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英国研究人员计划感染健康志愿者来研究新冠肺炎

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-10-30 00:44| 查看数: 113| 评论数: 0|



British Researchers Plan to Infect Healthy Volunteers to Study COVID-19

Researchers in Britain are preparing to infect healthy young volunteers with the virus that causes COVID-19. The aim is to speed up development of a vaccine that could help end the worldwide pandemic.

This kind of research is known as a human challenge study. It is not used often because some people consider it morally wrong to infect healthy individuals for medical tests. But researchers say the risk is worth it. Such studies can quickly identify the most effective vaccines.

Peter Openshaw is one of the investigators leading the research. He said the studies are "enormously informative about a disease, even one so well studied as COVID-19."

Human challenge studies have been used to develop vaccines for diseases including typhoid, cholera and malaria.

The study will involve volunteers between the ages of 18 and 30. The Imperial College London said Tuesday that the study would be carried out in partnership with the government's Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. Also in the partnership is hVIVO, a company that has experience with human challenge studies.

The British government plans to spend $43.4 million on the research.

Governments around the world are funding efforts to develop a vaccine in hopes of ending the spread of the new coronavirus. At least 44 possible vaccines are already in human testing. The Associated Press reports that 11 vaccines are in late-stage trials. Several are expected to report results later this year or in early 2021.

The Imperial College partnership is expected to begin in January. Results are expected by May. However, the work must be approved by ethics committees and officials.



While one or more vaccines are likely to be approved before that time, the study will still be important, said Dr. Michael Jacobs. Jacobs said the world may need several vaccines to protect different groups within a population. Treatments for those who continue to get sick will also be needed. Jacobs is an infectious diseases expert at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and will be involved in the research.

How a human challenge study works

In the first part of the British study, researchers will expose 90 paid volunteers to the virus using small amounts of liquid in the nose. This will be done to find out the lowest level of exposure needed to cause COVID-19.

The researchers will use a similar method to test the effectiveness of possible vaccines. They will expose volunteers to the virus after they have received one of the candidate vaccines.

The research will take place at the Royal Free Hospital in London, which has an area designed to contain the disease. Volunteers will be monitored for at least one year to make sure they do not suffer any long-term effects.

Danica Marcos is 22 years old. She hopes to take part in the study. "So many people (are) struggling right now, and I want this pandemic to be over," she told The Associated Press. "If this vaccine trial could mean that this period of trauma for the whole world will be over sooner, I want to help. I want to be part of that," Marcos said.

Challenge studies are usually used to test vaccines against mild infections. The aim is to avoid infecting volunteers with a serious sickness if the vaccine does not work. The coronavirus causes only mild or moderate problems in most people and seems to be mild in young, healthy individuals.

The long-term effects of the disease, however, are not well understood. There have been reports of continuing problems in the heart and other organs even in those who did not feel sick.

In the United States, the National Institutes of Health, NIH, has not pushed the need for challenge studies because vaccines are being developed so quickly. However, the NIH has taken early steps to prepare for such research in case the method is one day required. Those steps include examining the ethics of a challenge study and developing funds to create laboratory viruses used in such research.

I'm Ashley Thompson.

重点讲解:

1. speed up (使)(某一过程或活动)加快;

I had already taken steps to speed up a solution to the problem.

我已经采取措施加快解决该问题。

2. be known as 称为;叫做;

The disease is more commonly known as Mad Cow Disease.

这种疾病更通俗的名称是疯牛病。

3. in hopes of 怀着(…发生的)希望;

Several companies are offering new, entry-level models in hopes of attracting more buyers.

几家公司正推出新的入门级产品,期望吸引更多的顾客。

4. in case 以备;以防;免得;

Leave your key with a neighbour in case you lock yourself out one day.

给邻居留把钥匙,以防有朝一日把自己反锁在外面。

参考译文

英国研究人员计划感染健康志愿者来研究新冠肺炎

英国研究人员准备用引发新冠肺炎的病毒感染年轻且健康的志愿者。目的是加速研制有助于结束全球疫情的疫苗。

这种研究被称为人类挑战研究。其不常被使用,因为一些人认为,感染健康人进行医学测试在道德上是错误的。但研究人员表示,这种风险是值得的。这类研究可以迅速确定最有效的疫苗。

彼得·奥彭肖是领导这项研究的调查人员之一。他说,这些研究“可以掌握一种疾病极为丰富的信息,即使是像新冠肺炎这样的疾病也能进行充分的研究。”

人类挑战研究已被用于开发伤寒、霍乱和疟疾等疾病的疫苗。

这项研究将以18至30岁的志愿者为对象。伦敦帝国理工学院周二表示,这项研究将与英国政府商业、能源和产业战略部以及伦敦免费国家医疗服务体系信托合作进行。此外,hVIVO公司也是合作伙伴之一,该公司拥有人类挑战研究经验。

英国政府计划在这项研究上投资4340万美元。

世界各国政府正在资助研发疫苗的努力,希望能终止新型冠状病毒的传播。至少有44种潜在疫苗已经在进行人体试验。美联社报道称,11种疫苗正在进行后期试验。几款疫苗有望在今年晚些时候或2021年初公布试验结果。

帝国理工学院的合作计划预计将于明年1月开始。预计5月份可得出结果。然而,这项研究必须得到伦理委员会和官员的批准。

迈克尔·雅各布斯博士表示,虽然一种或多种疫苗可能在那之前获得批准,但这项研究仍然很重要。雅各布斯说,世界可能需要几种疫苗来保护人口中的不同群体。仍然患病的人也需要治疗。雅各布斯是伦敦免费国家医疗服务体系信托的传染病专家,他将参与这项研究。

人类挑战研究的原理

作为这项英国研究的第一部分,研究人员将向90名受薪志愿者的鼻子里滴入少量液体,让他们接触病毒。这样做是为了找出引起新冠肺炎的最低暴露水平。

研究人员将使用类似的方法来测试潜在疫苗的有效性。他们将在志愿者接种一种候选疫苗后让他们接触病毒。

这项研究将在伦敦皇家自由医院进行,该医院有专门用来控制这种疾病的区域。志愿者将被监测至少一年,以确保他们不会受到任何长期影响。

丹妮卡·马科斯今年22岁。她希望参加这项研究。她对美联社表示,“现在很多人都在苦苦挣扎,我希望这场大流行结束。”马科斯说,“如果这次疫苗试验能意味着这段全球创伤期会更快结束,那我想提供帮助。我想参与其中。”

挑战研究通常用于测试针对轻度感染的疫苗。这样做的目的是,在疫苗不起作用的情况下避免志愿者感染严重疾病。冠状病毒对大多数人来说只会造成轻微或中度的问题,而对年轻健康的人来说似乎只会造成轻微问题。

然而,这种疾病的长期影响尚未得到充分认识。有报道说心脏和其他器官的问题会持续存在,即使无症状者也会如此。

美国国家卫生研究院(简称NIH)并未推动挑战研究的需求,因为疫苗的研发速度非常快。然而,美国国家卫生研究院已经采取早期措施,以备将来某天需要这种方法。这些措施包括审查挑战研究的伦理,并发展资金,以创造用于此类研究的实验室病毒。

阿什利·汤普森报道。


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