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其他国家的高考是什么样的?你都知道吗??

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-7-20 01:27| 查看数: 129| 评论数: 0|

What are the examination systems in other countries?

其他国家的考试制度是什么?

Australia:

澳大利亚:

Pupils have external exams at 18. These exams act as a certificate of school completion and, depending on grade, entry into tertiary education.

学生在18岁时要参加外部考试。这些考试相当于学校结业证书,并根据年级的不同作为进入高等教育的证明。

Canada: Alberta

加拿大: 阿尔伯塔

At age 15 pupils’ achievement is tested in 5 subjects: Maths, Science, Social Studies, English and French. This is not a formal leaving certificate but shows which pupils are eligible to attend senior high school. At age 18 pupils can obtain one of the following:

在15岁时,学生需要通过5门科目的测试以获得成绩:数学、科学、社会研究、英语和法语。这不是正式的离校证明,但能表明哪些学生有资格上高中。年满18岁的学生可以获得下列其中一项:

• Alberta High School Diploma ;

阿尔伯塔高中文凭;

• Certificate of High School Achievement (for students enrolled in knowledge and employability courses);

高中成绩证书(适用于学习知识和就业能力课程的学生);

• Certificate of Achievement (for students on specific integrated occupational programmes);

成绩证书(适用于特定综合职业课程的学生);

• Certificate of School Completion (for students with significant cognitive delays).

学校结业证书(适用于有严重认知障碍的学生)。

The majority of students receive the High School Diploma.

大多数学生都会获得高中文凭。

Canada: Ontario

加拿大:安大略

To gain the high school diploma ‐ students must:

要获得高中文凭,学生必须:

• obtain thirty credits in high school;

在高中获得30个学分;

• successfully complete compulsory Grade 10 literacy test (students aged 15/16);

成功完成必修的10年级读写能力考试(15/16岁的学生);

• complete 40 hours of community involvement.

完成40个小时的社区服务。

Estonia:

爱沙尼亚:

16 year-olds take three examinations at the end of compulsory education: either Estonian language and literature or Estonian as a second language, Maths and one subject chosen by the student from English, German, Russian as a foreign language, French, biology, chemistry, physics, geography, history, civic studies and Russian language and literature.

16岁的学生在义务教育结束时需要参加三门考试:爱沙尼亚语言和文学或爱沙尼亚语作为第二语言,数学以及学生从英语、德语、俄语作为外语、法语、生物、化学、物理、地理、历史、公民研究、俄语语言和文学中选择的一门课程。

Upper secondary school pupils (age 19) take a minimum of five upper secondary school final examinations chosen from Estonian, Estonian as a second language, Russian, Russian as a foreign language, civic studies, mathematics, English, German, French, biology, geography, chemistry, history, and physics. At least three of these must be state examinations. The remaining two can be school examinations or state examinations (the latter are integrated with higher educational institution entrance examinations).

高中生(19岁)至少要参加五门高中期末考试,可从爱沙尼亚、爱沙尼亚作为第二语言、俄语、俄语作为外语、公民研究、数学、英语、德语、法语、生物、地理、化学、历史和物理中选择。其中至少有三门必须参加国家考试。剩下的两门可以是学校考试或国家考试(后者与高等教育机构的入学考试相结合)。

Finland:

芬兰:

At age 18 to 19 students usually take the matriculation examination: This comprises at least four tests:

18至19岁的学生通常需要参加入学考试,这至少包括四项考试:

• mother tongue (compulsory)

母语(必修)

• three other compulsory tests from second national language, foreign language, maths, and one test from sciences or humanities

其他三门必修课,包括第二民族语言,外语,数学,以及一项科学或人文学科的考试

• one or more optional tests.

一项或多项可选测试。

France:

法国:

Lower secondary education ends at 15 when pupils take a lower secondary leaving exam, the brevet, which comprises tests French, maths, history/geography and civics education together with continuous assessment from 13-15. After one year of upper secondary education, pupils can leave or continue their education. Those that stay on can choose from a range of Baccalauréate, a technical brevet or vocational certificates.

初中教育在15岁结束后,学生们需要参加初中毕业考试——初中毕业会考,其中包括法语、数学、历史/地理和公民教育,以及从13到15岁的连续评估。经过一年的高中教育后,学生可以选择离开或继续学业。那些留下来的学生可以在一系列文凭、技术证书或职业证书中进行选择。

Japan:

日本:

No national assessment. Individual institutions arrange assessment at the end of lower secondary education (age 15) which may influence entry to senior high school although entry tests for these are often administered by municipal boards of education. Each local senior high school selects its own pupils under supervision of boards of education and in accordance with individual board’s regulations. National and private upper secondary schools conduct their own entrance exams. Individual institutions issue a Certificate of Upper Secondary Education at age 18. This Certificate is just one of the requirements for entry to higher education.

日本没有全国性的评估考试。个别机构在初中教育结束时(15岁)会安排评估,这可能会影响高中入学,尽管这些入学考试通常是由市教育委员会管理。每所地方高中在教育委员会的监督下,根据个别委员会的规定选择自己要录取的学生。国立和私立高中都有自己的入学考试。个别院校在18岁时颁发高中教育证书,但这一证书只是升学的条件之一。

Korea (South):

韩国:

No national examination on completion of lower secondary phase education. However, students may need to take an entrance exam at age 15+ for some upper secondary schools.

完成初中阶段教育后没有国家考试。然而,对于一些高中,学生可能需要在15岁以上参加入学考试。

At age 18+, pupils receive either a High School Certificate or a Vocational High School Certificate. All students who wish to go to junior college after upper secondary school (high school) have to take the national College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT). CSAT involves written tests in subject domains: Korean; Maths; English; Social studies, science and vocational education (pupils choose 9 tests from a range of options); and a second foreign language.

