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王毅同美国对外关系委员会视频交流致辞全文

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2021-4-28 01:58| 查看数: 370| 评论数: 0|

聚焦合作 管控分歧 推动中美关系重回健康稳定发展轨道

Focusing on Cooperation and Managing Differences: Bringing China-U.S. Relations Back to the Track of Sound and Steady Development

——王毅国务委员兼外长同美国对外关系委员会视频交流致辞全文

– Remarks by H.E. Wang Yi, State Councilor and Foreign Minister of the People’s Republic of China, at the Virtual Dialogue with the Council on Foreign Relations

2021年4月23日

23 April 2021


                               
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各位朋友,女士们、先生们:

Friends,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

哈斯会长是我的老朋友,我很愿意应他的邀请同美国对外关系委员会(CFR)的朋友们视频交流。首先,我要借此机会对CFR成立100周年表示热烈祝贺。CFR见证一个世纪来的世界风云变幻,也为推动中美关系发展作出重要贡献。尤其是在当前中美关系面临困难的时刻,我们期待CFR秉持客观公正立场,为推动中美关系重回正轨继续发挥建设性作用。

Ambassador Richard Haass is my old friend. And I happily accepted his invitation to exchange views with friends from the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) via video link. First of all, let me take this opportunity to express warm congratulations on the Council’s 100th anniversary. Over the century, the CFR has witnessed the vicissitudes of the world and made important contributions to China-U.S. relations. Given the current difficulties in bilateral relations, we hope that the CFR will uphold an objective and just position and continue to play a constructive role in bringing China-U.S. relations back to the right track.

各位朋友,中美两国元首在中国春节除夕的重要通话为两国关系指明了大方向,安克雷奇对话开启了疫情背景下两国高层面对面互动。近日,中美还就应对气候危机发表联合声明。昨天,习近平主席应拜登总统邀请出席领导人气候峰会,展现了中美携手应对全球性挑战的担当。但我们也注意到,美国新政府把中国定位为“最严峻的竞争者”,美方仍在涉台、涉疆、涉港等问题上粗暴干涉中国内政。坦率地讲,美国的对华政策还没有走出上届政府的阴影,还没有走出对华认知的误区,还没有找到与中国打交道的正确路径。我愿从战略层面谈几点看法,供大家参考:

Friends,

The Presidents of the two countries had an important phone conversation on the eve of the Chinese New Year, charting the course for the relationship. The Anchorage dialogue kicked off face-to-face interactions at the high level in the context of COVID-19. Our two countries recently issued a Joint Statement Addressing the Climate Crisis. Yesterday, President Xi Jinping attended the Leaders Summit on Climate at the invitation of President Joe Biden, demonstrating the sense of responsibility of our two countries in joining hands to tackle global challenges. At the same time, we have noted that the new U.S. administration has described China as its “most serious competitor”. The United States still interferes in China’s internal affairs, including Taiwan, Xinjiang and Hong Kong-related matters. To be frank, the United States, in shaping its China policy, has not stepped out of the shadow of the previous administration, has not got over its misperception of China, and has not found the right way to engage with China. With this in mind, I’d like to share with you the following points from a strategic perspective.

第一,希望美国客观认识和理性对待中国的发展。

First, we hope that the United States will view China’s development in an objective and rational way.

中国坚持走和平发展道路,坚持同世界各国和平相处、合作共赢,从不谋求世界霸权,我们将走出一条与传统大国轨迹不同的和平崛起之路。中国数千年积累的历史智慧是“国霸必衰”,而不是“国强必霸”。中国发展振兴靠的是自身努力,而非侵略扩张。中国所做的一切努力都是为了本国人民过上更加幸福的生活,而不是要取代谁、打败谁。

China is committed to a path of peaceful development, one that underlines peaceful coexistence and mutually beneficial cooperation with countries around the world. China never seeks global hegemony. China will blaze a path of peaceful rise distinct from the trajectory of traditional powers. The wisdom from China’s millennia of history is that hegemony will lead to failure, and that a strong country should not seek hegemony. China pursues development and rejuvenation through its own hard work, instead of aggression or expansion. In everything we do, we do it for a better life for the Chinese people, rather than seeking to replace or unseat any other country.

