exchanges of messages with more than 100 foreign leaders and heads of international organizations, setting the direction for and injecting strong impetus into China’s efforts to grow its relations with other countries and promote international solidarity against Covid-19.

第三,倡导推进共建“一带一路”重大倡议,全面开拓对外开放与国际合作新局面。习近平总书记提出并推动“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”重大倡议,“一带一路”建设秉持共商、共建、共享原则,践行开放、绿色、廉洁理念,追求高标准、惠民生、可持续目标,致力于推动政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通,实现高质量发展,成为全世界广受欢迎的公共产品和构建人类命运共同体的重要实践平台。我国成功举办中国国际进口博览会、中国(北京)国际服务贸易交易会、中国—东盟博览会等大型活动,对外开放达到前所未有新高度。2020年我国和东盟首次互为第一大贸易伙伴,首次成为欧盟最大贸易伙伴,首次成为全球最大外资流入国。如期完成中欧投资协定谈判,同有关各方签署区域全面经济伙伴关系协定,宣布积极考虑加入全面与进步跨太平洋伙伴关系协定,展现致力于开放合作的坚定决心。

Third, efforts have been made to promote the major initiative of Belt and Road cooperation, in order to open new ground in all aspects of opening up and international cooperation. General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward and promoted the major initiative of building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Belt and Road cooperation follows the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, the philosophy of open, green and clean cooperation, and a high-standard, people-centered and sustainable approach. It aims to promote policy, infrastructure, trade, financial and people-to-people connectivity and achieve high-quality development. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has become a public good well received around the world and an important platform for building a community with a shared future for mankind. China has successfully hosted large events including the CIIE, the China (Beijing) International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS), and the China-ASEAN Expo, pushing China’s openness to an unprecedented level. In 2020, for the first time in history, China and ASEAN became each other’s largest trading partners, and China became the largest trading partner of the European Union (EU) and the world’s largest recipient of foreign investment. China concluded within schedule the negotiations on a Comprehensive Agreement on Investment with the EU, signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement with relevant parties, and announced that it will favorably consider joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), demonstrating its firm commitment to openness and cooperation.

第四,深化拓展全方位、多层次、宽领域、立体式对外工作布局,打造全球伙伴关系网络。深入发展中俄新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系,保持中俄战略协作高水平。强调美方同中方相向而行,共同致力于构建不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的中美关系,对美方损害我国利益言行进行坚决斗争反制,坚定捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益。加强同欧洲国家和欧盟沟通合作,积极打造中欧和平、增长、改革、文明四大伙伴关系,深化气候变化、环境保护和数字经济等领域合作,共同维护多边主义。积极推动同周边国家睦邻友好合作,同东北亚、南亚、中亚、中东、南太国家关系稳步增强,同东盟等地区组织合作不断拓展。与非洲、拉美等发展中国家团结合作持续深化,同非盟、拉共体等关系更加紧密。

Fourth, efforts have been redoubled to advance the agenda of China’s external work in all dimensions, at different levels, in various areas, and with multiple facets in order to forge a global network of partnerships. China has deepened its comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era and maintained a high level of strategic coordination with Russia. China has underscored the need for the United States to work with China in the same direction to build a relationship featuring no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. At the same time, China has fought resolutely to counter US rhetoric and action that undermine China’s interests, and firmly safeguarded China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests. China has strengthened communication and cooperation with European countries and the EU to foster China-EU partnerships for peace, growth, reform and civilization, deepen cooperation in such areas as climate change, environmental protection and the digital economy, and jointly uphold multilateralism. China has vigorously promoted friendship and cooperation with neighboring countries, steadily enhanced relations with countries in Northeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East and the South Pacific, and further expanded cooperation with ASEAN and other regional organizations. China has continued to deepen its solidarity and cooperation with developing countries in Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean, and forged closer ties with the African Union and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC).

第五,积极引领全球治理体系改革和建设,贡献中国智慧、中国理念、中国方案。习近平总书记在联合国大会等重大场合庄重宣示,中国坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系,坚定维护以国际法为基础的国际秩序,有力回击一些国家鼓吹的所谓“以规则为基础的国际秩序”。在和平安全、经济社会、生态文明、气候变化、文明互鉴等领域,习近平总书记全面阐述中国的国际秩序观、全球治理观、新安全观、新发展观、人权观、生态观、文明交流观等重要理念,强调大家的事情大家商量着办,坚决回击单边主义和霸凌行径,沉重打击“文明冲突论”、“种族优劣论”,有力引领了全球治理体系和国际秩序变革方向。习近平总书记在第75届联合国大会一般性辩论讲话中宣示中国碳达峰和碳中和目标,在气候雄心峰会上宣布中国国家自主贡献新举措,引领全球应对气候变化新征程。在中方推动和各方积极响应与共同努力下,亚洲基础设施投资银行、金砖国家新开发银行、丝路基金等机制得以创立,成为具有重要国际影响力的多边金融机构。我国积极推动朝鲜半岛、伊朗核、阿富汗等地区热点问题和平解决,深入参与海洋、极地、外空、反腐败等领域规则制定,深入开展国际反恐合作,彰显负责任大国担当。

