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澳大利亚呼吁进行气候风险评估

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-11-28 01:29| 查看数: 112| 评论数: 0|



Australia Wildfires Investigation Calls for Climate Risk Assessment

澳大利亚呼吁进行气候风险评估

Wildfires destroyed large parts of southeast Australia during the second half of 2019 and early in 2020. Late last week, Australian investigators released an official report on the fires. The investigators for greater efforts to predict the effects of climate change on the country. The report noted that fire behavior was becoming more extreme.

在2019年下半年和2020年初,野火烧毁了澳大利亚东南部的大部分地区。上周晚些时候,澳大利亚调查人员发布了一份关于火灾的官方报告。研究人员希望投入更多努力来预测气候变化对这个国家的影响。报告指出,火灾行为变得愈发极端。

The Royal Commission into National Natural Disaster Arrangements began studying the fires in February.

负责调查国家自然灾害的皇家委员会在二月份开始研究火灾。

The fire season was so destructive that it is now known as Black Summer. The fires killed at least 33 people, destroyed more than 3,000 homes and burned 19 million hectares. Thousands of people were forced to leave affected areas.

这场火灾季造成的破坏规模之大,以至于被人们称为“黑色夏天”。大火造成至少33人死亡,摧毁了3000多座房屋,烧毁了1900万公顷的土地。数千人被迫迁离受灾地区。

The Royal Commission said the smoke that covered much of the country, including major Australian cities, was partly to blame for hundreds of deaths.

皇家委员会表示,包括澳大利亚各大城市在内的澳洲大部分地区漂浮的烟尘是造成数百人死亡的部分原因。

The commission's 578-page report made 80 suggestions. They include greater sharing of information across Australia on climate and disaster risks.

该委员会长达578页的报告提出了80条建议。其中包括在澳大利亚各地加强气候和灾害风险信息的共享。

The report said federal and state governments should make climate projections and agree on trajectories and timelines for likely climate change. It called on states to create fire maps that are shared nationally. Without this cooperation, the report said, it is "difficult to measure risk at a national scale."

报告指出,联邦政府和州政府应该进行气候预测,并就可能发生的气候变化的轨迹和时间线达成一致。报告呼吁各州创建全国共享的火灾地图。报告还称,如果不这样合作,“很难在全国范围内评估风险”。

These measures will "improve the ability to predict or estimate the likelihood of extreme" wildfires, the report said.

报告还指出,这些措施将“提高预测或评估发生极端火灾可能性的能力”。

Mark Howden is a professor at the Australian National University's Climate Change Institute. He said the fire risk in some areas was a result of both fuel loads and climate. A fuel load is the amount of dead wood that can easily burn.

马克·豪登(Mark Howden)是澳大利亚国立大学气候变化研究所的教授。他说,一些地区的火灾风险是由可燃物载量和气候双重因素造成的。“可燃物载量”是指易燃的枯木量。

Climate models were "a guide to future change and risk, but it's very clear across Australia that that change in risk is upward," Howden said. "So, it's a question...how quickly and how much that fire danger increases."

气候模型是“未来变化和风险的指南,但很明显,整个澳大利亚的风险变化在上升,”豪登说道。“所以,这是一个问题……火灾危险增加的速度和程度。”

Lawmakers in Australia's government have argued against the effect of climate change on the fire emergency. Some said the fires were set by arsonists.

澳大利亚政府的立法者反对气候变化对火灾紧急情况的影响。一些人说,火灾是由纵火者所致。

The report also said there was no question that more climate change is likely over the next 20 years. It also said the number of floods and fires will increase.

报告还指出,毫无疑问,未来20年气候变化可能会更频繁。报告还表示,洪水和火灾的数量将会增加。

Former New South Wales state Fire and Rescue Commissioner Greg Mullins agreed with the report's look at climate change.

前新南威尔士州消防和救援专员格雷格·马林斯(Greg Mullins)同意这份报告对气候变化的见解。

"The main point made in this report is that the Black Summer bushfires would not have happened if not for the effects of climate change and a warming planet," he said.

他说:“这份报告的主要观点是,如果没有气候变化和全球变暖的影响,“黑色夏季”这场森林大火就不会发生。”

The report also recommended that Australia develop its own aerial firefighting abilities and send water bombers to where they are needed most. The country now brings in firefighting airplanes from the Northern Hemisphere during its fire season. But, as a result of climate change, fire seasons in the two hemispheres often happen at the same time now.

报告还建议澳大利亚发展自身的空中灭火能力,并向最需要的地方派遣灭火飞机。该国现在在火灾季节从北半球引进灭火飞机。但是,由于气候变化,南、北半球的火灾季节经常同时发生。

The report said that the prime minister should be given new legal power to declare a state of emergency. This, it said, would make it easier for the federal government to act during the wildfire season.

报告说,应该赋予总理宣布紧急状态的法律权力。报告称,这将使联邦政府更容易在火灾季节采取行动。

I'm Susan Shand.

苏珊·尚德为您播报。


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