美国有种论调认为“中国不尊重美国了”。事实上,最提倡相互尊重、平等相待的就是中国。我们强调“平视”,要的就是一个平等。既不是俯视,也不必仰视,不能谁块头大、拳头硬就说了算。我们不认为这个世界上有高人一等的国家,不接受热衷从所谓“实力”出发,对其他国家发号施令。无论国家还是个人,都应该通过自己的努力去赢得尊重。大国更应该从自己做起,讲道义、守规矩,发挥榜样的力量。

Some in the United States claim that China does not respect the United States any more. As a matter of fact, it is China that values mutual respect and equality the most. When we stress “looking at each other on an equal level”, we mean nothing but equality. It is neither looking down, or looking up. Stronger muscles and bigger fists should not be the decisive factor. There is no superior country in this world, and we do not accept that any country can dictate to others from a position of strength. Respect is to be earned with hard work, be it a country or a person. Major countries in particular should uphold justice and observe norms, and lead by the power of example.

美方反复强调“不要赌美国输”。这其实反映了一种零和心态,中国从不对别国下赌注。世界是一个地球村,我们期待美国疫情防控尽快取得成效,经济实现全面复苏。中美一方的成功并不意味着另外一方必须失败,世界容得下一个更好的中国和更好的美国。美方要保持信心,不必疑神疑鬼。哈佛大学约瑟夫·奈教授提出,美国要避免夸大对华恐惧,导致过度反应。

The U.S. side repeatedly said that one should “never bet against America”. This, in fact, is a zero-sum mentality. China never bets against other countries. In this global village, China welcomes early progress in COVID response and full economic recovery in the United States. The success of one side does not mean that the other side has to fail. The world is big enough to accommodate a more successful China and a more successful America. The United States needs to stay confident, rather than suspicious. As Harvard Professor Joseph Nye said, America must avoid exaggerated fears, which can lead to overreaction.

我们注意到,拜登政府表示把施政重点放在解决美国国内问题、服务美国工薪阶层上。解决好自身的问题,美国就会保持活力。而动辄转嫁责任,抱怨他人,甚至要与世界第二大经济体脱钩,与14亿中国人民对抗,不仅无助于美国解决面临的各种矛盾,还会把这个世界搞乱。美国经济界人士就明确表示,“承受不起被挡在中国市场之外的后果”。

We noted that the Biden administration stated that it would prioritize domestic issues and focus on serving the American working class. When the domestic issues are effectively addressed, the United States will maintain its vitality. Shifting blames to others, or even decoupling from the world’s second largest economy and turning against the 1.4 billion Chinese people will not help solve America’s problems. It will cause chaos in the world. The U.S. business community has made a clear point that they cannot afford to be locked out of the China market.

第二,希望美国同中国走出和平共处、合作共赢的新路。

Second, we hope that the United States will work with China to explore a new path of peaceful co-existence and mutually beneficial cooperation.

中美要秉持不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的精神,积极探索两个社会制度不同大国的和平共处之道。美方以“竞争、合作、对抗”三分法来定义中美关系,没有分清中美关系的主流和支流,缺乏努力的方向和目标。首先,我们无意与美国竞争,中国重视的是不断超越自我,提升自我。其次,如果突出对抗,结局必定是双输,这不应成为美对华政策的导向。只有合作,才是应当坚持的正道,才符合两国和世界的共同期盼。而合作应该双向互惠,不能只是单方要价,只是强调本国优先。我们认为,处理中美关系的正确思路应该是,加强对话、深化合作、缩小分歧、避免对抗。

China and the United States should uphold the spirit of no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation, and actively explore a way of peaceful co-existence between two major countries with different social systems. The U.S. side defines China-U.S. relations as having competitive, cooperative and adversarial aspects. It blurs the distinction between the “mainstream” and “sub-stream” of the relations and reflects a lack of a clear direction and goal. First, China has no intention to compete with the United States. What matters to us is constant progress and self-improvement. Second, if confrontation is played up, it will only lead to a lose-lose situation and thus should not be the orientation of the U.S. China policy. Cooperation is the only right way forward that meets the common aspiration of the two countries and the world. Cooperation should be a two-way street and mutually beneficial, instead of one side upping the ante and putting its interests first. We maintain that the right approach to China-U.S. relations is to step up dialogue, deepen cooperation, narrow differences and avoid confrontation.

中美把合作搞起来,就能让各种“不可能”成为“可能”,就能推动两国关系朝着健康和稳定的方向发展。就合作领域而言,最突出的是共同应对气候变化,最迫在眉睫的是合力防控疫情,最有潜力的是深化经贸交流。

China and the United States working together can make the “impossible” possible, and steer the bilateral ties toward sound and steady development. As for areas of cooperation, the most outstanding is joint efforts to address climate change, the most pressing is joint response to COVID-19, and the most promising is economic and trade cooperation.