Fifth, China has worked actively to take forward the reform and development of the global governance system by contributing to the world the China wisdom, China vision and China solution. At the UN General Assembly and on other important occasions, General Secretary Xi Jinping solemnly proclaimed China’s commitment to upholding the international system centered on the United Nations and the international order underpinned by international law, and fought back the so-called “rules-based international order” trumpeted by some countries. With regard to peace and security, economy and society, ecological advancement, climate change and mutual learning between civilizations, General Secretary Xi comprehensively outlined important concepts including China’s vision on international order and on global governance, new concepts on security and development, and concepts on human rights, on ecological conservation and on inter-civilization exchange. Stressing that matters concerning everyone should be handled through consultation, General Secretary Xi firmly rejected unilateralism and acts of bullying, effectively countered talks of “clash of civilizations” and of the superiority of one race over another, and pointed the way forward for the transformation of the global governance system and the international order. General Secretary Xi announced China’s goals for peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality at the General Debate of the 75th session of the UN General Assembly, and announced new measures for nationally determined contributions at the Climate Ambition Summit, thus leading the way to reinvigorate the global response to climate change. As a result of China’s initiative as well as the active response and joint efforts of various other parties, several mechanisms such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the BRICS New Development Bank (NDB) have been established and grown into multilateral financial institutions with major international influence. China has actively pursued peaceful settlement of regional hotspot issues like the Korean Peninsula issue, the Iranian nuclear issue and Afghanistan, stayed deeply involved in rules making in such areas as the ocean, the polar regions, outer space and the fight against corruption, and carried out international counter-terrorism cooperation, playing China’s due role as a responsible major country.

第六,有效防范化解各类风险挑战,坚定维护国家利益和民族尊严。在台湾、涉港、涉疆、涉藏、涉海、涉疫、人权等一系列重大问题上,敢斗善斗,坚定捍卫国家政治安全,坚定维护国家利益和民族尊严。在台湾问题上坚定维护一个中国原则,在涉港、涉疆、涉藏、人权等问题上打赢多场硬仗,决不允许任何外部势力干涉中国内政。有力应对海上侵权挑衅,维护南海大局稳定。坚决反对单边制裁和“长臂管辖”。践行外交为民理念,增强海外利益保障能力。深入参与世界贸易组织、国际货币基金组织、世界银行等国际机构改革,维护包括我国在内的发展中国家正当权益。

Sixth, effective steps have been taken to forestall and defuse risks and challenges of various sorts, in order to resolutely defend national interests and dignity. On such major issues as the Taiwan question and those related to Hong Kong, Xinjiang, Tibet, maritime affairs, Covid-19 and human rights, we have demonstrated both courage and capability to fight for China’s political security and safeguard national interests and dignity. We have firmly upheld the one-China principle on the Taiwan question, and won a number of tough battles over issues related to Hong Kong, Xinjiang, Tibet and human rights, leaving no chance for any external forces to meddle in China’s internal affairs. We have responded forcefully to infringements and provocations at sea to maintain overall stability in the South China Sea. We have resolutely opposed unilateral sanctions and “long-arm jurisdiction.” We have put into practice the principle of serving the people through diplomacy by building our capacity to safeguard our interests abroad. We have engaged deeply in the reform of international institutions including the WTO, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, in order to defend the legitimate rights and interests of China and other fellow developing countries.

第七,持续增进同世界各国交流互鉴。全面宣介习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想和习近平外交思想,向国际社会深入解读中国共产党的性质、宗旨和原则,阐明中国的道路制度、发展方向和战略意图,阐释中国构建新发展格局将为世界各国带来重要新机遇。全方位宣介我国疫情防控经验成效和对全球抗疫的积极贡献,加强同有关国家治国理政经验交流,倡导不同文明间平等对话、交流互鉴、共同发展。

Seventh, continuous efforts have been made to step up exchange and mutual learning with countries around the world. In communicating to the world Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, we have explained in great depth the very nature and fundamental purpose and principles of the CPC, expounded China’s path, system, direction of development and strategic intentions, and highlighted the important new opportunities that China’s new development dynamic will bring to countries around the world. We have shared with the world our experience and achievements in fighting Covid-19 and showcased our contributions to the global response. We have increased experience sharing on governance with relevant countries. And we have called for equal-footed dialogue, exchanges and mutual learning, and common development among civilizations.

第八,坚持外交大权在党中央,加强党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导。在中央全面深化改革总体部署下,中央外事工作领导小组改为中央外事工作委员会,加强外交外事工作的顶层设计、总体布局、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。在党中央集中统一领导下,政党、人大、政府、政协、军队、地方、人民团体等对外交往蓬勃开展,党总揽全局、协调各方的对外工作大协同局面不断巩固。

Eighth, the full authority of the Party Central Committee over foreign affairs has been upheld, and the centralized, unified leadership of the Central Committee over foreign-related work has been enhanced. In line with the Central Committee’s overall arrangement for comprehensively deepening reform, the Central Leading Group for Foreign Affairs has been reorganized as the Central Commission for Foreign Affairs to ensure top-level design, overall planning, better coordination, holistic advancement and solid implementation of foreign-related endeavors. Under the centralized, unified leadership of the Party Central Committee, foreign exchanges involving the Party, people’s congresses, the government, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the armed forces, local authorities, and people’s organizations have developed vigorously, and a synergized framework in which the Party exercises overall leadership and coordinates all aspects of foreign affairs has been steadily consolidated.

