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想帮助别人?放下自以为是,先学会倾听!

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2020-1-15 01:24| 查看数: 339| 评论数: 0|

Ernesto Sirolli是可持续经济发展领域的著名权威,他从70年代就开始在非洲从事援助工作,但他很快就意识到这些援助是多么无效。在这个幽默又充满激情的TED演讲中,Ernesto Sirolli从另一个角度告诉大家,如果想帮助别人,应该先学会闭嘴,倾听别人的想法。



Everything I do, and everything I do professionally -- my life -- has been shaped by seven years of work as a young man in Africa. From 1971 to 1977 -- I look young, but I'm not — (Laughter) -- I worked in Zambia, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Somalia, in projects of technical cooperation with African countries.

我所做的一切,不论是生活上还是工作上我的整个人生--深深受到年轻时在非洲工作的那七年的影响,从1971年到1977年。我看起来很年轻,但其实我老了--(笑声)我曾在赞比亚,肯尼亚,象牙海岸,阿尔及利亚,索马里参与过不少与非洲各国的技术合作项目。

I worked for an Italian NGO, and every single project that we set up in Africa failed. And I was distraught. I thought, age 21, that we Italians were good people and we were doing good work in Africa. Instead, everything we touched we killed.

当时我在一家意大利非政府组织工作。我们在非洲建立的每一个项目,都失败了。我都快抓狂了。那时21岁的我觉得我们意大利人是大好人,我们在为非洲做好事谋福利。然而,我们干什么赔什么。

Our first project, the one that has inspired my first book, "Ripples from the Zambezi," was a project where we Italians decided to teach Zambian people how to grow food. So we arrived there with Italian seeds in southern Zambia in this absolutely magnificent valley going down to the Zambezi River, and we taught the local people how to grow Italian tomatoes and zucchini and ... And of course the local people had absolutely no interest in doing that, so we paid them to come and work, and sometimes they would show up. (Laughter) And we were amazed that the local people, in such a fertile valley, would not have any agriculture. But instead of asking them how come they were not growing anything, we simply said, "Thank God we're here." (Laughter) "Just in the nick of time to save the Zambian people from starvation."

我们第一个项目给了我写第一本书的灵感,书名叫《赞比西河的涟漪》。在这个项目中,我们意大利人决定教赞比亚人种粮食。所以,我们带着意大利的种子来到了赞比亚南部,一个壮丽迷人的山谷,通向赞比西河。我们教当地人种植意大利西红柿和西葫芦等等。当然,当地人对此表示毫无兴趣,所以我们付工资请他们来劳作,他们也是一会儿来一会儿不来的。(笑声)有着如此肥沃的山谷,当地人居然不耕种,我们对此感到十分惊奇。但我们并没有问他们原因,而仅仅是感叹道:“幸亏我们来了。”(笑声)“在饥饿的赞比亚人民命悬一线时伸出了援手。”

And of course, everything in Africa grew beautifully. We had these magnificent tomatoes. In Italy, a tomato would grow to this size. In Zambia, to this size. And we could not believe, and we were telling the Zambians, "Look how easy agriculture is." When the tomatoes were nice and ripe and red, overnight, some 200 hippos came out from the river and they ate everything. (Laughter)

当然,在非洲种的东西都长得很好。我们种的西红柿漂亮极了。在意大利,一个西红柿长这么大。在赞比亚,能长这么大。这真是难以置信。我们跟赞比亚人说:“看,耕种多容易啊。”当西红柿成熟了,红彤彤的好看极了,一夜之间,从赞比西河跑来两百多头河马把所有西红柿都啃光了。(笑声)

And we said to the Zambians, "My God, the hippos!"

我们跟赞比亚人说:“天呐,这些该死的河马!”

And the Zambians said, "Yes, that's why we have no agriculture here." (Laughter)

赞比亚人说:“没错,这就是我们不在这里耕种的原因。”(笑声)

"Why didn't you tell us?""You never asked."

“你们为什么不早说?”“你又没问过。”

I thought it was only us Italians blundering around Africa, but then I saw what the Americans were doing, what the English were doing, what the French were doing, and after seeing what they were doing, I became quite proud of our project in Zambia. Because, you see, at least we fed the hippos.