中美关系正在进入新的十字路口,关键在于,美国能否接受一个社会制度、历史文化、发展阶段不同的大国和平崛起,是否承认中国人民也有谋求发展、追求更美好生活的权利。中美关系的未来与美国在这两个问题上给出的答案密切相关。

China-U.S. relations are at a new crossroads. The key is whether the United States can accept the peaceful rise of a major country with a different social system, history and culture, and in a different development stage; whether it can recognize the Chinese people’s right to pursue development and a better life. The future of China-U.S. relations largely hinges on the answer of the United States to these two questions.

第三,希望美国尊重和包容中国自主选择的道路和制度。

Third, we hope the United States will respect and accommodate the path and system China has chosen for itself.

实践已经证明,中国特色社会主义道路不仅使14亿中国人民摆脱了贫困落后,也让中华民族再次为人类进步事业作出了重大贡献。任何势力都没有资格否定其他国家选择的道路,任何国家也不会按照别人的好恶来改造自己的制度。归根到底,制度和道路是对还是错,还是要由本国人民来判断来决定。我们从不照搬外国模式,也不输出意识形态,不要求别国复制中国的做法。而是主张各国都走符合自身国情和民众需要的发展道路,彼此之间相互尊重,相互借鉴。

What has happened shows that China’s socialist path with its own characteristics has not just leveled up the 1.4 billion Chinese people from poverty and backwardness, it also marks another major contribution of the Chinese nation to human progress. No one is entitled to negate the development paths of other countries, and no country will mold its system to others’ liking. At the end of the day, it is up to the people to decide whether their system and path work or not. China never copies others’ model. Neither does China export ideology or urge others to copy its way. What we advocate is that each country can choose a development path in light of its own circumstances and its people’s need, and all countries should respect and learn from each other.

最近有种论调,将中美之争渲染为“民主和威权”之争,试图以意识形态划线,将世界各国标签化。但民主不是可口可乐,美国生产原浆,全世界一个味道。如果地球上只有一种模式、一种文明,这个世界就失去了生机,没有了活力。

Recently, some people tend to describe China-U.S. relations as “democracy versus authoritarianism”, seeking to draw the line along ideology and pin labels on countries. But democracy is not Coca-Cola, which, with the syrup produced by the United States, tastes the same across the world. The world will be lifeless and dull, if there is only one single model and one single civilization.

中国实行的社会主义民主政治,是一种全过程、最广泛的民主,体现人民意志,符合中国国情,得到人民拥护。仅仅因为实行民主的形式跟美方不一样,就给中国扣上“威权”、“专制”的帽子,这本身就是不民主的表现。如果打着民主、人权旗号搞价值观外交,干涉他国内政,人为制造对抗,只会引发动荡甚至灾难。

China’s socialist democracy is a whole-process, most representative democracy. It embodies the will of the people, fits the country’s realities, and is endorsed by the people. It is undemocratic in itself to label China as “authoritarian” or “dictatorship” simply because China’s democracy takes a different form than that of the United States. Using democracy and human rights to conduct values-oriented diplomacy, meddle in other countries’ internal affairs or stoke confrontation will only lead to turmoil or even disaster.

习近平主席提出构建人类命运共同体,就是期望超越不同制度的分歧,摒弃零和博弈的思维,倡导和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值。各国一起共同呵护和建设好人类唯一能够居住的星球。一个和平的世界应该承载多样的文明,一个稳定的秩序应该容纳不同的制度,一个自信的大国应该包容多元的价值。中美几十年的交往给我们的最大启示是,中美虽然社会制度不同,但并不妨碍我们求同存异,合作共赢,和平共存。

President Xi Jinping’s proposal to build a community with a shared future for mankind embodies the hope to rise above the differences in social system, abandon the zero-sum mentality and uphold the common values of humanity, i.e. peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom. All countries need to work together to protect Planet Earth, our one and only home, and make it a better place. A peaceful world should nurture diverse civilizations. A stable order should accommodate different systems. And a confident major country should be inclusive to diverse values. The most important thing that we learned from decades of China-U.S. exchanges is that our difference in social system does not prevent us from seeking common ground while shelving differences and pursuing win-win cooperation and peaceful co-existence.

第四,希望美国践行真正的多边主义。

Fourth, we hope that the United States will practice true multilateralism.

中国是现行国际体系的开创者、贡献者、维护者,我们是第一个在联合国宪章上签字的国家。美国国内有一种论调认为,中国是“唯一有能力全面挑战国际体系的国家”,我们对此完全不能认同。中国就是在现行国际体系中发展起来的,我们为什么要挑战符合自身利益的国际体系?有什么理由要另起炉灶、另搞一套?