党的十八大以来,对外工作取得的历史性、开创性成就,根本在于习近平总书记的亲自指挥、亲自部署、亲力亲为,在于以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导和中国特色社会主义制度强大优势,在于习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想和习近平外交思想的科学指引,在于全党全国人民的同心同德共同奋斗。

Since its 18th National Congress, the Party has scored historic and pioneering achievements in external work. These achievements are fundamentally attributable to General Secretary Xi Jinping’s personal command, direction and commitment, to the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and the great strength of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, to the right guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, and to the concerted endeavor of the whole Party and the entire nation.

二、回顾建党百年来党的外交外事工作伟大光辉历程,我们得出以下主要经验与启示

II. Looking back at the glorious journey of the CPC’s foreign-related work over the past century since its founding, we have drawn the following important experience and inspiration.

(一)始终坚持马克思主义的指导地位,引领党的外交外事工作正确方向。习近平总书记指出,“我们党的历史,就是一部不断推进马克思主义中国化的历史,就是一部不断推进理论创新、进行理论创造的历史。”马克思主义的科学性和真理性也充分体现在党的外交外事工作中。我们党始终坚持以马克思主义基本原理分析把握国际形势和历史大势,坚持用马克思主义的世界观和方法论观察世界、认识世界、改造世界,正确处理中国与世界的关系,不断推进外交理念、实践和机制体制创新,逐步形成体现马克思主义立场观点方法、具有中国特色的外交理论体系。党的十八大以来,党的外交理论和实践创新进入新阶段新时期,形成了习近平外交思想,必将持续指引新时代中国特色大国外交不断向前迈进。

1. We must always uphold the guiding position of Marxism to steer the Party’s foreign-related work in the right direction.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has noted, “The history of the CPC is a history of constant adaptation of Marxism to the Chinese context, and a history of constant theoretical innovation and creation.” The truth and scientific nature of Marxism is amply reflected in the Party’s foreign-related work. The Party has always analyzed international developments and historical trends through the lens of the fundamental tenets of Marxism, and has always used the Marxist worldview and methodology to observe, understand and transform the world and to properly handle China’s relations with the rest of the world. It has constantly advanced innovation in diplomatic philosophy and practice as well as the systems and mechanisms for conducting foreign relations, thus gradually forming a system of diplomatic theories that both reflects the Marxist stand, viewpoint and method and has distinct Chinese features. Since the 18th National Congress, the Party’s innovation in theory and practice of foreign-related work has entered a new stage and new period, and Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy has been formed. This will continue to lead us toward new advances in major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

(二)始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,牢牢把握党的外交外事工作根本宗旨。习近平总书记强调,“我们党的百年历史,就是一部践行党的初心使命的历史,就是一部党与人民心连心、同呼吸、共命运的历史。”党的外交外事工作的根本出发点和落脚点就是坚持和贯彻全心全意为人民服务的宗旨,在外交外事工作中实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益。外交外事工作要通过推进党和国家事业发展不断满足人民群众对美好生活的向往,使人民群众从党的外交外事工作发展中不断增强获得感、幸福感、安全感。近年来我们多次在国际上发生政局突变、战乱动荡、重大自然灾害等情况下,采取果断有力措施保障海外中国公民安全,把党以人民为中心的执政理念切实贯彻到外交外事工作的方方面面。

2. We must always follow the people-centered development philosophy to firmly adhere to the fundamental purpose of the Party’s foreign-related work.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed, “The century-old history of the CPC is a history of fulfilling the Party’s founding mission, a history of breathing the same breath as the people, sharing the same future, and staying truly connected with them.” The fundamental purpose and goal of the Party in its foreign-related work is to serve the people wholeheartedly, and to realize, safeguard and develop the fundamental interests of the broadest majority of the Chinese people. Through contributing to the cause of the Party and the country, foreign-related work may help people meet their expectation for a better life, and get a stronger sense of benefit, happiness and security from the Party’s foreign-related work. In recent years, on multiple occasions of political upheaval, war and turmoil, and major natural disasters in other parts of the world, we have taken resolute and effective measures to protect the safety of Chinese nationals abroad to truly deliver on the Party’s people-centered governance philosophy in every aspect of foreign-related work.

