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人性与病毒之战|对战致死率高达90%的埃博拉病毒,我们学到了什么?

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-2-12 01:20| 查看数: 316| 评论数: 0|

世界卫生组织(WHO)总干事谭德塞当地时间9日在社交媒体上透露,由Bruce Aylward博士带领的WHO专家团队已出发前往中国,协助应对新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情。



Bruce Aylward博士曾率团抗击非洲埃博拉疫情,具有应对突发公共卫生事件的丰富经验。前几年,他在TED演讲台上带领大家重走埃博拉疫情爆发,以及国家应对该病毒的过程。Bruce Aylward分享了对抗埃博拉病毒的四大关键性战略,以及它们是如何成功的。这四大战略在利比理亚的爆发病毒中心洛法镇开始奏效,连续八周内没有新的病例记录在案。Bruce Aylward强调,我们目前并未赢得对埃博拉病毒的斗争,但如果我们做正确的事情,最终一定会胜利的。



When I was invited to give this talk a couple of months ago, we discussed a number of titles with the organizers, and a lot of different items were kicked around and were discussed. But nobody suggested this one, and the reason for that was two months ago, Ebola was escalating exponentially and spreading over wider geographic areas than we had ever seen, and the world was terrified, concerned and alarmed by this disease, in a way we've not seen in recent history. 几周前,我受邀来进行这场演讲时,我们与主办方探讨了几个题目,从各个角度考虑并讨论了很多不同的可能性。但没有人提议“击败埃博拉”这个话题,而其原因正是在两个月前,埃博拉病毒以指数般滋生,蔓延到了前所未见的广大地区,而全世界都为之惊恐、担忧、警惕,其紧张程度在近代历史上都不曾见到。

But today, I can stand here and I can talk to you about beating Ebola because of people whom you've never heard of, people like Peter Clement, a Liberian doctor who's working in Lofa County, a place that many of you have never heard of, probably, in Liberia. The reason that Lofa County is so important is because about five months ago, when the epidemic was just starting to escalate, Lofa County was right at the center, the epicenter of this epidemic. At that time, MSF and the treatment center there, they were seeing dozens of patients every single day, and these patients, these communities were becoming more and more terrified as time went by, with this disease and what it was doing to their families, to their communities, to their children, to their relatives. And so Peter Clement was charged with driving that 12-hour-long rough road from Monrovia, the capital, up to Lofa County, to try and help bring control to the escalating epidemic there. 但今天,我能够站在这裡,与大家讨论击败埃博拉这个话题,多亏了那些你们从未听说过的人们,比如彼特•克莱蒙德,利比理亚洛法镇的一名医生,你们当中许多人可能从未听说过利比理亚的洛法镇。洛法镇如此重要的原因就是因为在大约五个月前,当埃博拉疫情刚刚开始蔓延时,洛法镇正是这场疫情的中心。那时,驻扎在那里的无国界医生组织和治疗中心,每天都要见到数十位病人,而这些病人,这些社区在变得愈发恐惧,随着时间流逝,这场疾病给他们的家人带来了灭顶之灾,还有他们的社区,他们的孩子,以及他们的亲戚。因此彼特•克莱蒙德卯足了劲,在颠簸的公路上开了12个小时,从利比理亚首都蒙洛威尔开到了洛法镇,他要试着帮助控制正在此逐渐蔓延的疫情。

And what Peter found when he arrived was the terror that I just mentioned to you. So he sat down with the local chiefs, and he listened. And what he heard was heartbreaking. He heard about the devastation and the desperation of people affected by this disease. He heard the heartbreaking stories about not just the damage that Ebola did to people, but what it did to families and what it did to communities. And he listened to the local chiefs there and what they told him -- They said, "When our children are sick, when our children are dying, we can't hold them at a time when we want to be closest to them. When our relatives die, we can't take care of them as our tradition demands. We are not allowed to wash the bodies to bury them the way our communities and our rituals demand. And for this reason, they were deeply disturbed, deeply alarmed and the entire epidemic was unraveling in front of them. 而彼特到达洛法镇时,发现了我之前提到的恐慌。于是他和当地领袖们坐下,聆听他们发言。他听到的是令人心碎的消息。他听说了那些灭顶之灾,以及受埃博拉感染的人们有多么绝望。他听说了那些令人心碎的故事,不仅仅是关于埃博拉对人们所造成的破坏,还有它对家庭、社区造成的影响。他听着当地领袖们诉说的故事,他们说:“当我们的孩子生病时,当我们的孩子正在死去,我们在最想靠近他们的时刻却不能保住他们。当我们的亲人死去,我们无法像传统惯例般照料他们的遗体。我们被禁止洗梳他们的身体,为他们下葬,正如我们的社区和惯例所要求的那样。正因如此,他们身心不宁,高度警惕,而整场瘟疫就在他们面前拉开帷幕。

