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傅聪在欧盟军控与防扩散研讨会上的发言

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-11-15 01:18| 查看数: 113| 评论数: 1|

外交部军控司司长傅聪在欧盟军控与防扩散研讨会上的发言

Statement by FU Cong, Director-General of the Department of Arms Control of the Foreign Ministry, at the EU Non-proliferation and Disarmament Conference

2020年11月12日

November 12, 2020



当前,国际战略安全正面临冷战以来最严峻的局面,国际军控进程正处于关键的十字路口。美国奉行单边主义,不断毁约退群,对二战后逐步建立起来的多双边军控裁军体系构成了严重破坏。冷战思维和双重标准阻碍国际防扩散合作,损害了国际防扩散机制的权威性和有效性。科技发展对战略稳定产生复杂深刻影响,并带来一系列人道、伦理和法律方面挑战。在此背景下,围绕“重建军控防扩散领域互信-前景展望”这一主题开展讨论,是及时和必要的。当前形势下,要推进国际军控与防扩散进程健康发展,促进共同和普遍安全,国际社会应从以下几方面作出努力:

Today, international strategic situation is faced with the gravest challenges since the end of Cold War, and the international arms control architecture is at a critical juncture. The pursuit of unilateralist policies and withdrawal from a large number of international treaties and organizations by the US have dealt heavy blows to the multilateral and bilateral arms control and disarmament regime established since the end of WWII. Cold War mentality and double standard are impeding international non-proliferation cooperation and undermining the authority and effectiveness of the international non-proliferation mechanism. The development of science and technology is bringing forth complex and profound repercussions on strategic stability and giving rise to a host of humanitarian, legal and ethical challenges. Against this backdrop, it is pertinent and timely to exchange views on the theme of “Rebuilding Mutual Trust in Arms Control, Non-proliferation and Disarmament”. It is both a pleasure and an honor for me to have the opportunity to share my thoughts on this topic. In my view, in order to move international arms control and non-proliferation process forward, concerted efforts need to be made in the following areas.

一是要坚持军控的基本原则和理念。

First, we should adhere to the basic principles and concepts of arms control.

军控的初衷是以合作手段增进所有国家安全,进而实现全球平等、共同、普遍安全。以牺牲他国安全为代价增强自身安全的军控与裁军,不可能被其他国家接受,也难以长久。一个多世纪以来,军控裁军的内容、模式一直在发生变化,但军控应以维护战略平衡与稳定为基本原则和目标,一直是国际社会的基本共识。近年来,美国的所作所为违背了战略平衡与稳定原则,其实质是不再接受大国间的相互制衡、谋求建立一超独霸的单极世界,这是国际军控与裁军进程陷入困境的根源。大国之间存在竞争是正常的,也是难免的。关键是要摒弃零和思维,秉持共赢理念,努力管控好大国战略竞争,特别是要维护全球战略稳定,减少核战争风险。美国为了一己私利,提出了一些否定、歪曲军控基本原则的奇谈怪论,企图改变国际军控的基本叙事,严重毒化了国际军控对话的氛围,值得国际社会高度警惕。

The purpose of international arms control is to enhance the security of all countries through cooperation, so as to achieve equal, common and universal security. Arms control that aims at increasing one’s own security at the expense of the security of others is neither acceptable nor sustainable. Over the past century, despite the changes in arms control both in terms of content and paradigm, the basic international consensus has always been that maintaining strategic balance and stability should be a basic principle of arms control. However, what the United States has done in recent years has violated this basic principle. Its real intention is to negate the checks and balances between the major powers and establish a uni-polar world. That is the root cause of the stalemate in the international arms control and disarmament process. Competition between major powers is only natural and even inevitable. What is important is to search for win-win solutions instead of playing a zero-sum game, to keep this competition under control by maintaining global strategic stability, so as to reduce the risks of war. Recently, some US officials have come up with some absurd theories or coinages, such as “three largest nuclear-weapon states” or depicting arms control as a battle between democracies and non-democracies. These rhetorics distort the basic narratives of international arms control efforts, harm the atmosphere of international dialogues and cannot be conducive to rebuilding trust. The international community should be vigilant against them.

二是要维护现有的军控条约体系。

Second, we should safeguard the existing international arms control architecture.