China has helped establish, contributed to and upheld the existing international system. We were the first country to sign the UN Charter. Some in the United States describe China as the only country able to challenge the international system in almost all respects. We absolutely disagree. China’s development has been achieved within the current international system. Why would we challenge a system that serves our interests, or start all over again?

真正令人担忧的是,近年来多边主义遭遇逆流,世界面临分裂危险。美国上届政府大肆退群毁约,抛弃国际责任,成为现行国际秩序的最大破坏者。我们欢迎拜登政府重返多边主义。同时我们认为,真正的多边主义应当是开放包容、厉行法治、协商合作、与时俱进。不能打着多边主义旗帜搞新的集团对抗,不能以多边主义为掩护搞封闭的小圈子。美方一些人士多次表示要加强“以规则为基础的国际秩序”,问题是基于什么规则?由谁来制定?如果仅仅是西方国家定的规则,那也只是世界上12%的人定的规则,并不能成为各国遵循的普遍规则。中国的理念很清楚,那就是坚持以联合国为核心的国际体系,坚持以国际法为基础的国际秩序,这才代表各国的共同意愿,才是践行真正的多边主义。

What is deeply unsettling is the backlash against multilateralism in recent years and the danger of a divided world. The previous U.S. administration willfully walked away from international organizations, commitments and responsibilities, seriously disrupting the existing international system. We welcome the Biden administration to return to multilateralism. That said, China believes that true multilateralism means openness, inclusiveness, rule of law, consultation, cooperation, and keeping pace with the times. Multilateralism should not be used to form new opposing blocs or exclusive circles. Some in the United States often talk about strengthening “rules-based international order”. The question is: what rules? And who makes them? If it means the rules made by Western countries only, then they are made by only 12 percent of the world population, and they should not be the common rules for all. China’s view is clear – we must uphold the UN-centered international system and the international order underpinned by international law. This represents the shared aspiration of all countries and true multilateralism in practice.

第五,希望美国不要动辄干涉中国的内政。

Fifth, we hope that the United States will not interfere in China’s internal affairs.

主权和领土完整事关国家的核心利益,同任何其他国家一样,在这个重大原则问题上,中国同样不可能妥协退让。美方不能一边在涉台、涉疆、涉港等问题上反复挑战中方权益,一边又指望中方在美方关心的问题上给予配合。

Sovereignty and territorial integrity are a country’s core interests. Like any other country, China has no room for compromise on such a major issue of principle. The United States should not repeatedly challenge China’s rights and interests on issues related to Taiwan, Xinjiang and Hong Kong, and at the same time expect China to cooperate with it on issues of its own concern.

台湾问题是中美关系中最重要、最敏感的问题。坚持一个中国原则、反对“台独”、维护台海地区和平稳定也符合美国的战略利益。打“台湾牌”非常危险,是在“玩火”。两岸实现统一是历史大势。我们愿继续以最大诚意、尽最大努力争取和平统一,同时坚决反对任何形式的“台独”分裂活动。我们希望美方切实恪守一个中国原则和中美三个联合公报规定,不向“台独”分裂势力发出任何错误信号,不要试图挑战和突破中方政策的底线。

The Taiwan question is the most important and sensitive issue in China-U.S. relations. Adhering to the one-China principle, opposing “Taiwan independence” and safeguarding peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait is also in the strategic interest of the United States. Playing the “Taiwan card” is dangerous, like playing with fire. Reunification is the historic trend. We will continue to work with the greatest sincerity and utmost efforts to strive for peaceful reunification. At the same time, we firmly oppose any separatist activities for any form of “Taiwan independence”. We hope that the United States will abide by the one-China principle and the three China-U.S. joint communiqués, and not send any wrong signals to the “Taiwan independence” elements, or try to challenge, still less cross, China’s policy red line.

涉疆问题不是人权、民族、宗教问题,而是反暴恐、反分裂、反极端主义问题。针对前些年新疆地区严峻的暴恐形势,中国政府依法打击暴力恐怖活动,并采取一系列去极端化举措,以教育方式铲除恐怖主义产生的土壤,取得了积极成效。新疆已连续4年多未发生暴恐案件,各族群众安居乐业。所谓“种族灭绝”、“强迫劳动”是出于政治目的捏造的弥天大谎。美国在“反恐战争”时期,将中国视为伙伴,双方一致将“东伊运”列入恐怖主义组织名单。现在却翻脸不认账,声称要把“东伊运”移出名单。这种双标和随意让国际社会质疑美方还有没有原则?我们欢迎美国朋友实地到访新疆,亲身了解真实的新疆,而不是偏听偏信那些谎言和谣言。