People were turning on the healthcare workers who had come, the heroes who had come to try and help save the community, to help work with the community, and they were unable to access them. And what happened then was Peter explained to the leaders. The leaders listened. They turned the tables. And Peter explained what Ebola was. He explained what the disease was. He explained what it did to their communities. And he explained that Ebola threatened everything that made us human. Ebola means you can't hold your children the way you would in this situation. You can't bury your dead the way that you would. You have to trust these people in these space suits to do that for you.人们开始攻击那些来到镇上的医务人员,那些来试着帮助拯救这个社区的英雄们,那些来与社区协作的英雄们,让他们无法接近镇上的人。接下来,彼特为当地领袖们进行了解释。领袖们聆听着。他们扭转了局面。彼特解释了埃博拉病毒是什么。他解释了这种疾病是怎么回事。他解释了埃博拉对他们社区造成的影响。然后他还解释了,埃博拉病毒威胁着我们的人性。埃博拉意味着你不能在孩子们奄奄一息时保住他们。你无法按照传统惯例安葬他们的遗体。你必须相信那些身着“太空服”的人,相信他们会为你做这些事情。

And ladies and gentlemen, what happened then was rather extraordinary: The community and the health workers, Peter, they sat down together and they put together a new plan for controlling Ebola in Lofa County. And the reason that this is such an important story, ladies and gentlemen, is because today, this county, which is right at the center of this epidemic you've been watching, you've been seeing in the newspapers, you've been seeing on the television screens, today Lofa County is nearly eight weeks without seeing a single case of Ebola. (Applause) 女士们先生们,接下来发生的相当非比寻常:整个社区和医护人员,还有彼特一起坐了下来,他们共同规划了新方案,以在洛法镇控制埃博拉病毒。而这个故事重要的原因,女士们先生们,就在于今天,这个位于疫情中心的镇,你一直在关注的疫情,你一直在报纸上见到的疫情,你一直在电视屏幕上看到的疫情,在今天的洛法镇,已经有将近八周没有新病例产生了。(掌声)

Now, this doesn't mean that the job is done, obviously. There's still a huge risk that there will be additional cases there. But what it does teach us is that Ebola can be beaten. That's the key thing. Even on this scale, even with the rapid kind of growth that we saw in this environment here, we now know Ebola can be beaten. When communities come together with health care workers, work together, that's when this disease can be stopped. 显然,这并不意味着大功告成。那里会产生更多病例的风险仍然很大。但这个故事教给我们的是埃博拉病毒是能够被击败的。那才是关键。甚至是在这么大的规模下,甚至是以我们在这个环境中所看到的这般蔓延速度,如今我们知道埃博拉是能被击败的。当社区聚到一起,再加上医护人员,大家共同努力,此时,这场疫情就能被终止。

