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不能用被动语态的几种情况

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-4-17 03:36| 查看数: 684| 评论数: 0|



1)某些表示“静态”的及物动词(表示状态而不是动作,而且常常是不可用于进行时态的动词)如have,fit,suit,hold(容纳),cost, suffer,last(持续)等不能用于被动语态。如:

They have a nice car.他们有一辆漂亮的汽车。

My shoes don't fit me.我的鞋不合适。

My brain can't hold so much information at one time.我的脑子一下子记不住这么多资料。

How much /What does it cost?这值多少钱?

Our holiday lasts 10days.我们的假期有十天。

This food will last(them)(for)3days.这食物足够(他们)(吃)三天。

2)不是所有带介词的动词都能用于被动结构。若是构成成语动词通常有被动态,若不构成成语动词则无被动态。试比较:

They arrived at a decision./A decision was arrived at.他们作出了决定。

They arrived at the station.他们到达车站。(不说:The station was arrived at.)

He looked into the question./The question was looked into.他调查了这个问题。

3)动词leave(离开),enter(进入),join(参加)这一类词不可用于被动语态。如:

The car left the road and hit a tree.车子离开了道路,撞上了树。

4)某些及物动词可作不及物动词用,特别是后加副词(如well, easily等)时。主动语态有被动含义,这类动词常见的有sell,write, wear,wash,cook,open,close,lock,read,record等。如:

His new novel is selling well.他的新小说很畅销。The cloth washes well.这布很耐洗。

This material won't wear.这种材料不耐穿。His play won't act.他的戏剧不会上演。

The window won't shut.这窗关不上。The door won't open.这门打不开。

The door won't lock.这门锁不上。This poem reads well.这首诗读来很好。

5)feel,look,appear,sound,taste,smell等由实意动词演变而来的系动词,后接形容词作表语,不可用于被动语态。如:

Tell me if you feel cold.你要是感到冷就告诉我。

You're looking very unhappy—what's the matter?你看来很不高兴———怎么回事儿?

The soup tastes wonderful.这汤味道好极了。

Those roses smell beautiful.那些玫瑰好闻极了。

She appears to be friendly.她看上去很友好。

6)宾语是不定式或动词的-ing形式时,不可用于被动语态。如:

Peter hoped to meet her.彼得希望遇见她。

Mr Smith enjoyed seeing his daughter.史密斯先生喜欢看他的女儿。

7)宾语是反身代词或相互代词时,不可用于被动语态。如:

She can dress herself.她可以自己穿衣服。

We could hardly see each other in the fog.在雾中我们彼此几乎看不见。

8)宾语是同源宾语时,不可用于被动语态。如:

They live a happy life.他们过着幸福的生活。

The girl dreamed a sweet dream .那女孩做了个甜美的梦。

9)宾语带有与主语有照应关系的物主代词时,不可用于被动语态。如:

The old man broke his(=the old man's)legs.那老人把自己的腿弄断了。

The girl shook her(=the girl's)head.那女孩摇了摇头。



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