(三)始终坚持围绕中心、服务大局,努力为国家发展安全营造有利外部环境。习近平总书记指出,要“统筹国内国际两个大局,统筹发展安全两件大事,牢牢把握坚持和平发展、促进民族复兴这条主线,维护国家主权、安全、发展利益,为和平发展营造更加有利的国际环境,维护和延长我国发展的重要战略机遇期,为实现‘两个一百年’奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供有力保障”。党的外交外事工作始终将为我国和平发展营造有利的国际环境作为根本任务。新中国成立以来,我们根据不同时期世界格局变化和国际形势特点,不断调整对外方针政策,服务党和国家中心任务。改革开放以来,我们积极融入世界经济体系,推动开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的经济全球化,倡导构建开放型世界经济,不断深化同世界各国经贸投资等领域合作。立足新发展阶段,外交外事工作要服务贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局、实现高质量发展,以扩大内需为战略基点,推动更大范围、更宽领域、更深层次的对外开放和互利合作,推动高质量共建“一带一路”行稳致远,不断塑造国际合作与竞争新优势。

3. We must always focus on the central tasks and serve the big-picture interests to foster an external environment favorable to China’s development and security.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed the importance to “take into account both the domestic and international imperatives, work on development and security as two top priorities, focus on the overriding theme of peaceful development and national rejuvenation, safeguard China’s sovereignty, security and development interests, endeavor to foster an international environment conducive to peaceful development, and preserve and extend the period of important strategic opportunity for China’s development, so as to provide solid guarantee for accomplishing the Two Centenary Goals and realizing the Chinese Dream of great national rejuvenation.” It has always been the fundamental task of the Party’s foreign-related work to foster an international environment favorable to China’s peaceful development. Since the founding of New China, we have constantly adjusted our foreign policies in light of the evolving international landscape and global trends in different periods to serve the central tasks of the Party and the country. Since the launch of reform and opening up, China has been actively integrated into the world economic system, promoted economic globalization that is open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial for all, championed the development of an open world economy, and deepened economic, trade, and investment cooperation with countries around the world. As China enters a new stage of development, foreign-related work must be oriented toward implementing the new development philosophy, fostering a new development dynamic, and achieving high-quality development. Focusing on the strategic priority of expanding domestic demand, we will pursue opening up and mutually beneficial cooperation in a larger scope, to wider areas and at deeper levels. We will promote steady and sustained high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, and foster new strengths in international cooperation and competition.

(四)始终坚持独立自主的外交政策,坚定不移走和平发展道路。习近平总书记指出,“走和平发展道路,是我们党根据时代发展潮流和我国根本利益作出的战略抉择。”我们始终不渝坚持独立自主的外交政策,从自身的国家属性、实力地位、所处国际环境出发制定和推行符合本国国情的对外方针政策。我们始终不渝走和平发展道路、奉行互利共赢的开放战略,在独立、自主、和平、互利的原则上不断完善外交布局,推进总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架,按照亲诚惠容理念和与邻为善、以邻为伴周边外交方针加强同周边国家睦邻友好关系,秉持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念增进同广大发展中国家团结合作,积极做好多边外交工作,不断打造和深化全球伙伴关系网络。

4. We must always adhere to an independent foreign policy and to the path of peaceful development.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that to “take the path of peaceful development is a strategic choice of the CPC made in line with the trend of the times and China’s fundamental interests.” We have unswervingly followed an independent foreign policy, and formulated and promoted foreign policies suitable to China’s conditions on the basis of China’s own national attributes, position and strength, and the international environment. We have unswervingly pursued the path of peaceful development and a win-win strategy of opening up, and steadily advanced our diplomatic agenda based on the principles of independence, peace and mutual benefit. We have worked to foster a framework of major-country relations featuring overall stability and balanced development, strengthened good neighborliness and friendly relations with neighboring countries according to the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness and the policy of forging friendship and partnership with neighboring countries, enhanced solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries by prioritizing the greater good over our own interests and following the principle of sincerity, real results, amity and good faith, and actively engaged in multilateral diplomacy to build and deepen a global network of partnerships with other countries.

(五)始终坚持斗争精神,敢于斗争,善于斗争,坚定维护国家主权、安全、发展利益。习近平总书记强调,“我们要坚持走和平发展道路,但决不能放弃我们的正当权益,决不能牺牲国家核心利益。任何外国不要指望我们会拿自己的核心利益做交易,不要指望我们会吞下损害我国主权、安全、发展利益的苦果。”面对国际风云变幻和外部风险挑战,我们党始终坚持斗争精神,始终坚持贯彻总体国家安全观,统筹发展和安全两件大事,全力维护国家根本利益。今后中国越是发展壮大,我们遇到的各种阻力和风险就会越突出,维护国家主权、安全、发展利益的任务就越艰巨繁重,就越要开展具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争。

5. We must preserve the fighting spirit and always be prepared and skillful in responding to various challenges to resolutely defend China’s sovereignty, security and development interests.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized, “While adhering to peaceful development, we will never relinquish our legitimate rights and interests, or allow China’s core interests to be compromised. No country should ever expect China to trade off its core interests or swallow the bitter fruit that undermines its sovereignty, security and development interests.” In the face of a constantly shifting international environment and external risks and challenges, the Party has always kept up its fighting spirit, always taken a holistic approach to national security and coordinated the development and security imperatives, and has spared no effort to uphold China’s fundamental interests. As China continues to grow stronger, we are to encounter still greater obstacles and risks and face even more arduous tasks in upholding our sovereignty, security and development interests. This makes it all the more imperative that we undertake a great struggle with many new features of the times.