But how did Ebola end up in Lofa County in the first place? Well, for that, we have to go back 12 months, to the start of this epidemic. And as many of you know, this virus went undetected, it evaded detection for three or four months when it began. That's because this is not a disease of West Africa, it's a disease of Central Africa, half a continent away. People hadn't seen the disease before; health workers hadn't seen the disease before. They didn't know what they were dealing with, and to make it even more complicated, the virus itself was causing a symptom, a type of a presentation that wasn't classical of the disease. So people didn't even recognize the disease, people who knew Ebola. For that reason it evaded detection for some time, but contrary to public belief sometimes these days, once the virus was detected, there was a rapid surge in of support. MSF rapidly set up an Ebola treatment center, as many of you know, in the area. The World Health Organization and the partners that it works with deployed eventually hundreds of people over the next two months to be able to help track the virus. The problem, ladies and gentlemen, is by then, this virus, well known now as Ebola, had spread too far. It had already outstripped what was one of the largest responses that had been mounted so far to an Ebola outbreak. 但埃博拉在最初是如何在洛法镇出现的呢?要回答这个问题,我们必须回到12个月前,回到这场疫情的开端。你们当中许多人都知道,这种病毒当时没有被检测到,疫情爆发前,这个病毒已经潜伏了三到四个月。那是因为埃博拉并非西非的疾病,而是来自相距半块大陆之远的中非。人们之前从未见过这种病;医护人员之前也从未见过这种病。他们不知道自己面对的是什么,而令事情更为复杂的是,病毒本身引起了一种症状,一种这种病非典型的表现。所以知道埃博拉的人也并未认出这种疾病。由于这个原因,它潜伏了一段时间。但与如今公众所相信的恰恰相反的是,当病毒被检测到时,有一大批支援涌入了疫情中心。无国界医生组织在这片地区迅速设置起了埃博拉治疗中心。世界卫生组织和其合作伙伴们在接下来的两个月内逐步部署了几百人,以帮助追踪病情的发展。问题是,女士们先生们,当时这个病毒,这个如今以“埃博拉”之名闻名于世的病毒,早已蔓延开来。它的规模早已超越了当时为埃博拉爆发所做出的最大准备。

By the middle of the year, not just Guinea but now Sierra Leone and Liberia were also infected. As the virus was spreading geographically, the numbers were increasing and at this time, not only were hundreds of people infected and dying of the disease, but as importantly, the front line responders, the people who had gone to try and help, the health care workers, the other responders were also sick and dying by the dozens. The presidents of these countries recognized the emergencies. They met right around that time, they agreed on common action and they put together an emergency joint operation center in Conakry to try and work together to finish this disease and get it stopped, to implement the strategies we talked about. 年中时,不仅仅是几内亚,还有塞拉利昂和利比理亚也遭受感染。随着病毒大面积扩散,受感染人数不断增加,此时,不仅有几百人受到埃博拉感染,并死于此病,而且同样重要的是,在前线抗争的响应者们,那些来试着帮忙的人,医护人员和其他响应者也有数十人因此病倒,并死于埃博拉病毒。这些国家的总统意识到了问题的紧急性。他们就在那时进行了会见,并一致同意共同采取行动,然后他们在柯那克里(几内亚首都)成立了一个应急联合行动中心,来试着通过合作消灭这场疾病,阻止它的蔓延,并执行我们探讨过的战略。

But what happened then was something we had never seen before with Ebola. What happened then was the virus, or someone sick with the virus, boarded an airplane, flew to another country, and for the first time, we saw in another distant country the virus pop up again. This time it was in Nigeria, in the teeming metropolis of Lagos, 21 million people. Now the virus was in that environment. And as you can anticipate, there was international alarm, international concern on a scale that we hadn't seen in recent years caused by a disease like this. The World Health Organization immediately called together an expert panel, looked at the situation, declared an international emergency. And in doing so, the expectation would be that there would be a huge outpouring of international assistance to help these countries which were in so much trouble and concern at that time. 但当时我们在埃博拉面前所面临的情况是前所未见的。当时埃博拉病毒,或者是携带着这个病毒的某个人,登上了飞机,飞到了另一个国家,而有史以来第一次,我们在另一个遥远的国度看到埃博拉病毒再度出现。这一次,是在尼日利亚,在热闹的大都市拉各斯,此处分布着两千一百万人口。病毒到了那样一个环境中。正如你所预计的,国际警报就此拉响,引发了一场我们近年来都不曾见到的大规模国际性关注,正是由这样的一场疾病所导致的。世界卫生组织立即召集了一只专家小组,研究了当下情况,并宣布这是一场国际性紧急状况。这样做的预期是之后会涌现一大批国际援助,来帮助这些国家,他们深陷埃博拉的泥潭,当时十分担忧自己的处境。