罗马不是一天建成的,继承是发展的基础。现有的国际军控、裁军、防扩散体系,包括美俄双边裁军条约体系,是国际安全体系的重要组成部分,是以多边主义解决安全困局,实现共同安全与普遍裁军的基础。这一体系是国际社会的宝贵共同资产,只应加强,不应削弱。美国不断退约不仅损害其自身信誉,也严重损害国际安全环境。国际社会对美方破坏国际军控体系的不负责任做法应予坚决抵制。当务之急,是要求美尽快回应俄方延长《新削减进攻性战略武器条约》的呼吁。同时,国际社会应坚持裁军领域国际共识,特别是第一届裁军特别联大《最后文件》和NPT历届审议大会成果,强调两个最大的核武器国家在核裁军方面的特殊、优先责任,对推翻共识、违背原则的做法坚决说不。

As Rome was not built in a day, progress could only be made by building upon past achievements. The existing international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation regime, including the bilateral arms control treaties between the United States and Russia, is an important component of the international security system, and the basis for resolving security dilemmas through a cooperative approach and for realizing common security and universal disarmament. That system is a valuable common asset of the international community, and should be strengthened, rather than weakened. That continuous withdrawal of the US from international treaties has not only damaged its own credibility, but also jeopardized international security. The international community should be united in rejecting the totally irresponsible actions taken by the current US administration aimed at sabotaging the international arms control architecture. The immediate priority now is to urge the United States to respond as soon as possible to Russia’s call for the unconditional extension of the New START. In addition, the international community should adhere to the existing international consensus, including the Final Document of SSOD-I and the outcome documents of the previous NPT Review Conferences, highlight the special and primary responsibilities of the two largest nuclear-weapon States for nuclear disarmament, and say no to the words and deeds that overthrow or undermine international consensus on arms control.

三是要不断加强国际军控条约体系。

Third, we should further strengthen and expand the international arms control architecture.

在维护国际军控体系现有成果的同时,我们确实需要与时俱进,不断发展完善这一体系。国际社会应达成这样的共识,即科技发展成果应最大程度用于和平发展,科技成果军事化不应是无限度的。应加紧就网络、外空、人工智能、生物等问题开展谈判,争取早日达成有法律约束力的国际文书或行为准则,建立相应的国际机制,防止上述领域国际规则缺失给战略稳定关系带来新的风险挑战。

While upholding the past achievements of the existing international arms control system, we also need to keep moving with the times and constantly renew and improve the system. The international community need to agree that fruits of scientific and technological development should be used to the maximum extent possible for peaceful development, and that there should be limits to their military utilization. We should push forward negotiations on cyber space, outer space, artificial intelligence, bio-technology and others, with a view to concluding legally-binding international instruments or codes of conduct as soon as possible, and establishing relevant international mechanisms, so as to guard against or reduce potential risks and challenges that these technologies could bring to international stability and security, due to the absence of international rules.

突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情,敲响了生物安全的警钟,凸显了加强全球生物安全治理的重要性和紧迫性。在背景下,应尽快重启BWC核查议定书谈判,建立有效的国际核查机制,切实维护生物安全。我们希望明年公约审议大会就此作出决定。同时,应在公约框架下建立必要的科学咨询机构,同时制定必要的行为准则,以更好地规范生物科研活动,推动生物科技健康发展。

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has put bio-security under the spotlight, and highlighted the importance and urgency of strengthening global bio-security governance. In this context, it is important to restart the negotiation of BWC verification protocol as soon as possible, with a view to establishing an effective international verification mechanism to safeguard bio-security. We hope that next year’s review conference of the Convention could make a decision in that respect. At the same time, it is also necessary to establish a scientific advisory body under the framework of the Convention and formulate codes of conduct to better regulate biological scientific research and promote the healthy development of biotechnology.

随着数字经济快速发展,数据安全风险突出,亟需全球性解决之道。当务之急是在各方普遍参与基础上,达成反映大多数国家利益和关切的全球规则。为有效应对数据安全风险挑战,切实维护全球数据和供应链安全,推动数字经济发展与合作,中国不久前发起《全球数据安全倡议》,呼吁各国采取措施防范制止利用信息技术破坏或窃取他国关键基础设施重要数据、侵害个人信息,反对滥用信息技术从事针对他国的大规模监控,不强制要求本国企业将境外数据存储在境内,要求企业不在产品和服务中设置后门等。《倡议》旨在为制定相关全球规则提供一个蓝本,同时也是中方为维护全球数据安全所作出的庄严承诺。中方希望各方积极支持倡议,欢迎各方提出有益建议。中国支持联合国信息安全政府专家组和开放式工作组开展工作并取得积极进展。

With the rapid development of digital economy, the issue of data security becomes increasingly prominent and calls for a global solution. It is high time that we formulated global rules reflecting the interests and concerns of the majority of countries on the basis of universal participation. For the purpose of effectively dealing with the risks and challenges associated with data security, China has lately launched the Global Initiative on Data Security, which calls on all countries to take action to prevent and put an end to activities that impair or steal important data of other countries’ critical infrastructure, or jeopardize personal information, oppose mass surveillance against other countries through ICTs, remove mandatory requirements for domestic companies to store in their own territory data generated and obtained overseas, and require enterprises not to install backdoors in their products and services. This initiative provides a basis for the formulation of global rules and represents also solemn commitments by China on data security. China hopes that our interlocutors could support the initiative, and we also welcome suggestions for improvement.