(六)始终坚持站在发展中国家一边,不断巩固与发展中国家的团结合作。习近平总书记指出,“我国是世界最大发展中国家的国际地位没有变”,“中国坚持把发展中国家作为对外政策的基础,坚持正确义利观,永远做发展中国家的可靠朋友和真诚伙伴”。坚持发展中国家定位既是党的基本路线和我国的现实国情决定的,也是今后一个时期我们对外工作中必须牢牢把握的重要方针。我国将长期同发展中国家携手并肩,实现共同发展、共同繁荣。

6. We must always stand alongside developing countries and steadily enhance solidarity and cooperation with developing countries.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has observed that “China’s international status as the world’s largest developing country has not changed” and that “China always takes developing countries as the foundation of its foreign policy. China will place the greater good above its own interests, and always remain a reliable friend and sincere partner for other developing countries.” To uphold China’s developing-country status is required by the Party’s basic line as well as the country’s actual condition, and it is also an important policy that we will firmly adhere to in foreign-related work for the coming period. Over the long term, China will continue to stand hand in hand and shoulder to shoulder with other developing countries to realize common development and shared prosperity.

(七)始终坚持实事求是,锐意开拓创新,推动党的外交外事工作不断开创新局面。习近平总书记指出,“实事求是,是马克思主义的根本观点,是中国共产党人认识世界、改造世界的根本要求,是我们党的基本思想方法、工作方法、领导方法”,开拓创新“永远是中国共产党人应该具有的历史担当”。实事求是、开拓创新是我们党的事业不断取得新成就的重要法宝,也是我们党外交外事工作理论和实践与时俱进、守正出新的重要原则。我们党始终从中国人民和世界人民共同利益出发,立足不断发展变化的国际形势,根据事情本身的是非曲直来确定对外方针政策,不断摸索和总结规律性认识和方法,承前启后,继往开来,开创了中国特色大国外交新局面。

7. We must always seek truth from facts and continue to pioneer and innovate to open up new horizons in the Party’s foreign-related work.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has noted that “seeking truth from facts is a fundamental tenet of Marxism, as well as an absolute requirement on Chinese Communists as they work to understand and transform the world, and a basic approach by which the CPC should think, work and lead” and that “pioneering and innovating is always a historical duty that Chinese Communists shall take upon themselves.” Seeking truth from facts, pioneering and innovating are the real secrets behind the Party’s continued success. They are also the important principles for ensuring that the Party’s diplomatic theories and practice keep up with the times, are carried forward and make steady new progress. The Party establishes China’s foreign policies by always acting on the common interests of the Chinese people and people around the world, taking into consideration the evolving international situation, and making judgment on the real merit of each matter concerned. Through exploring and summarizing the underlying laws and methods of foreign-related work, the Party has built on past experience and broken new ground in advancing major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

(八)始终坚持统筹维护自身利益与促进世界共同发展,推动构建人类命运共同体。习近平总书记强调,“中国共产党始终把为人类作出新的更大的贡献作为自己的使命”,“我们呼吁,各国人民同心协力,构建人类命运共同体,建设持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界”。我们党是为中国人民谋幸福的政党,也是为人类进步事业而奋斗的政党。中国共产党和中国人民始终是世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者,坚定支持联合国在国际事务中的核心作用,坚定维护联合国宪章的宗旨和原则。正是基于我们党一贯的崇高理想和追求,我们要始终高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,始终站在时代潮流前列,同各国一道把人类和平与发展的崇高事业推向前进,这反映了世界各国谋和平、求发展、促合作、图共赢的普遍心声。

8. We must always integrate efforts to uphold China’s interests with those to promote common development of the world, and work for a community with a shared future for mankind.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has underlined that “to make new and greater contributions to mankind is our Party’s abiding mission” and that “we call on the people of all countries to work together to build a community with a shared future for mankind, and to build an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity.” The CPC is a political party that strives for the well-being of the Chinese people and for the cause of progress of mankind. The Party and the Chinese people are a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development, and a defender of the international order. We firmly support the UN’s central role in international affairs, and firmly uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. Guided by the Party’s lofty ideals and lasting pursuit, we will always hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, always stand at the forefront of the times, and always work with other countries to advance the noble cause of peace and development for mankind. This accords with the common aspiration of all countries for peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit.

(九)始终坚持团结一切可以团结的力量。习近平总书记指出,中国“坚定不移在和平共处五项原则基础上发展同各国的友好合作,推动建设相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的新型国际关系”。我们秉持“志同道合是伙伴,求同存异也是伙伴”,我国同世界各国和各地区的伙伴关系不断发展。我们不以意识形态划线,不搞“小圈子”,坚持以共同利益为纽带、以合作共赢为原则发展同世界各国友好合作关系,我们的朋友遍天下。

9. We must always work to unite all forces that can be united.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has made it clear that “China remains firm in its commitment to strengthening friendly and cooperative relations with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and to forging a new form of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice, and win-win cooperation.” Guided by the belief that while those sharing the same ideal and following the same path are partners, those seeking common ground and shelving differences are also partners, China has steadily developed partnerships with countries and regions around the world. We do not draw lines along ideology or form exclusive blocs. Instead, we are committed to developing friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of shared interests and win-win cooperation. Such an approach has won us more and more friends the world over.