But what we saw was something very different. There was some great response. A number of countries came to assist -- many, many NGOs and others, as you know, but at the same time, the opposite happened in many places. Alarm escalated, and very soon these countries found themselves not receiving the support they needed, but increasingly isolated. What we saw was commercial airlines [stopped] flying into these countries and people who hadn't even been exposed to the virus were no longer allowed to travel. This caused not only problems, obviously, for the countries themselves, but also for the response. Those organizations that were trying to bring people in, to try and help them respond to the outbreak, they could not get people on airplanes, they could not get them into the countries to be able to respond. In that situation, ladies and gentleman, a virus like Ebola takes advantage. 但我们所见到的却十分不同。反响十分强烈。许多国家前来支援﹣许多许多非政府组织,正如你所了解的,但与此同时,恰恰相反的回应在许多地区也在发生。警报逐步升级,很快这些国家发现自己没有收到他们所需的援助,反而变得愈发孤立。我们见到商业航线开始飞入这些国家,而那些甚至没有接触过埃博拉病毒的人们被禁止旅行。很显然,这不仅为那些国家本身引起了问题,还对援助回应造成了麻烦。那些正试着将人带入这些国家的组织,那些想要帮助他们响应埃博拉病毒爆发的组织,他们无法将人送上飞机,无法将人带入那些国家,以对埃博拉进行响应。在那样的情况下,女士们先生们,像埃博拉这样的病毒就会趁虚而入。

And what we saw then was something also we hadn't seen before. Not only did this virus continue in the places where they'd already become infected, but then it started to escalate and we saw the case numbers that you see here, something we'd never seen before on such a scale, an exponential increase of Ebola cases not just in these countries or the areas already infected in these countries but also spreading further and deeper into these countries. Ladies and gentleman, this was one of the most concerning international emergencies in public health we've ever seen. 我们所面临的局面前所未见。埃博拉病毒不仅仅在这些地方继续存在,而这些地方的人已经受到感染,然后病毒开始升级,而我们也看到了你们在这里所见到的病例数量,这种规模是前所未见的,埃博拉病例以指数般增长,不仅仅是在这些国家或是这些国家中已受感染的地区,并且它在这些国家扩散得更广更深。女士们先生们,这是我们所见过的最令人担忧的国际性公共健康紧急状况之一。

And what happened in these countries then, many of you saw, again, on the television, read about in the newspapers, we saw the health system start to collapse under the weight of this epidemic. We saw the schools begin to close, markets no longer started, no longer functioned the way that they should in these countries. We saw that misinformation and misperceptions started to spread even faster through the communities, which became even more alarmed about the situation. They started to recoil from those people that you saw in those space suits, as they call them, who had come to help them. And then the situation deteriorated even further. The countries had to declare a state of emergency. Large populations needed to be quarantined in some areas, and then riots broke out. It was a very, very terrifying situation.而之后在这些国家发生的事情,正如你们许多人在电视上所看到的,或是在报纸上所读到的,这些国家的健康体系开始崩溃,不堪这场流行病的重压。学校开始关闭,市场不再开张,也不再如往常般在这些国家运行。误报和误解在这些社区开始以更快的速度流传,令他们对局势变得愈发紧张。他们开始疏远那些被称为“身着太空服的人”,而那些人是来帮助当地社区的。然后局势进一步恶化。这些国家不得不宣告本国处于紧急状况。这些地区的大量人口要被隔离,然后骚乱便爆发了。此时的局势非常非常可怕。

Around the world, many people began to ask, can we ever stop Ebola when it starts to spread like this? And they started to ask, how well do we really know this virus? The reality is we don't know Ebola extremely well. It's a relatively modern disease in terms of what we know about it. We've known the disease only for 40 years, since it first popped up in Central Africa in 1976. But despite that, we do know many things: We know that this virus probably survives in a type of a bat. We know that it probably enters a human population when we come in contact with a wild animal that has been infected with the virus and probably sickened by it. Then we know that the virus spreads from person to person through contaminated body fluids. And as you've all seen, we know the horrific disease that it then causes in humans, where we see this disease cause severe fevers, diarrhea, vomiting, and then unfortunately, in 70 percent of the cases or often more, death. This is a very dangerous, debilitating, and deadly disease. 在全球各地,许多人开始发问,当埃博拉病毒开始如此疯狂扩散时,我们还能阻止它吗?他们开始发问,我们对这个病毒了解有多透彻呢?事实上,我们对埃博拉病毒了解的并不多。它是一种相对现代的疾病,就我们所了解的而言。我们知道这种病仅仅40年,它第一次出现是在1976年的中非。但除此之外,我们的确知道许多事情:我们知道这种病毒很有可能存活于一种蝙蝠体内。我们知道它很有可能会进入人类社会,当我们接触受埃博拉感染或是已遭受此病侵袭的野生动物时;我们还知道这种病毒在人与人之间的扩散是通过体液感染。正如你们已经都见到的,我们也知道这种病毒在人体内所造成的可怕疾病,这种疾病会导致严重发热、腹泻、呕吐,不幸的是,在超过70%的病例中,患者会死亡。这是一种十分危险、令人逐步衰竭、并且置人于死地的疾病。

