英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索

强迫症到底是怎么回事?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2021-7-16 02:11| 查看数: 61| 评论数: 1|



There's a common misconception

有个常见的误解

that if you like to meticulously organize your things,

如果你喜欢一丝不苟的整理你的东西

keep your hands clean,

经常洗手

or plan out your weekend to the last detail,

或者无微不至的计划你的周末

you might have OCD.

你就可能有强迫症。

In fact, OCD, which stands for obsessive compulsive disorder,

事实上,强迫症的全名是强迫性神经官能症,

is a serious psychiatric condition

是一个经常被社会

that is frequently misunderstood by society

和心理健康专业人士

and mental health professionals alike.

误解的精神疾病

So let's start by debunking some myths.

我们今天就破解一下关于强迫症的謎思

Myth one: repetitive or ritualistic behaviors are synonymous with OCD.

謎思之一:重复或仪式性的行为是强迫症的同义词

As its name suggests,

顾名思义

obsessive compulsive disorder has two aspects:

强迫性神经官能症包含了两方面:

the intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, known as obsessions,

内在的想法、印象、或者冲动,又称为强迫思维,

and the behavioral compulsions people engage in

以及为了疏缓这种强迫思维导致的不安,

to relieve the anxiety the obsessions cause.

而作出的强迫性行为。

The kinds of actions that people often associate with OCD,

一提起强迫症,大家通常联想起

like excessive hand washing,or checking things repeatedly,

比如频繁的洗手,或者一而再地查看着东西。

may be examples of obsessive or compulsive tendencies

可能为有强迫性行为倾向的表现

that many of us exhibit from time to time.

大部分的人偶而会有这种行为。

But the actual disorder is far more rare and can be quite debilitating.

但是真正的病症極为罕见而且会令患者十分虚弱。

People affected have little or no control over their obsessive thoughts

受影响的患者无法控制自己的

and compulsive behaviors,

强迫性想法和行为

which tend to be time consuming

这不仅耗费时间

and interfere with work, school or social life

还会影响工作,学习和社交生活

to the point of causing significant distress.

甚至会导致严重的忧虑

This set of diagnostic criteria is what separates people suffering from OCD

这一系列的诊断标准将强迫症患者

from those who may just be a bit more meticulous

和比常人更一丝不苟或注意清洁的的正常人

or hygiene obsessed than usual.

区分开来。

Myth two: the main symptom of OCD is excessive hand washing.

謎思之二:强迫症的一大症状为太常洗手

Although hand washing is the most common image of OCD in popular culture,

虽然洗手是大多数人眼中的典型强迫症表现

obsessions and compulsions can take many different forms.

强迫思维和行为是多种多样的

Obsessions can manifest as fears of contamination and illness,

强迫思维主要体现为对污染和疾病的极度恐惧

worries about harming others,

担心伤害到其他人,

or preoccupations with numbers, patterns, morality, or sexual identity.

或者对数字、图案、道德、性别认定的过分执着

And compulsions can range from excessive cleaning or double checking,

强迫性行为可以从过度清洁到反复检查,

to the fastidious arrangement of objects,

到对物体过分苛刻的安排,

or walking in predetermined patterns.

或是走在一定的图形上。

Myth three:

謎思之三:

individuals with OCD don't understand that they are acting irrationally.

有强迫症的人不知道自己表现的很不寻常。

Many individuals with OCD actually understand the relationship

许多有强迫症的人其实理解自己的

between their obsessions and compulsions quite well.

癖好和强烈衝动的关系。

Being unable to avoid these thoughts and actions

尽管他们意识到它的不合理性,

despite being aware of their irrationality

还是无法避免那些想法和行为,

is part of the reason why OCD is so distressing.

这是强迫症使人 痛苦的原因之一

OCD sufferers report feeling crazy

强迫症患者称自己像发了疯一样

for experiencing anxiety based on irrational thoughts

因为不理性的想法而焦躁不安

and finding it difficult to control their responses.

可是又无法控制自己的反应。

So what exactly causes OCD?

究竟是什么导致了强迫症?

The frustrating answer is we don't really know.

让人灰心的答案是我们并不楚清。

However, we have some important clues.

但是我们有一些很重要的线索。

OCD is considered a neurobiological disorder.

强迫症被认为是神经错乱。

In other words, research suggests that OCD sufferers brains

换句话说,研究发现强迫症的大脑

are actually hardwired to behave in a certain fashion.

其实被某种一定的方式所限制。

Research has implicated three regions of the brain

研究发现三个大脑区块

variously involved in social behavior and complex cognitive planning,

有很多种的社会行为和复杂认知,

voluntary movement,

以及自主性动作

and emotional and motivational responses.

感情和动机反应。

The other piece of the puzzle

另一个误区

is that OCD is associated with low levels of serotonin,

是强迫症与低血清素相关,

a neurotransmitter that communicates between brain structures

血清素是一个可以在大脑结构中交流

and helps regulate vital processes,

并且帮助控制如情绪,好斗,

such as mood, aggression, impulse control,

脉冲控制,睡眠,

sleep, appetite, body temperature and pain.

食欲,身体温度和疼痛等重要过程的神经传递素。

But are serotonin and activity in these brain regions the sources of OCD

但是血清素和大脑区块活动是否为强迫症的起因

or symptoms of an unknown underlying cause of the disorder.

或者其他不知原因的症状暗藏着病因。

We probably won't know until

直到我们对大脑更理解之前

we have a much more intimate understanding of the brain.

可能不得而知了。

The good news is there are effective treatments for OCD,

好消息是已经有有效的强迫症疗法了

including medications, which increase serotonin in the brain

包括可以增加大脑血清素的药物

by limiting its reabsorption by brain cells,

从而阻止大脑细胞的再吸收,

behavioral therapy that gradually desensitizes patients to their anxieties,

逐渐使患者对焦虑麻木的行为疗法,

and in some cases, electroconvulsive therapy,

有的时候甚至用电痉挛疗法,

or surgery, when OCD doesn't respond to other forms of treatment.

或者当其他疗法没反应时就做手术。

Knowing that your own brain is lying to you

知道你的大脑在对你撒谎,

while not being able to resist its commands can be agonizing.

但却无法拒抗它的指令是很苦恼的。

But with knowledge and understanding comes the power to seek help,

但是有了知识与理解也就有求助的力量

and future research into the brain

以及未来对大脑的研究

may finally provide the answers we're looking for.

或许最终能给我们想要的答案。


最新评论

inguangzhou 发表于 2021-7-16 11:08:30
Thanks a million!
快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表