(十)始终坚持建设一支忠于党、忠于国家、忠于人民,政治坚定、业务精湛、作风过硬、纪律严明的外交外事干部队伍。习近平总书记强调,外交外事干部队伍要永葆对党忠诚、为国奉献的赤子心,永葆开拓奋进、担当有为的事业心,永葆主动学习、自我革新的进取心,永葆党要管党、从严治党的责任心。习近平总书记非常关心和重视外交外事干部队伍建设,在2018年中央外事工作会议上,强调在新形势下要建设好对外工作队伍,加强理想信念教育,提高外交外事干部队伍的专业能力和综合素质,勉励全体外交外事工作者再接再厉、埋头苦干,展现新气象新作为,开辟新局面新境界,不断谱写新时代中国特色大国外交新篇章。多年来,一代又一代外交外事干部忠于党、忠于国家、忠于人民,甘于奉献,忘我工作,为我们党和国家、为祖国人民作出了重要贡献。

10. We must always emphasize the importance of cultivating a strong contingent for foreign-related work that are loyal to the Party, the country and the people, and are politically solid, professionally competent, have high integrity and are strictly disciplined.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized that those engaged in foreign-related work must always keep a sense of dedication to remain loyal to the Party and to the service of the country, a sense of enterprise to keep making new headway and active contribution, a sense of initiative to embrace constant learning and self-reform, and a sense of responsibility to exercise Party self-governance and rigorous Party discipline. General Secretary Xi Jinping cares deeply about and attaches great importance to the building of a strong contingent for foreign-related work. At the Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs in 2018, he highlighted the importance of building such a contingent in external work under new circumstances by intensifying education on ideals and beliefs, and by boosting professional competence and overall preparedness. He encouraged all those engaged in foreign-related work to redouble their efforts and work in real earnest, demonstrate new morale and break new ground, and write a new chapter in China’s major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Over the years, generation after generation of people engaged in foreign-related work, with utmost loyalty to the Party, the country and the people and through selfless dedication, have worked unremittingly and contributed a significant part to the cause of the Party, the country and our people.

归根结底,最重要的一条经验就是,始终坚持党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导,这是百年来党的外交外事工作披荆斩棘、攻坚克难,不断从一个胜利走向又一个胜利的根本保证。历史和实践反复证明,唯有始终坚持党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导,我们才能在国际风云变幻中始终牢牢把握外交外事工作的正确方向;只有始终坚持党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导,我们才能在重大历史关头和关键节点统一思想、统一行动,坚定信心、保持定力,临危不惧、勇毅前行;只有始终坚持党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导,我们才能在面对各种复杂局面和艰难险阻时通盘谋划、统筹协调,凝聚各方力量和资源打赢对外斗争攻坚战持久战;只有始终坚持党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导,我们才能更好统筹国内国际两个大局、发展安全两件大事,以更宽广的战略视野推进党和国家中心工作取得新的更大成就。总之,只要毫不动摇坚持党中央对外交外事工作的集中统一领导,坚决做到“两个维护”,我们就一定能够战胜前进道路上的一切艰难险阻,就一定能够实现中华民族伟大复兴的历史伟业。

In the final analysis, of all the experience we have gained, the most important is unswerving commitment to the Party Central Committee’s centralized, unified leadership. This has provided the fundamental guarantee for the Party’s foreign-related work to triumph over all difficulties and secure one victory after another through the past century. History and reality have both proven time and again the utmost importance of unswerving commitment to the Central Committee’s centralized, unified leadership over foreign-related work. Only with unswerving commitment to the Central Committee’s centralized, unified leadership over foreign-related work can we keep to the right direction in a changing international environment; can we stay united in mind and action, remain confident and focused, and forge ahead with courage and determination at major historical junctures and in critical moments; can we ensure holistic planning and coordination and bring together all strengths and resources available to fight tough and protracted diplomatic struggles in the face of complex and challenging situations; can we better coordinate the domestic and international imperatives as well as the development and security priorities, and gain an even broader strategic perspective so as to score still greater achievements in the central tasks of the Party and the country. In short, as long as we stay firmly committed to the Party Central Committee’s centralized, unified leadership over foreign-related work, firmly uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position in both the Party Central Committee and the Party as a whole, and firmly uphold the authority and centralized, unified leadership of the Party Central Committee, we will undoubtedly overcome any difficulty or obstacle on our way ahead and accomplish the historic mission of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

三、当前和今后一个时期对外工作

III. External work at the current stage and in the period to come

新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行推动世界大变局加速演进,国际关系持续深度调整,国际形势不稳定性不确定性上升,世界进入动荡变革期。世界主要力量加快战略调整,国际环境中变乱交织的因素更趋突出。与此同时,世界发展的总体趋势和方向并未改变,和平与发展仍是时代主题,繁荣稳定、合作共赢仍是国际社会人心所向。构建人类命运共同体和新型国际关系,维护和践行多边主义,契合时代发展潮流,符合各国共同利益,赢得国际社会越来越多理解和支持。

The Covid-19 pandemic has precipitated the momentous changes taking place in the world. International relations are undergoing continued and profound realignment. Global uncertainty and instability are on the rise. The world has entered a period of turbulence and transformation. Major global forces are speeding up strategic readjustment. And the interplay between change and unrest in the global landscape has become more evident. On the other hand, the general trend and direction of global development remain unchanged. Peace and development are still the theme of our times, and the international community still desires prosperity, stability, and win-win cooperation. China’s efforts to build a community with a shared future for mankind, to foster a new type of international relations, and to uphold and practice multilateralism are in line with the trend of the times and tally with the interests of all countries, and have won more and more recognition and support from the international community.