But despite the fact that we've not known this disease for a particularly long time, and we don't know everything about it, we do know how to stop this disease. There are four things that are critical to stopping Ebola. First and foremost, the communities have got to understand this disease, they've got to understand how it spreads and how to stop it. And then we've got to be able to have systems that can find every single case, every contact of those cases, and begin to track the transmission chains so that you can stop transmission. We have to have treatment centers, specialized Ebola treatment centers, where the workers can be protected as they try to provide support to the people who are infected, so that they might survive the disease. And then for those who do die, we have to ensure there is a safe, but at the same time dignified, burial process, so that there is no spread at that time as well. 然而,尽管我们了解这种疾病的时间并不长,也并没有了解它的一切,但我们的确知道如何阻止埃博拉。有四件事对阻止埃博拉是十分关键的。首先,社区必须要去理解这种疾病,他们必须要理解埃博拉是如何扩散、如何阻止的。然后我们必须建立一个体系,能够找到每一宗病例,以及那些病例的所有联系人,并且开始追踪传播链,这样才能阻止传播。我们必须要建立治疗中心,专门研究埃博拉的治疗中心,在那里,医疗工作者们能得到保护,在他们努力为那些受感染的人提供帮助时,这样他们才能够活下来。而对于那些逝者,我们必须确保有一个安全而又保有尊严的埋葬流程,以确保在此流程中也不会造成病毒的扩散。

So we do know how to stop Ebola, and these strategies work, ladies and gentlemen. The virus was stopped in Nigeria by these four strategies and the people implementing them, obviously. It was stopped in Senegal, where it had spread, and also in the other countries that were affected by this virus, in this outbreak. So there's no question that these strategies actually work. The big question, ladies and gentlemen, was whether these strategies could work on this scale, in this situation, with so many countries affected with the kind of exponential growth that you saw. 我们知道该如何阻止埃博拉,而这些策略是有效的,女士们先生们。埃博拉病毒在尼日利亚已经通过这四个策略被成功阻止,也多亏了执行这四个策略的人们,这是当然的。该病毒也在塞尔内加被阻止,此前它一直在此扩散,同时,其他在这次疫情爆发中受感染的国家也阻止了埃博拉。因此,毋庸置疑,这些策略的确奏效。而最大的问题在于,女士们先生们,这些策略是否能在这样的规模下,这样的情况中奏效,已有这么多国家受到感染,扩散的速度如你所见以指数增加。

That was the big question that we were facing just two or three months ago. Today we know the answer to that question. And we know that answer because of the extraordinary work of an incredible group of NGOs, of governments, of local leaders, of U.N. agencies and many humanitarian and other organizations that came and joined the fight to try and stop Ebola in West Africa. 那就是我们在两到三个月前所面临的大问题。今天,我们知道了解决这个问题的答案。而我们之所以知道答案,就是因为一群人的杰出努力,包括一群了不起的非政府组织,一群政府,当地领袖,联合国机构,以及许多人道主义组织,他们前来加入了阻止埃博拉在西非扩散的抗争中。

