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【VOA】 泰迪·罗斯福在麦金利遇害后出任总统

发布者: 千缘 | 发布时间: 2019-12-11 02:09| 查看数: 76| 评论数: 0|帖子模式



Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. In September of nineteen hundred and one, President William McKinley was assassinated. His vice president, Theodore Roosevelt, was sworn in to replace him. Roosevelt was forty-two years old -- the youngest man ever to hold the office of president of the United States. This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Shep O'Neal tell the story of President Theodore Roosevelt and his administration. Theodore Roosevelt became president at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was a time of rapid changes in American society. The changes were a result of technology. Great progress had been made, for example, in transportation. Almost every American city had a street railroad, or trolley. These systems were powered by electricity. Thousands of Americans owned automobiles. And Henry Ford was planning a low-cost version which even more people could buy.

欢迎收听VOA慢速英语之建国史话节目。1919年9月,威廉·麦金利总统遇刺身亡,他的副总统西奥多·罗斯福宣誓接替他。罗斯福当时42岁,是美国有史以来最年轻的总统。本周在我们的系列节目中,莫里斯·乔伊斯和谢普·奥尼尔将讲述西奥多·罗斯福总统及其政府的故事。西奥多·罗斯福在二十世纪初就任总统,那是美国社会急剧变化的时期,这些变化是技术的结果。例如,在交通运输方面取得了很大进展。几乎每个美国城市都有铁路或电车,这些系统由电驱动。成千上万的美国人都拥有汽车,亨利·福特正在计划制造一款低成本的汽车,这样更多的人可以购买。

Great progress had been made in communications. There were telephones in almost every business office in the cities and in many homes. And Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi had sent the first wireless message across the Atlantic Ocean. It was clear that the United States had made great progress in technology. Yet many believed it had made little progress in social issues. These people felt America's natural resources were being mis-used. They felt America's farmers were poorer than they should be. They felt America's industries were unfair to workers. Since the late eighteen hundreds, a spirit of reform had been growing in the United States. It started among farmers and led to the creation of a new political party -- the Populists. Then organized labor joined the movement. Then middle class Americans. Not everyone agreed on ways to solve society's problems. But they were united in the belief that social progress had to be made. The future of American democracy, they said, depended on the success of the progressive movement. The man who came to represent the spirit of reform most of all was the new president, Theodore Roosevelt.

通信方面取得了巨大进展,在城市里几乎每个商务办公室和许多家庭都配有电话。意大利发明家古列尔莫·马可尼发出了第一条横跨大西洋的无线信息。很明显,美国在技术上取得了巨大的进步。但许多人认为,它在社会问题上进展甚微。这些人觉得美国的自然资源遭到滥用,他们觉得美国农民的生活比实际应有的状况更贫穷。他们认为,美国工业对工人不公平。自18世纪末以来,美国的改革精神不断增强。它起源于农民,并导致了一个新的政党——民粹主义者的诞生。后来有组织的劳工加入了运动,随后就是美国的中产阶级。不是每个人都同意解决社会问题的方法,但是他们一致认为必须取得社会进步。他们表示,美国民主的未来取决于进步运动的成功。最能代表改革精神的是新总统西奥多·罗斯福。

Roosevelt was born to a wealthy family in New York City in eighteen fifty-eight. He was a weak child with poor eyesight. He spent much of his time reading. When Theodore was thirteen years old, he got into an argument with two other boys. He tried to fight them. But he was not strong enough. That incident was a turning point in Roosevelt's life. He decided to overcome his physical weaknesses through exercise and hard work. He lifted weights, ran long distances, and learned how to be a boxer. He continued these activities while he attended Harvard University. After college, Roosevelt married Alice Lee and returned to New York. He became active in the Republican Party. When he was just twenty-three years old, he was elected to the state legislature. Roosevelt quickly became known as a reform politician. He denounced all forms of dishonesty in government. Roosevelt's first political career did not last long. He withdrew after four years, following the deaths of his wife and mother. His sadness was so great that he could not continue. Roosevelt moved to a ranch in the Dakota territory of the American West. He began to raise beef cattle. At first, the local cowboys laughed at him. They called him "four eyes," because he wore eyeglasses. They stopped laughing when they found he could do the hard work of a cowboy as well as any of them.