今年是中国共产党百年华诞,也是全面贯彻落实“十四五”规划和2035年远景目标开局之年。对外工作要坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想和习近平外交思想为指导,统筹国内国际两个大局、发展安全两件大事,立足新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,实现高质量发展,高举构建人类命运共同体旗帜,坚持正确的历史观、大局观和角色观,增强机遇意识和风险意识,准确识变、科学应变、主动求变,在危机中育先机、于变局中开新局,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家全力营造良好外部环境。

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC. It is also the first year to comprehensively implement the 14th Five-Year Plan and the Long-Range Goals through 2035. In conducting our external work, we must follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, take a coordinated approach to the domestic and international imperatives as well as the development and security interests, keep in mind China’s new development stage, follow the new development philosophy, foster a new development dynamic, and pursue high-quality development. We shall continue to champion the cause of building a community with a shared future for mankind, and maintain a correct outlook on history, on the bigger picture and on the role of our country. We shall sharpen our awareness of risks and opportunities, accurately recognize change, skillfully respond to change, and take the initiative to adapt to change. We shall seize opportunities amid crises and open up new horizons on a shifting landscape, and do our very best to create a sound external environment for fully building a modern socialist country at home.

(一)发挥元首外交战略统领作用,通盘考虑、综合运筹对外工作。我们要以习近平总书记出席的系列重大对外活动为主线,引领带动全方位对外工作。充分发挥习近平总书记出席世界经济论坛“达沃斯议程”对话会、博鳌亚洲论坛2021年年会开幕式、领导人气候峰会并发表重要讲话的积极效应,精心筹备出席二十国集团领导人峰会等重要多边会议,全力做好中国共产党成立一百周年系列庆祝活动涉外工作,办好第二届联合国全球可持续交通大会、联合国《生物多样性公约》第十五次缔约方大会等大型涉外活动。

1. We will leverage the leading role of head-of-state diplomacy to make holistic, coordinated plans for external work.

We will follow the main theme of events attended by General Secretary Xi Jinping to steerexternal work across the board. We will fully tap into the positive effects of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s attendance and remarks at the World Economic Forum Virtual Event of the Davos Agenda, the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021 and the Leaders Summit on Climate, and make well-thought arrangements for General Secretary Xi’s attendance at the G20 Summit and other important multilateral gatherings. We will spare no effort in ensuring success of the foreign-related aspect of commemorations marking the Party’s centenary, and play a good host to major multilateral events such as the second UN Global Sustainable Transport Conference and COP15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

(二)推动全方位对外开放合作,服务构建新发展格局。坚持创新驱动发展,加强国际科技交流合作。进一步深化改革扩大开放,优化营商环境,推动国内国际双循环相互促进。推动共建“一带一路”高质量发展,加快建设健康、数字、绿色丝绸之路。继续发挥好服贸会、进博会、广交会等重要平台作用。深化多双边和区域经贸合作,构建面向全球的高标准自贸区网络。深化同各国抗疫合作,共促全球经济复苏。

2. We will pursue all-round opening up and cooperation to facilitate the fostering of a new development dynamic.

We will remain committed to innovation-driven development, and bolster international cooperation and exchanges on science and technology. We will further deepen reform and expand opening up, improve the business environment, and promote the mutual reinforcement of the domestic and international circulations. We will advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, and move faster to build a Silk Road for health, a digital Silk Road and a green Silk Road. We will continue to make good use of such important platforms as the CIFTIS, the CIIE, and China Import and Export Fair (Canton Fair). We will deepen bilateral, multilateral and regional economic and trade cooperation, and build a network of high-standard, globally-oriented free trade areas. We will deepen cooperation with other countries on pandemic response and jointly promote global economic recovery.

(三)坚持系统观念,深化完善全方位外交布局。以庆祝《中俄睦邻友好合作条约》签署20周年为契机,强化中俄新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系。敦促美方根据两国元首通话精神,同中方相向而行,共同秉持不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的原则,深入开展气候变化等领域合作,推动中美关系健康稳定发展。加强中欧协调合作,深化气候变化、数字经济等领域合作。做好周边国家工作,推进互利合作,推动中国—东盟关系提质升级。以中非、中阿、中拉论坛等机制为引领,全方位拓展同发展中国家团结合作。妥善处理朝鲜半岛、伊朗核、阿富汗等国际和地区热点问题。

3. We will follow a systemic approach to advance China’s diplomatic agenda on all fronts.

We will seize the 20th anniversary of the Treaty of Good-neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation between China and Russia to strengthen the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era. We urge the United States to follow through on the spirit of the telephone conversation between the two presidents, work in the same direction with China, jointly observe the principle of no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation, and carry out in-depth cooperation in areas like climate change to promote sound and steady development of China-US relations. We will enhance coordination and cooperation with Europe, and deepen cooperation in climate change, digital economy and other areas. We will pursue sound interactions with neighboring countries, promote mutually beneficial cooperation, and work for an upgraded relationship with ASEAN. We will leverage the pace-setting role of such mechanisms as FOCAC, the China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, and the China-CELAC Forum to expand solidarity and cooperation with all developing countries. We will appropriately handle regional and international hotspots such as the Korean Peninsula issue, the Iranian nuclear issue and Afghanistan.