But what had to be done there was slightly different. These countries took those strategies I just showed you; the community engagement, the case finding, contact tracing, etc., and they turned them on their head. There was so much disease, they approached it differently. What they decided to do was they would first try and slow down this epidemic by rapidly building as many beds as possible in specialized treatment centers so that they could prevent the disease from spreading from those were infected. They would rapidly build out many, many burial teams so that they could safely deal with the dead, and with that, they would try and slow this outbreak to see if it could actually then be controlled using the classic approach of case finding and contact tracing. And when I went to West Africa about three months ago, when I was there what I saw was extraordinary. I saw presidents opening emergency operation centers themselves against Ebola so that they could personally coordinate and oversee and champion this surge of international support to try and stop this disease. We saw militaries from within those countries and from far beyond coming in to help build Ebola treatment centers that could be used to isolate those who were sick. We saw the Red Cross movement working with its partner agencies on the ground there to help train the communities so that they could actually safely bury their dead in a dignified manner themselves. And we saw the U.N. agencies, the World Food Program, build a tremendous air bridge that could get responders to every single corner of these countries rapidly to be able to implement the strategies that we just talked about. 但在那里要完成的有稍许不同。这些国家采取了我刚刚为大家展示的那些策略;社区联合,寻找病例,追踪联系人,等等。然后他们改变了策略。疾病已扩散得如此猖獗,他们要用不同的手法来解决。他们决定先试试延缓这场传染病的传播速度,通过在专治埃博拉的治疗中心快速搭建儘可能多的床位,这样一来他们就能阻止疾病从已感染的人身上扩散开来。他们会快速成立许多安葬队伍,这样一来他们就能安全地解决病人的尸体,从而减缓这场传染病的传播速度,看看是否真的能够控制埃博拉扩散,通过利用这种“寻找病例和追踪联系人”的经典手法。当我三个月前去西非时,我在那儿看到了一副超凡景象。我看到总统们亲自创立紧急指挥中心以对抗埃博拉,如此一来他们就能够亲自协调、监督、支持大量涌入的国际支援,以对抗这场疾病的肆虐。我们看到来自那些国家甚至其他国家的军队来到这裡帮助搭建埃博拉治疗中心,用以隔离那些病人。我们看到红十字会运动在那里与它的伙伴机构一起合作,来帮助训练社区成员,从而使得他们能够安全地安葬死去的亲友,并且以有尊严的方式亲自为死者下葬。我们还看到联合国机构和世界粮食计划署搭建了一架巨大的空运桥樑,将响应者们快速送达这些国家的各个角落,以实施我们刚刚提到的策略。

What we saw, ladies and gentlemen, which was probably most impressive, was this incredible work by the governments, by the leaders in these countries, with the communities, to try to ensure people understood this disease, understood the extraordinary things they would have to do to try and stop Ebola. And as a result, ladies and gentlemen, we saw something that we did not know only two or three months earlier, whether or not it would be possible. What we saw was what you see now in this graph, when we took stock on December 1. What we saw was we could bend that curve, so to speak, change this exponential growth, and bring some hope back to the ability to control this outbreak. And for this reason, ladies and gentlemen, there's absolutely no question now that we can catch up with this outbreak in West Africa and we can beat Ebola.我们看到,女士们先生们,或许最为令人影响深刻的,是这些国家的政府和领导人与社区一起做出的惊人努力,来试图确保人们理解这场疾病,理解为了阻止埃博拉的传播,他们必须做出非凡的努力。结果,女士们先生们,我们就看到了在两三个月前我们甚至不知道是否可能的事情我们看到的正是你现在在这张图表上看到的,我们在12月1日评估状况时制作了这张表格。打个比喻来说,我们看到的是我们能够压制这条曲线,改变指数型增长模式,并且对控制这场病毒爆发的能力重新增添希望。由于这个原因,女士们先生们,毋庸置疑,我们能够追上这场疾病在西非爆发的步伐,并且我们能够击败埃博拉。

The big question, though, that many people are asking, even when they saw this curve, they said, "Well, hang on a minute -- that's great you can slow it down, but can you actually drive it down to zero?" We already answered that question back at the beginning of this talk, when I spoke about Lofa County in Liberia. We told you the story how Lofa County got to a situation where they have not seen Ebola for eight weeks. But there are similar stories from the other countries as well. From Gueckedou in Guinea, the first area where the first case was actually diagnosed. 然而最大的问题在于,许多人都在问,甚至当他们看到了这张曲线图,他们还会说,「嘿,等会儿﹣你能把传播速度减慢,这很赞,可是你真的能够把病例数下降为零吗?」我们已经在这场演讲的开头回答过这个问题了,当我谈到利比理亚的洛法镇时。我们告诉你洛法镇如何到达他们如今的局面,他们已经八周没有出现埃博拉的新病例了。但其他国家也有类似的故事。从几内亚的盖凯杜,也就是第一个埃博拉病例真正得到确诊的地方。