我本以为只有我们意大利人在非洲栽了跟头,但当我知道美国人的情况,英国人的情况,法国人的情况,当看了他们的所作所为之后,我为我们在赞比亚的项目感到非常自豪。因为,我们至少喂饱了河马。

You should see the rubbish — (Applause) -- You should see the rubbish that we have bestowed on unsuspecting African people. You want to read the book, read "Dead Aid," by Dambisa Moyo, Zambian woman economist. The book was published in 2009. We Western donor countries have given the African continent two trillion American dollars in the last 50 years. I'm not going to tell you the damage that that money has done. Just go and read her book. Read it from an African woman, the damage that we have done.

你们应该看看这些垃圾--(掌声)--你们应该看看我们塞了多少垃圾给这些满怀信任的非洲人民。你们可以读读这本书,叫《致命援助》,作者是丹比萨·莫约,一位赞比亚女经济学家。这本书出版于2009年。我们这些西方援助国在过去50年里向非洲大陆投入了两万亿美元。我不打算跟你们细说这笔钱所造成的损害。你们自己去读读看。看看以一位非洲女性的眼光,我们所带来的损害有多大。

We Western people are imperialist, colonialist missionaries, and there are only two ways we deal with people: We either patronize them, or we are paternalistic. The two words come from the Latin root "pater," which means "father." But they mean two different things. Paternalistic, I treat anybody from a different culture as if they were my children. "I love you so much." Patronizing, I treat everybody from another culture as if they were my servants. That's why the white people in Africa are called "bwana," boss.

我们西方人是帝国主义者,殖民主义者,以及传教士,我们跟人们打交道的方式只有两种:一是居高临下(patronize),二是家长做派(paternalistic)。这两个词来自于拉丁词根“pater”,意即“父亲”。但两个词的意思不同。家长做派意味着我把不同文化背景的人当成我的孩子对待。“我爱你孩子。”居高临下意味着我把另一文化背景的人当做我的仆人对待。这也就是为什么在非洲白人被称作“老爷”,也就是老板。

I was given a slap in the face reading a book, "Small is Beautiful," written by Schumacher, who said, above all in economic development, if people do not wish to be helped, leave them alone. This should be the first principle of aid. The first principle of aid is respect. This morning, the gentleman who opened this conference lay a stick on the floor, and said, "Can we -- can you imagine a city that is not neocolonial?"

我在读一本书时,如遭当头棒喝,这本书叫《小即是美》,作者是舒马赫(英国经济学家),他说,经济发展最重要的一点是,如果人们不想让别人帮忙,就随他们去。这应该是援助的首要原则。援助的首要原则就是尊重。今天早上,给这次大会致开幕词的先生在地上放了一根棍子,说道,“我们能不能--你们能不能想象一座城市没被新殖民主义侵略吗?”

I decided when I was 27 years old to only respond to people, and I invented a system called Enterprise Facilitation, where you never initiate anything, you never motivate anybody, but you become a servant of the local passion, the servant of local people who have a dream to become a better person. So what you do -- you shut up. You never arrive in a community with any ideas, and you sit with the local people. We don't work from offices. We meet at the cafe. We meet at the pub. We have zero infrastructure. And what we do, we become friends, and we find out what that person wants to do.

27岁时,我做出一个决定,只基于人们的需求提供援助。我创立了一套工作系统,叫“企业梦工厂”。我们不做创始人,也不激励任何人,而是为当地人们的创业热情而服务,为当地人们找到更好的人生定位。所以我们要做的--就是闭嘴。我们走进一个社区时不会将任何想法强加于对方,而是与当地人坐在一起交流。我们的工作地点不在办公室。我们与客户在餐馆和酒吧见面。我们没有任何基础设施的建设。我们所做的,是跟他们交朋友,并发现他们的兴趣和意向。

The most important thing is passion. You can give somebody an idea. If that person doesn't want to do it, what are you going to do? The passion that the person has for her own growth is the most important thing. The passion that that man has for his own personal growth is the most important thing. And then we help them to go and find the knowledge, because nobody in the world can succeed alone. The person with the idea may not have the knowledge, but the knowledge is available.