The Xinjiang-related issues are not about human rights, ethnicity or religion. They are about fighting violent terrorism, separatism and extremism. Faced with a grave situation of violent terrorism in Xinjiang a few years ago, the Chinese government acted to strike down on terrorist activities in accordance with law. It has taken a series of de-radicalization measures and resorted to education to remove the breeding ground for terrorism. These efforts have paid off. There hasn’t been a single terrorist attack in Xinjiang for over four years. People of all ethnic groups now live a safe and happy life. The claims of the so-called “genocide” and “forced labor” are nothing but lies driven by political motives. During its war on terror, the United States regarded China as a partner and the two sides agreed to designate the “East Turkistan Islamic Movement” (ETIM) as a terrorist organization. Now the U.S. has dramatically changed its position, and announced that it would remove the ETIM from its list. Such double standards and willfulness made the international community wonder if the United States still has principles. We welcome American friends to visit Xinjiang to see for themselves what it is really like there, and not fall for lies or rumors.

无论是去年我们颁布香港国安法,还是今年修订香港选举办法,都是为了完善“一国两制”体系,确保“一国两制”、“港人治港”、“高度自治”行稳致远,实现香港长治久安。修订香港选举办法,重在落实“爱国者治港”这一基本原则。这是邓小平先生在香港回归前就明确提出来的,是推进“一国两制”的政治保障。爱国者治理也是世界通行的政治伦理和普遍实践。随着中国中央政府治港政策逐步落实到位,香港实现了由乱及治的重大转折,民主制度和法治环境更趋完善。美方应尊重中国政府为落实好“一国两制”所做的努力。

With regard to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), the Law on Safeguarding National Security in the HKSAR enacted last year and this year’s decision to improve Hong Kong’s electoral system both serve to improve the system of One Country, Two Systems, ensure the sound and steady implementation of One Country, Two Systems, “Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong” and a high degree of autonomy, and achieve long-term security in Hong Kong. The revision of the electoral system is designed to implement the basic principle of “patriots administering Hong Kong”, which was explicitly put forward by Mr. Deng Xiaoping before Hong Kong’s return as the political safeguard for advancing One Country, Two Systems. Administration by patriots is also common political ethics and practices. As the central government’s policies for administering Hong Kong have been steadily implemented on the ground, Hong Kong has seen a major shift from chaos to stability with its democratic system and legal environment further improved. The United States should respect the Chinese government’s efforts to implement One Country, Two Systems.

美国还有一种论调,认为中国搞什么“胁迫外交”。中国历史上确曾屡遭列强的胁迫甚至侵犯。“己所不欲,勿施于人”,中国外交的传统之一就是大小国家一律平等。所以我们从来不搞什么胁迫,也坚决反对其他国家搞胁迫。在中国的国家主权和民族尊严遭到胁迫和侵害时,我们当然要作出合理合法的反制,目的是捍卫自身的正当权益,维护国际的公平正义。中国从不以武力威胁他国,从不搞军事同盟,从不输出意识形态,从不跑到别人门口挑事,从不将手伸进别人家里,中国也不主动打贸易战,不无端打压他国企业。我们愿同各国一道,共同反对这个世界上的各种胁迫行为。

Some in the United States also talk about the so-called “coercive diplomacy” by China. The truth is, China in history fell prey to foreign coercion, even aggression. “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” A long-running feature of China’s foreign policy is that all countries are equal regardless of their size. We do not act in a coercive way, and we firmly oppose any country doing so. But China’s national sovereignty and dignity are being coerced and undermined, we undoubtedly need to respond with reasonable and lawful actions to safeguard our legitimate rights and interests as well as international equity and justice. China never threatens other countries with the use of force, build military alliances, export ideology, incite troubles in other countries’ doorsteps or meddle in their affairs. Neither has China ever started a trade war or wantonly gone after foreign companies. We are prepared to work with other countries against any act of coercion in the world.

各位朋友,

Friends,

我们希望中美关系在这春暖花开的时节释放更多信心,为中美两国乃至世界人民福祉播下更多合作的“种子”,收获更多全球稳定与发展的“果实”。希望在场各位在这一关键时刻,持续发出客观理性声音,为促进中美合作贡献智慧,为维护世界和平贡献力量。

We hope that in developing bilateral relations, China and the United States will send out more confidence in this warm spring, plant more seeds of cooperation for the benefit of people in our two countries and beyond, and reap harvests of global stability and development. At this critical moment, we hope all of you will continue to speak out for objectivity and reason, and contribute your wisdom and strength to promoting China-U.S. cooperation and upholding world peace.

谢谢大家!接下来我愿意回答大家的问题。

Thank you. Now I am ready to take your questions.


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