We've seen very, very few cases in the last couple of months, and here in Kenema, in Sierra Leone, another area in the epicenter, we have not seen the virus for more than a couple of weeks -- way too early to declare victory, obviously, but evidence, ladies and gentlemen, not only can the response catch up to the disease, but this disease can be driven to zero. 我们在过去的几个月内见到非常非常少量的新病例,而在塞拉利昂的凯内马,也就是另一个疫情中心,我们已经好几周都没有看到埃博拉病毒出现了﹣当然啦,要宣告胜利还为时过早,但证据表明,女士们先生们,我们的响应不仅能够赶上疾病肆虐的步伐,还能将这场疾病彻底消灭。

The challenge now, of course, is doing this on the scale needed right across these three countries, and that is a huge challenge. Because when you've been at something for this long, on this scale, two other big threats come in to join the virus. The first of those is complacency, the risk that as this disease curve starts to bend, the media look elsewhere, the world looks elsewhere. Complacency always a risk. 当然啦,目前的挑战在于在这三个国家所需的规模上实施这些策略,而那真是个巨大的挑战。因为当你对抗大规模的事物如此之久时,另外两个巨大的威胁会令这场病毒灾难雪上加霜。首先是自鸣得意,风险在于,随着疾病曲线图开始弯曲,媒体开始关注其他事情,全世界开始关注其他事情。自鸣得意永远都是一个风险。

And the other risk, of course, is when you've been working so hard for so long, and slept so few hours over the past months, people are tired, people become fatigued, and these new risks start to creep into the response. Ladies and gentlemen, I can tell you today I've just come back from West Africa. The people of these countries, the leaders of these countries, they are not complacent. They want to drive Ebola to zero in their countries. And these people, yes, they're tired, but they are not fatigued. They have an energy, they have a courage, they have the strength to get this finished.当然,另一个风险则是当你这么努力了这么久,过去几个月睡眠时间这么少时,大家都会很疲惫,大家变得全身乏力,而这些新风险开始偷偷进入对埃博拉的响应中。女士们先生们,我今天能告诉大家,我刚刚从西非回来。这些国家的人民和领导者们,他们并没有自鸣得意。他们想要将埃博拉在自己的国家彻底消灭。而这些人们,他们的确很疲惫,但他们并没有感到乏力。他们充满精力与勇气,他们有力量完成这个使命。

What they need, ladies and gentlemen, at this point, is the unwavering support of the international community, to stand with them, to bolster and bring even more support at this time, to get the job finished. Because finishing Ebola right now means turning the tables on this virus, and beginning to hunt it.女士们先生们,他们在此刻需要的是来自国际社区的坚定不移的支持,坚定地与他们同在,在此时此刻支持甚至是带来更多支持,以完成这项使命。因为战胜埃博拉在此刻意味着人类对埃博拉从劣势扭转为优势,并且开始反击它。

Remember, this virus, this whole crisis, rather, started with one case, and is going to finish with one case. But it will only finish if those countries have got enough epidemiologists, enough health workers, enough logisticians and enough other people working with them to be able to find every one of those cases, track their contacts and make sure that this disease stops once and for all. 记住,这个病毒,这整场开始于一个病例的灾难,也将以一个病例结束。但它的结束只有靠着那些国家拥有足够多的流行病学家,足够多的医护人员,足够多的物流人员,以及足够多的其他人来一起合作,才能找到那些病例所有的相关人,并追踪他们的联系人。确保这场疾病永远消失。

Ladies and gentleman, Ebola can be beaten. Now we need you to take this story out to tell it to the people who will listen and educate them on what it means to beat Ebola, and more importantly, we need you to advocate with the people who can help us bring the resources we need to these countries, to beat this disease. There are a lot of people out there who will survive and will thrive, in part because of what you do to help us beat Ebola. 女士们先生们,埃博拉是能够被击败的。我们需要你们把这个故事讲给那些愿意听的人,并教育他们,击败埃博拉意味著什么,更重要的是,我们需要你们鼓动那些能够帮助我们把资源送到这些国家的人们,以击败这场疾病。有许多人能够从这场疾病中活下来,并且从此茁壮成长,其中一部分原因就是因为你能够为击败埃博拉所做的。

Thank you. 谢谢大家。



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