最重要的是热情。你可以向客户提出你的点子,但如果对方不感兴趣,你又有什么办法?客户热衷于自我提升的这份热情才是最重要的。对方的热情是建立在自我提升的基础上,这才是最重要的然后我们帮助他们搜集相关知识和信息,因为这世上,单丝不成线,独木不成林。有点子的人未必懂得相关知识,但我们可以提供支持。

So years and years ago, I had this idea: Why don't we, for once, instead of arriving in the community to tell people what to do, why don't, for once, listen to them? But not in community meetings.

所以很多年前,我有个想法,我们为何不能至少有一次做到聆听他们的想法,而不是把我们的想法强加于他们?但这不能以社区会议的形式进行。

Let me tell you a secret. There is a problem with community meetings. Entrepreneurs never come, and they never tell you, in a public meeting, what they want to do with their own money, what opportunity they have identified. So planning has this blind spot. The smartest people in your community you don't even know, because they don't come to your public meetings.

我告诉你们一个秘密。社区会议存在一个问题。企业家们从不出席,他们绝不会在公众集会上告诉你,他们打算把钱用在哪儿,他们窥测到了什么商机。所以做计划有一个盲区,你甚至都无从结识社区里最聪明的那些人因为他们根本不参与你们的公众集会。

What we do, we work one-on-one, and to work one-on-one, you have to create a social infrastructure that doesn't exist. You have to create a new profession. The profession is the family doctor of enterprise, the family doctor of business, who sits with you in your house, at your kitchen table, at the cafe, and helps you find the resources to transform your passion into a way to make a living.

我们的做法是,与客户一对一,为了能一对一,我们必须建设一套前所未有的社会基础设施。我们必须创造一个全新的职业。这种职业相当于企业的家庭医生,这位企业家庭医生,会与你面对面在你的家里,你的厨房餐桌旁,或是咖啡馆,帮助你集结资源来将你的创业热情转换为谋生技能。

I started this as a tryout in Esperance, in Western Australia. I was a doing a Ph.D. at the time, trying to go away from this patronizing bullshit that we arrive and tell you what to do. And so what I did in Esperance that first year was to just walk the streets, and in three days I had my first client, and I helped this first guy who was smoking fish from a garage, was a Maori guy, and I helped him to sell to the restaurant in Perth, to get organized, and then the fishermen came to me to say, "You the guy who helped Maori? Can you help us?" And I helped these five fishermen to work together and get this beautiful tuna not to the cannery in Albany for 60 cents a kilo, but we found a way to take the fish for sushi to Japan for 15 dollars a kilo, and the farmers came to talk to me, said, "Hey, you helped them. Can you help us?" In a year, I had 27 projects going on, and the government came to see me to say, "How can you do that? How can you do — ?" And I said, "I do something very, very, very difficult. I shut up, and listen to them." (Laughter)

我在西澳大利亚州的埃斯佩兰斯进行了试验。那时我在读博士,努力摒弃那种居高临下的狗屁做法到了之后只会颐指气使指手划脚。我在埃斯佩兰斯的第一年只是出去遛街,在那些日子里,我有了第一位客户,我帮助了这第一个人。他是毛利人,在一家车库里做熏鱼。我教他把鱼卖给珀斯的餐馆,帮他进行了筹划。然后当地的渔民们跑来跟我说,“你就是那个帮毛利佬卖鱼的人?你能帮帮我们吗?”我让这五个渔民合伙运作,不是把美味的金枪鱼以60美分一公斤的低价卖给奥尔巴尼(美国)的罐头工厂,而是以15美元一公斤的高价卖给日本做寿司。接着又有农民跑来跟我说,“嘿,你帮助了他们,能帮帮我们吗?”一年之内,我做了27个项目,政府的人跑来问我,“你是怎么办到的?你怎么能--?”我答道:“我做了一件很困难的事,那就是闭上嘴,听他们说。”(笑声)

So — (Applause) — So the government says, "Do it again." (Laughter) We've done it in 300 communities around the world. We have helped to start 40,000 businesses. There is a new generation of entrepreneurs who are dying of solitude.