(四)坚定维护国家主权、安全、发展利益。坚决挫败国际反华势力图谋,确保政权安全和制度安全。坚决打好台湾、涉港、涉疆、涉藏、涉疫、人权等问题主动仗。坚定维护我领土主权和海洋权益,维护地区局势和大国关系总体稳定。加大国际反恐和执法合作,维护我国海外公民和企业合法权益。

4. We will resolutely safeguard China’s sovereignty, security and development interests.

We will thwart the plots of international forces conspiring against China so as to safeguard the security and integrity of our political authority and our system. We will take proactive steps to win diplomatic battles related to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Xinjiang, Tibet, Covid-19 and human rights. We will uphold China’s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, and maintain overall stability in the region and in relations with other major countries. We will step up international counter-terrorism and law-enforcement cooperation, and protect the lawful rights and interests of Chinese citizens and businesses overseas.

(五)推动全球治理体系改革和建设。继续坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系和以国际法为基础的国际秩序,坚定维护联合国宪章宗旨和原则,推进真正的多边主义,既要坚持多边主义的核心价值和基本原则,也要在广泛协商、凝聚共识基础上改革和完善全球治理体系。坚决反对以意识形态划线搞“小圈子”,坚决反对以多边主义之名行单边主义之实。积极引领世界贸易组织改革方向,坚持我国发展中国家定位,坚定维护多边贸易机制。积极参与世界卫生组织改革进程,深入参与全球公共卫生治理,推动构建人类卫生健康共同体落地。继续加强亚洲基础设施投资银行、金砖国家新开发银行、丝路基金等新机制建设。积极推动国际气候变化合作,参与网络、深海、极地、外空等国际治理。

5. We will promote reform and development of the global governance system.

We will continue to safeguard the international system centered on the UN and the international order based on international law, uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and promote true multilateralism by honoring the core values and basic principles of multilateralism while reforming and improving the global governance system on the basis of extensive consultation and consensus-building. We oppose the forming of exclusive blocs along ideological lines, and are against acts of practicing unilateralism in the name of multilateralism. We will actively steer the direction of WTO reform, uphold China’s status as a developing country, and safeguard the multilateral trading system. We will take an active part in the reform process of the World Health Organization, engage deeply in global public health governance, and work for a global community of health for all. We will continue to strengthen new mechanisms such as the AIIB, the NDB, and the Silk Road Fund. We will vigorously promote international climate cooperation, and take part in international governance initiatives related to cyberspace, the deep sea, the polar regions and outer space.

我国实现全面建成小康社会的第一个百年奋斗目标胜利在望,全面建设社会主义现代化国家的新征程已经开启。我们要增强“四个意识”,坚定“四个自信”,做到“两个维护”,坚决贯彻落实习近平总书记重要指示精神和党中央决策部署,更加开拓进取,奋发有为,不断开创新时代中国特色大国外交新局面,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家开好局、起好步提供有力保障,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦作出新的更大贡献,以优异成绩庆祝建党一百周年。

China is set to accomplish the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and has already started a new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. We will strengthen our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core and keep in alignment, enhance confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position in both the Party Central Committee and the Party as a whole as well as the authority and centralized, unified leadership of the Party Central Committee. We will resolutely follow through on General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important instructions and the Party Central Committee’s decisions and plans, work with even greater initiative and enthusiasm, and keep breaking new ground in China’s major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era, all in an effort to provide strong support for a good start in fully building a modern socialist country, make new and greater contributions toward the Chinese dream of great national rejuvenation, and score even more remarkable achievements in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China.

Notes:

1. The Four Cardinal Principles are: keeping to the socialist road, upholding the people’s democratic dictatorship, upholding leadership by the Communist Party, and upholding Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought.

2. The ten core principles are: upholding the authority of the CPC Central Committee as the overarching principle and strengthening the Party’s centralized, unified leadership over external work; advancing major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics to fulfill the mission of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation; building a community with a shared future for mankind with a view to defending world peace and promoting common development; enhancing strategic confidence based on the foundation of socialism with Chinese characteristics; promoting Belt and Road cooperation under the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits; pursuing peaceful development on the basis of mutual respect and win-win cooperation; fostering global partnerships by pursuing a broad-based diplomatic agenda; steering the reform of the global governance system under the principle of fairness and justice; upholding national sovereignty, security and development interests with China’s core interests as a red line; and developing a distinctive Chinese style of diplomacy by both drawing on fine traditions and adapting to the changing times.

3. The six initiatives are: harmony between man and Nature, green development, systemic governance, a people-centered approach, multilateralism, and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.


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chinesewuyi 发表于 2021-7-27 19:40:57
谢谢您的分享!
xcxia 发表于 6 天前
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