【同义词辨析】2020-06-15 比较猜测理解理性分享(5小组一起记)

发布者: jason246 | 发布时间: 2020-9-17 14:05| 查看数: 113| 评论数: 0|

(1) 比较
compare: implies an aim of showing relative values or excellences by bringing out characteristic qualities whether similar OR divergent: wanted to ~ the convention facilities of the two cities.     (如my English cannot compare with his我的英文水平不如他,如her beauty is beyond compare她无比美丽;compare表示比作比拟时,介词用to,如he compared the religions to different paths towards the peak of the same mountain他把不同宗教比作通往同一座山峰的不同道路)    relative相对是和其他事物比较而言的considered in relation to something else,如relative darkness相对而言比较暗,relative newcomer相对而言是个新手

contrast: implies an aim of emphasizing differences: ~ed the computerized system with the old filing cards.

collate: implies minute and critical comparison in order to note points of agreement or divergence: data from police districts across the country will be ~d.     如when both versions of the story were collated, major discrepancies were found核对故事的两个版本之后, 找出了主要的不符之处,如collate a new edition with an earlier one将新版本与旧版本做核对

compare比较: 指找出二者的相似和不同,为了找出相对价值或优势,contrast对比: 强调为了找出不同之处,collate核对: 是细致批判性地比较

记忆方法:  1)比较的意思是放一起查找异同mean to set side by side in order to show likenesses or differences.

(2) 猜测
conjecture: implies forming an opinion or judgment upon evidence insufficient for definite knowledge: scientists could only ~ about the animal's breeding cycle.       仅表示信息或证据不充分,如she didn’t know the facts; what she said was pure conjecture她并不知道实情, 她所说的纯属猜测, 如the general conjectured that the enemy only had about five days’ supply of food left将军推测敌人只剩下五天的粮食给养

surmise: implies even slighter evidence and suggests the influence of imagination or suspicion: ~ed the real reason for the generous gift.       如from his letter I surmised that he was unhappy我从他的信中推测他并不快乐,如he surmised that something must be wrong猜想肯定有什么地方不对劲儿

guess: stresses a hitting upon a conclusion either wholly at random or from very uncertain evidence: you would never ~ that they were wealthy.      random随机stresses chance and lack of definite aim, goal,or procedure强调偶然随机,没有计划目标流程,如a random sampling of public opinion随机采样公众意见

conjecture推测猜测: 指在缺乏证据的情况下形成观点判断,surmise猜测猜疑: 表示更加缺乏证据,暗示是出于想象猜疑guess猜: 强调完全随机,完全缺乏证据

记忆方法:  1)猜测的意思是证据不足的推测mean to draw an inference from slight evidence.

(3) 理解
understand: may stress the fact of having attained a mental grasp of something: ~ the instructions.

comprehend: stresses the mental process of arriving at a result: failed to ~ the entire process.           listening/reading comprehension听力/阅读理解,强调理解"整个过程"

appreciate: implies a just estimation of a thing's value and is often used in reference to what is likely to be misjudged: failed to ~ the risks involved.   

understand理解: 强调思维上的把握(mental grasp),comprehend理解: 强调理解了整个过程appreciate赏识意识到: 指对事物价值应有评估

记忆方法:  1)理解的意思是清楚全面地知道mean to have a clear or complete idea of.

(4) 理性
reason: refers to the faculty for order, sense, rationality in thought, inference, and conclusion about perceptions: tried to approach each problem with calm and ~.    逻辑logic表示"顺序order",理智sense表示"会判断judge",理性rationality表示"会推理reason"。    (reason 1表示理性时和rationality意思相同,如本例   2、表示理由原因时,强调公平正当fair and just cause,如willing to grant any reasonable request愿意答应任何合理请求)        本例:平静理性地处理每个问题      窍门:3个关键词以ros开头,想成玫瑰

understanding: may widen the scope of reason to include most thought processes leading to comprehension and also the resultant state of knowledge: research that led to a new ~ of the disease.

intuition: stresses quick knowledge or comprehension without evident orderly reason, thought, or cogitation: responded on the basis of ~.     cogitate沉思to think deeply and intently专注深入地思考,如sitting there cogitating坐那沉思

reason理性: 指逻辑判断推理的能力,understanding理解知识: 泛指思维过程及(获得的)知识intuition直觉:  强调快速理解知道,不需要推理思考

记忆方法:  1)理性的意思是获取真知的能力mean the power of the intellect by which human beings attain truth or knowledge.

(5) 分享
share: may imply that one as the original holder grants to another the partial use, enjoyment, or possession of a thing, OR may merely imply a mutual use or possession: ~d my tools with the others.       如the lion's share最大份额,to share responsibility/profits负责/共利润,to share a room with someone与某人共居一室,sharebroker/shareholder股票经纪人/股东, 如share the pursuits and happiness of the masses向往你的向往幸福你的幸福

participate: implies a having or taking part in an undertaking, activity, or discussions: students are encouraged to ~ in outside activities.

partake: implies accepting or acquiring a share especially of food or drink: invited everyone to ~ freely of the refreshments.     refreshments小吃茶点

share分享共享: 指原持有人分给他人使用,或共同持有和使用,participate参加: 指参与行动活动讨论,partake分享: 用于饮食

记忆方法:  1)分享的意思是共同占有获取使用mean to have, get, or use in common with another or others.


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