所以--(掌声)--所以政府的人说:“那接着做。”(笑声)我们在世界上300个社区开展了这个项目。我们已帮助建立了40,000家企业。新一代的创业者们皆因闭门造车而一事无成。

Peter Drucker, one of the greatest management consultants in history, died age 96, a few years ago. Peter Drucker was a professor of philosophy before becoming involved in business, and this is what Peter Drucker says: "Planning is actually incompatible with an entrepreneurial society and economy." Planning is the kiss of death of entrepreneurship.

彼得·德鲁克,史上最伟大的管理咨询师之一,几年前去世了,享年96岁,彼得·德鲁克在涉足商界之前是一位哲学教授,彼得·德鲁克曾说过:“计划其实是与创业型社会及创业型经济不相容的。”计划是给创业帮了倒忙。

So now you're rebuilding Christchurch without knowing what the smartest people in Christchurch want to do with their own money and their own energy. You have to learn how to get these people to come and talk to you. You have to offer them confidentiality, privacy, you have to be fantastic at helping them, and then they will come, and they will come in droves. In a community of 10,000 people, we get 200 clients. Can you imagine a community of 400,000 people, the intelligence and the passion? Which presentation have you applauded the most this morning? Local, passionate people. That's who you have applauded.

现在,我们重建基督城(新西兰),却不知道基督城最聪明的那群人想如何运用他们自己的钱财和精力。我们必须学会如何让这些人给出他们的意见。我们必须给予他们保密的承诺,并尊重他们的隐私,我们要擅长为他们提供帮助,这样他们才会上门,才会纷至沓来。在一个10,000人的社区里,我们有200个客户。你能想象一个400,000人的社区,凝聚了多少智力和热情吗?今天上午你们鼓掌最多的演讲来自谁?是充满创业热情的当地人。你们为他们鼓掌。

So what I'm saying is that entrepreneurship is where it's at. We are at the end of the first industrial revolution -- nonrenewable fossil fuels, manufacturing -- and all of a sudden, we have systems which are not sustainable. The internal combustion engine is not sustainable. Freon way of maintaining things is not sustainable. What we have to look at is at how we feed, cure, educate, transport, communicate for seven billion people in a sustainable way. The technologies do not exist to do that. Who is going to invent the technology for the green revolution? Universities? Forget about it! Government? Forget about it! It will be entrepreneurs, and they're doing it now.

所以我想说的是,创业精神是当今社会的潮流。当我们处于第一次工业革命的末期时--我们使用不可再生矿物燃料,发展制造业--但我们忽然意识到这种发展是不可持续的。内燃机的燃料总有耗尽的一天。用氟利昂冷藏食物也非长久之计。我们现在要关心的是我们如何以一种可持续的发展方式来满足70亿人的食物、医疗、教育、运输及通信需求。现有的科技水平尚做不到这一点。谁能发明这种科技来实现绿色革命?大学吗?别想了!政府吗?别想了!是创业者们,是他们正在为之奋斗。

There's a lovely story that I read in a futurist magazine many, many years ago. There was a group of experts who were invited to discuss the future of the city of New York in 1860. And in 1860, this group of people came together, and they all speculated about what would happen to the city of New York in 100 years, and the conclusion was unanimous: The city of New York would not exist in 100 years. Why? Because they looked at the curve and said, if the population keeps growing at this rate, to move the population of New York around, they would have needed six million horses, and the manure created by six million horses would be impossible to deal with. They were already drowning in manure. (Laughter) So 1860, they are seeing this dirty technology that is going to choke the life out of New York.

许多年前,我在一本未来主义杂志上看过一篇有趣的文章。1860年,有一批专家受到邀请去讨论纽约市的未来是怎样。那是1860年,这批人聚到一起,他们都对100年后的纽约市作出了推断。他们的结论众口一词:100年后,纽约市将不复存在。为什么?因为他们看着图表上的曲线说,如果人口继续以这种速度增长,纽约的人们出行将需要六百万匹马,而六百万匹马所排泄的粪便将无法处理。到时人们将会被马粪淹没。(笑声)所以1860年,他们认为,这种肮脏的科技将扼杀纽约的生命。

So what happens? In 40 years' time, in the year 1900, in the United States of America, there were 1,001 car manufacturing companies -- 1,001. The idea of finding a different technology had absolutely taken over, and there were tiny, tiny little factories in backwaters. Dearborn, Michigan. Henry Ford.