四是要坚持通过政治外交手段和平解决防扩散争端。

Fourth, we should resolve non-proliferation disputes through peaceful means.

朝核、伊核等防扩散问题十分复杂,不可能一蹴而就,只能通过政治外交手段,循序渐进解决。事实表明,极限施压,甚至威胁使用武力,只会使问题更加复杂难解。制裁本身不是目的,更不是万灵药。制裁是手段,解除或放松制裁也是手段。如果不解决伊朗或朝鲜合理的安全与发展关切,试图通过制裁施压强加解决方案,必定是死路一条。

Non-proliferation issues such as the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula and the Iranian nuclear issue are complex issues that can only be resolved through political and diplomatic means. Facts have shown that maximum pressure and the threat of force will only make the issues more complicated. Sanctions are not the end, nor a panacea. Sanctions are means, so are the lifting or relaxing of sanctions. If the legitimate security and development concerns of Iran or DPRK are not properly addressed, attempts to impose solutions through sanctions will go nowhere.

当前形势下,各方应坚定履行伊核问题全面协议,坚决反对单边制裁和长臂管辖。有关各方应在联委会框架内,通过对话协商解决履约分歧,恢复协议权利和义务的平衡。中方高度重视有关各方在地区安全问题上的关切,主张在维护全面协议的前提下,另辟新的对话平台,推动达成维护地区和平稳定的新共识。要求朝鲜一步到位弃核但不解决其安全与经济关切是不可能实现的目标,同步对等、分阶段推进是唯一出路。中方敦促美方切实拿出诚意,以实际行动回应朝方在安全和发展上的正当合理关切,使半岛核问题重回对话解决的轨道。

Under the current situation, all parties should firmly fulfill the JCPOA obligations and resolutely oppose unilateral sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction. The parties concerned should resolve their differences in the implementation of the agreement through dialogue and consultation, and within the framework of the Joint Commission, by restoring the balance of rights and obligations under the agreement. China also attaches importance to the concerns of a new platform for dialogues on all issues related to regional security and stability. Trying to force DPRK to abandon its entire nuclear weapons program in one go without addressing its security and economic concerns is unlikely to succeed. The best way forward is to make progress through a synchronized, reciprocal and phased process. China urges the United States to demonstrate its good faith by responding to the legitimate and reasonable concerns of DPRK on security and development with practical actions, so as to bring the denuclearization of the Peninsula back on track.

五是要建立普遍参与、包容有效的国际防扩散机制。

Fifth, we should establish an inclusive and effective international non-proliferation mechanism.

防止大规模杀伤性武器扩散是国际社会的共同责任。但长期以来,防扩散出口控制机制参与方普遍性不足的问题一直没有得到解决,歧视性和双重标准等问题也依然突出。近几年,这些问题非但没有得到解决,还出现了恶化的逆流。美国以意识形态划界,推动建立对华高科技出口审慎联盟,企图将相关机制改造为对华封锁和脱钩的工具,并刻意阻挠中国加入相关机制。这种做法严重损害国际防扩散合作的基础,也严重干扰正常的国际科技贸易合作。国际社会应坚持真正的多边主义和法治原则,反对政治化倾向,在各国平等普遍参与的基础上,建立公正、包容的防扩散出口管制与国际合作机制。

It is the common responsibility of the international community to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. However, for a long time, the existing export control mechanisms have been hindered by the lack of representation and double standard or even outright discrimination. In recent years, these problems have only been further exacerbated. The United States is trying to forge an alliance based on ideological demarcation against high-tech exports to countries like China, and transform these export control mechanisms into tools for high-tech blockade of, and decoupling from, China. For that purpose, the US has strenuously obstructed China from joining these mechanisms. Such practices have seriously undermined the foundation of international non-proliferation cooperation and disrupted normal international cooperation on science and technology and trade. The international community should be in line with genuine multilateralism and the rule of law, oppose such tendencies of politicization and polarization, and endeavor to establish a fair and inclusive non-proliferation control regime based on equal participation of all countries.


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ecstasy2 发表于 2020-11-20 10:42:56
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