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缅甸突然爆发军事政变

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2021-2-25 00:07| 查看数: 397| 评论数: 0|



Why Is the Military Taking Control in Myanmar?

缅甸突然爆发军事政变

Myanmar's military has taken control of the country, ordering a one-year state of emergency. Reports say State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and other government leaders have been detained.

缅甸军方控制了整个国家并下令实施为期一年的紧急状态。有报道称,国务资政昂山素季和其它政府领导人被拘留。

The constitution gives the military strong powers

宪法赋予军方强大权力

The announcement on military-owned Myawaddy TV said Article 417 of the country's constitution permits the military to take over in times of emergency. The announcer said the coronavirus crisis and the government's failure to postpone November elections were reasons for the emergency.

军方控制的Myawaddy电视台公布称,宪法第417条允许军方在紧急状况下接管国家。播音员表示,新冠病毒危机和政府未能推迟11月选举是进入紧急状况的原因。

The military wrote Myanmar's constitution in 2008. The country is also known as Burma. The document gives the military the most power in the country and places limits on democratic, civilian rule. The group Human Rights Watch has described Article 417 as little more than an excuse for the military to seize all power.

军方于2008年修改了缅甸宪法。该国也被称为Burma。宪法赋予军方在该国的最高权力,并限制了民主和文官统治。人权观察组织称,缅甸宪法第417条是军方夺取所有权力的借口。

The constitution also provides important Cabinet ministries and 25 percent of the seats in Parliament to the military. This limits the power of a civilian government and rules out changing the constitution without military support.

该宪法还向军方提供了重要的内阁部长职位以及25%的议会席位。这限制了文官政府的权力,并排除了在没有军方支持下修改宪法的可能性。

Some experts said they were uncertain why the military would change or destabilize their standing. Others, however, noted the upcoming retirement of Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, who has been leader of the armed forces since 2011.

一些专家表示,他们不确定为什么军方会改变或破坏他们的立场。不过,也有人提到了2011以来一直担任武装部队领导人的敏昂莱(Min Aung Hlaing)将军即将退休。

There is "military politics around that, which is very opaque," said Kim Jolliffe. He is an expert on Myanmar civilian and military relations. The military has put Vice President Myint Swe in office as head of the government for one year. He is a former military officer.

金·乔利弗(Kim Jolliffe)表示,这是“非常不透明的军事政治”。他是缅甸文职和军事关系专家。军方已经任命副总统吴敏瑞(Myint Swe)担任一年的政府首脑。吴敏瑞之前也是一名军官。

Elections held in November

11月份的选举

In the November elections, Suu Kyi's party got 396 out of 476 seats in the lower and upper houses of Parliament. The state Union Election Commission confirmed that result.

在11月份的选举中,昂山素季领导的政党获得了国会上院和下院476个席位中的396个。缅甸联邦选举委员会证实了这一结果。

But, beginning right after the elections, the military has said there were millions of problems with voter lists in 314 townships. This could have let some voters cast more than one ballot or break other voting rules. "But they haven't really shown any proof of that," Jolliffe said.

但是,选举刚结束,军方就表示314个乡镇的选民名单上存在数百万个问题。这可能会导致一些选民多次投票或违反其它选举规则。乔利弗表示:“但是军方并未真正拿出任何证据。”

The election commission rejected the military's claims last week. It said there was no evidence to support them. The military takeover came on what should have been the first day of the new Parliament. But the new Parliament did not open. Instead, Suu Kyi and other lawmakers were reported detained.

选举委员会上周否认了军方的说法。该委员会表示,没有任何证据支持军方的说法。军事接管发生在原本新议会的第一天。但是新议会未能召开。相反,据报道,昂山素季和其他议员被扣押。

A later announcement on Myawaddy TV said the military would hold an election after the one-year emergency ends. The winner of that election will lead the country, the military said.

Myawaddy电视台后来宣布称,在一年的紧急状态结束后,军方将举行选举。军方表示,选举胜者将领导该国。

Additional developments

其它方面的动态

Telecommunications came almost to a complete stop on Monday. In the capital, the internet and phones seemed to be blocked. Those who could still get on the internet found their social media accounts had been temporarily suspended. Road blocks were set up across Yangon, the largest city. Soldiers took up positions outside government buildings such as City Hall.

周一,缅甸的电信服务几乎完全停止。在该国首都,互联网和电话被封锁。那些仍然可以上网的人士发现自己的社交媒体账户已被暂时停用。缅甸最大的城市仰光设置了路障。军人在市政厅之类的政府大楼外巡逻。

Governments and international organizations have condemned the takeover. They said it sets back the few democratic reforms Myanmar has made.

各国政府和国际组织谴责了这次军方接管行动。他们表示,这让缅甸进行的少数民主改革受挫。

Linda Lakhdhir is a legal adviser at Human Rights Watch. She described the takeover as a "blow to efforts to present Myanmar as a democracy. She added that the country's "creditability" has been damaged.

琳达·拉赫迪尔(Linda Lakhdhir)是人权观察组织的法律顾问。她称,这次接管打击了缅甸作为民主国家所付出的努力。她还表示,该国的信誉已经受损。

Myanmar experts are afraid the country is going to enter a difficult time for human rights defenders, reporters and those who are critical of the military. Even before the military takeover, some reporters and free speech supporters faced legal problems.

缅甸专家担心,对于人权捍卫者、记者和批评军方人士而言,缅甸将会迎来一段困难时期。甚至在军方接管之前,一些记者和自由言论支持者就面临着法律问题。

A U.S. senator raised the possibility the United States could again place economic sanctions on Myanmar. The United States lifted sanctions in 2016 when Myanmar moved toward civilian rule.

美国一位参议员提出了美国可能会再次对缅甸实施经济制裁的可能性。2016年,缅甸实行文官统治时,美国解除了制裁。

The U.S. Senator, Bob Menendez, a Democrat, said Myanmar's military leaders "must immediately free the democratic leaders of Myanmar and remove themselves from government." Menendez is the new chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

美国民主党参议员鲍勃·梅嫩德斯说,缅甸的军方领导人“必须立即释放民主领导人并离开政府”。梅嫩德斯是参议院外交关系委员会的新任主席。

Menendez added that, if they do not free those detained, the U.S. should use sanctions.

梅嫩德斯还表示,如果他们不释放这些被扣押的人,美国应该采取制裁措施。

Aung San Suu Kyi came to power in 2015. However, she was strongly criticized in 2019 for failing to protect the Rohingya Muslim people from the Myanmar military. She defended the military's actions against the Rohingya, which United Nations agencies have called genocide.

昂山素季于2015年上台。然而,由于未能保护罗兴亚穆斯林免受缅甸军方袭击,她在2019年受到了强烈批评。她对军方针对罗兴亚人的行动进行辩护,联合国机构将军方此举称为种族灭绝。

I'm Susan Shand.

苏珊·尚德为您播报。


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