那么结果呢?40年之后,1900年,美利坚合众国有了1,001家汽车制造商--有1,001家之多。找到一种新科技取而代之才是发展的王道,而停滞不前的小工厂还有很多。例如密歇根州迪尔伯恩市的福特汽车公司。

However, there is a secret to work with entrepreneurs. First, you have to offer them confidentiality. Otherwise they don't come and talk to you. Then you have to offer them absolute, dedicated, passionate service to them. And then you have to tell them the truth about entrepreneurship. The smallest company, the biggest company, has to be capable of doing three things beautifully: The product that you want to sell has to be fantastic, you have to have fantastic marketing, and you have to have tremendous financial management. Guess what? We have never met a single human being in the world who can make it, sell it and look after the money. It doesn't exist. This person has never been born. We've done the research, and we have looked at the 100 iconic companies of the world -- Carnegie, Westinghouse, Edison, Ford, all the new companies, Google, Yahoo. There's only one thing that all the successful companies in the world have in common, only one: None were started by one person.

然而,与创业者打交道有个秘诀。第一,你要给予他们保密的承诺。不然他们不会来找你谈的。然后你要为他们提供专注而热情的服务。你要告诉他们创业精神的真谛。不论是大公司还是小企业,都能把以下三件事做得很好:产品质量要过硬,市场营销要高效,财务管理要精明。问题是什么呢?这世上从来没有一个人能同时做好生产、销售以及财务的工作。这种人不存在。这样的能人尚未出生。我们做过调查,对世界上100家标杆企业进行研究--卡内基培训公司,西屋公司,爱迪生公司,福特汽车公司,以及所有这些新兴产业的公司,如谷歌,雅虎。世界上所有成功的企业只有一个共同点,只有一个:没有一个企业是靠一人之力创建的。

Now we teach entrepreneurship to 16-year-olds in Northumberland, and we start the class by giving them the first two pages of Richard Branson's autobiography, and the task of the 16-year-olds is to underline, in the first two pages of Richard Branson's autobiography how many times Richard uses the word "I" and how many times he uses the word "we." Never the word "I," and the word "we" 32 times. He wasn't alone when he started. Nobody started a company alone. No one. So we can create the community where we have facilitators who come from a small business background sitting in cafes, in bars, and your dedicated buddies who will do to you, what somebody did for this gentleman who talks about this epic, somebody who will say to you, "What do you need? What can you do? Can you make it? Okay, can you sell it? Can you look after the money?" "Oh, no, I cannot do this.""Would you like me to find you somebody?" We activate communities. We have groups of volunteers supporting the Enterprise Facilitator to help you to find resources and people and we have discovered that the miracle of the intelligence of local people is such that you can change the culture and the economy of this community just by capturing the passion, the energy and imagination of your own people.

现在我们在诺森伯兰郡(英国)教授16岁青年们创业学,我们一开始把理查德·布兰森(英国亿万富翁)自传的前两页给他们看,这些学生们的任务就是用下划线标出并统计理查德·布兰森自传前两页中用了多少次“我”这个字和用了多少次“我们”这个词。“我”一次都没有,“我们”用了32次。他刚起步时并非单枪匹马。没人能独自创立一个企业。没人。所以我们可以建立一个社区,在这个社区里,我们有来自小型企业背景的辅助商在咖啡馆中、酒吧里为你出谋划策,我们能为你提供这位满怀抱负的先生所受到的帮助,我们会问你:“你需要什么?你能做什么?你能生产出来吗?你能销售出去吗?你能打理资金吗?”“啊,这个我办不到。”“那要我替你找人帮忙吗?”我们鼓舞各个社区进行创业。我们有志愿者团队帮助创业辅助商为客户集结资源及人力。我们发现当地人群的智慧能创造出奇迹能改变社区的文化和经济,只要你能好好利用人们这份热情,这种活力,这种想象力。

Thank you.

谢谢。



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