18岁以上的学生会获得高中证书或职业高中证书。所有希望在高中毕业后进入大学的学生必须参加全国学院学术能力考试(CSAT)。CSAT包括以下学科领域的笔试:韩语;数学;英语;社会科学、科学和职业教育(学生从一系列选项中选择9门考试);以及第二外语。

Higher education institutions announce annually their student admission criteria which include elements such as CSAT score, comprehensive high school records, institution‐administered examinations, interviews, essays and recommendation letters.

高等教育机构每年都会公布他们的招生标准,其中包括CSAT成绩、综合高中成绩、院校管理的考试、面试、作文和推荐信等要素。

The CSAT is currently being revised (applicable from 2014). The pressure on students taking CSAT will be significantly reduced ready for when the college entrance system is changed to one centred on an admissions office system.

CSAT目前正在修订中(2014年起适用)。学生参加CSAT考试的压力将大大减轻,这也为大学招生制度转变为以招生办公室为中心的制度做好准备。

The Netherlands:

荷兰:

At age 15, schools assess whether students have acquired the knowledge, understanding and skills described in the attainment targets for basic secondary education (known as the first cycle). Pupils then enter the second cycle which prepares students for specific, differentiated terminal examinations:

在15岁时,学校会评估学生是否获得了基础中等教育成就目标(称为第一周期)中描述的知识、理解力和技能。然后,学生们进入第二个周期,这一周期中会为学生们准备具体的、差异化的期末考试:

• VMBO, pre-vocational secondary education qualification: comprises a compulsory common component (Dutch, English, social studies I, physical education and arts I), an optional component, and a sector‐specific component (chosen from: engineering and technology, care and welfare, business or agriculture)

VMBO,职前中等教育资质:包括必修公共部分(荷兰语、英语、社会研究I、体育和艺术I)、可选部分和特定部门的部分(从工程和技术、护理和福利事业、商业或农业中选择)。

• HAVO, senior general secondary education qualification: common component as above, specialised components and an optional component chosen from subject combinations: “science and technology”, “science and health” and “economics and society”. As well as terminal exams, pupils have to write a project which is expected to take 80 hours.

HAVO,高级普通中等教育资格:包括如上所述的公共部分、专业部分和从学科组合中选择的可选部分(“科学与技术”、“科学与健康”和“经济与社会”)。除了期末考试,学生们还必须完成一个项目,预计需要80个小时。

• VWO, a pre-university qualification: as HAVO but with a greater study load.

VWO,大学预科学历:;类似HAVO,但学习负担更重。

New Zealand:

新西兰:

The National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) is the main qualification at all levels of the senior secondary school. It allows a diverse range of students in an increasingly wide variety of courses in schools to have their achievements recognised and reported. Students completing Year 11 – the final year of compulsory education (age 15/16) obtain credits towards the NCEA. Approved courses are listed in the New Zealand Qualifications Framework (NZQF).

教育评鉴国家级证书(NCEA)是高中各级的主要证书。它允许学校中越来越多不同课程的不同学生的成绩得到认可和并获得报告。完成11年级,即义务教育最后一年(15/16岁)的学生能获得NCEA的学分。这些批准的课程通常列在新西兰资格认证框架(NZQF)中。

Students can achieve the NCEA from a wide range of studies within the school curriculum and beyond. Each subject is assessed externally and by internal assessment (externally moderated) using achievement standards developed by education, industry and national standards bodies. These standards are in place for general/academic (school curriculum) subjects and for vocational and technical subjects.

学生可以从学校课程内外的广泛学习中取得NCEA。每个科目都使用由教育、行业和国家标准机构制定的成绩标准进行外部评估和内部评估(外部协调)。这些标准适用于普通/学术(学校课程)科目以及职业和技术科目。

NCEA is intended to be a comprehensive record of what pupils achieve and a ‘launching pad’ for their ongoing learning and future careers. It is standards‐based and complements external assessment with internal assessment in all conventional school subjects at three levels (Level 1 NCEA, Level 2 NCEA, and Level 3 NCEA, broadly equivalent to Year 11, Year 12 and Year 13).

NCEA旨在全面记录学生的成绩,并为他们持续的学习和未来的职业生涯提供一个“跳板”。它以标准为基础,与所有传统学校三个级别(1级NCEA、2级NCEA和3级NCEA,大致相当于11年级、12年级和13年级)的外部评估和内部评估相辅相成。

USA – Massachusetts:

美国马萨诸塞州:

No qualification is awarded at the end of compulsory education (age 16). However, one of the requirements for a high school graduation diploma – received on completion of Grade 12 (age 18) is that students pass the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) Grade 10 “competency determination” tests in English, Maths, Science and technology.

义务教育结束时(16岁)不授予任何资格。然而,取得高中毕业文凭(在12年级,即18岁结束时得到)的要求之一是学生必须通过马萨诸塞州综合评估系统(MCAS)10年级的英语、数学、科学和技术“能力确定”测试。

18 year olds who complete high school and have passed the MCAS tests are awarded the high school graduation diploma. This is the minimum requirement for US higher education. However, university applicants are also judged on their high school record, courses taken and marks received, teachers’ recommendations and marks in college/higher education admission tests.

完成高中学业并通过MCAS考试的18岁学生将获得高中毕业证书。这是美国高等教育的最低要求。然而,大学申请者也会根据他们的高中成绩、选修的课程和收到的分数、教师的推荐和大学/高等教育入学考试的分数来评判。



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