罗斯福于1858年出生于纽约市一个富裕的家庭,他自幼身体虚弱,视力很差,大部分时间都在看书。西奥多13岁时,他和另外两个男孩发生了争执。他试图与他们打斗,但却不够强壮。那次事件是罗斯福一生中的一个转折点,他决定通过锻炼和努力工作来克服身体上的弱点。他举重、长跑,还学会如何成为一名拳击手。他在哈佛大学期间继续这些活动。大学毕业后,罗斯福嫁给了爱丽丝·李,回到纽约。他在共和党中很活跃。他23岁时,被选为州议会议员。罗斯福很快就以改革政治家而闻名,他谴责政府中一切形式的不诚实行为。罗斯福的第一个政治生涯并未持续多久,妻子和母亲去世后,他在四年后退学。他的悲伤如此之深,以至于他无法继续下去。罗斯福搬到了美国西部达科他州的一个牧场,他开始饲养肉牛。起初,当地的牛仔们嘲笑他。他们叫他“四眼”,因为他戴着眼镜。当他们发现他能像他们一样做牛仔的艰苦工作时,他们不再笑了。

Roosevelt spent two years in the West. Then he returned to New York and a life in politics. He became the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City, but lost the election. Then he campaigned for Republican Benjamin Harrison in the presidential election of eighteen eighty-eight. Harrison won. And he named Roosevelt head of the federal Civil Service Commission. Roosevelt fought hard to keep politics out of the civil service. Democrat Grover Cleveland was elected president four years later. He approved of Roosevelt's civil service reforms. He asked him to remain in the job. Roosevelt did so for another two years. Then he became Commissioner of Police in New York City. Once again, he pushed for reforms. He removed policemen found guilty of receiving illegal payments. In eighteen ninety-seven, President William McKinley named Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy. The United States went to war against Spain a year later. Roosevelt wanted an active part in the war. So, he resigned and joined the army. He organized a force of horse soldiers known as the "Rough Riders." They were honored for bravery in the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba.

罗斯福在西部呆了两年,然后他回到纽约,开始了从政的生活。他成为纽约市长的共和党候选人,但是他在选举中落败。随后,他在1888年的总统选举中为共和党人本杰明·哈里森竞选。哈里森获胜,他任命罗斯福为联邦公务员委员会主席。罗斯福竭力不让公务人员涉足政治。四年后,民主党人格罗弗·克利夫兰当选总统。他赞成罗斯福的公务人员制度改革,请求他继续任职。罗斯福又工作了两年,后来他成为纽约市的警察局长。他再次推动改革,撤换了被判非法收受贿赂的警察。1897年,威廉·麦金利总统任命西奥多·罗斯福为海军助理部长。一年后美国对西班牙开战。罗斯福想积极参与这场战争。于是,他辞职参军。他组织了一支称为“骑兵”的骑兵部队,他们因在古巴圣胡安山战役中的勇敢而受到表彰。

Roosevelt was now a war hero. Republican Party leaders in New York thought he would be the perfect candidate for governor. Teddy, as the public called him, won a close election. He soon made clear he would not take orders from party leaders. The new governor proposed controls on businesses. His main targets were companies that supplied the public with water, electricity, and natural gas. He demanded changes in the food and drug industries. And he shortened the work day for women and children. The public praised Roosevelt's reform efforts. Local party leaders did not. As one said: "I do not want him raising hell in my state any longer." Local leaders decided the best way to get him out of New York politics was to support him for vice president of the United States. The office gave a man very little voice or power in politics. Roosevelt did not want the job, for that reason. By then he wanted just one thing: to be president of the United States. He was sure being vice president would ruin his chances. But he accepted the nomination at the national convention. He would run on the ticket with William McKinley. Sadly he said: "I do not expect to go any further in politics."

罗斯福现在是位战争英雄,纽约共和党领导人认为他将是州长的最佳候选人。正如公众所说,泰迪赢得了一场势均力敌的选举。他很快就明确表示不接受党领导的命令。新州长提议对企业实行控制,他的主要目标是为公众提供水、电和天然气的公司。他要求改变食品和药品工业,并缩短妇女和儿童的工作日。公众赞扬罗斯福的改革努力,当地党派的领导人却并未这么做。正如有人所说:“我不能再让他在我的州里恶搞。”当地领导人决定,让他脱离纽约政坛的最好办法就是支持他竞选美国副总统。办公室在政治方面给予一个人很少的发言权或权利。出于这个原因,罗斯福不想得到这份工作。那时他只想做一件事,就是当美国总统。他确信当副总统会毁了他的机会,但是他在国民大会上接受了提名。他会和威廉·麦金利一起竞争选票。他悲伤地表示:“我不希望在政治上走得太远。”

Several months after he was sworn-in as vice president, he was sworn-in as President. William McKinley was dead. Theodore Roosevelt became president as the result of an assassin's bullet. Roosevelt promised party leaders that he would continue McKinley's policies. He said he would move slowly in making any changes. In his first message to Congress, President Roosevelt offered a few new proposals. He asked for a Department of Commerce and Labor to deal with industrial problems. He called for a stronger Navy and for limits on immigration. And he proposed building a canal in central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Businessmen who feared the worse when Roosevelt became president began to breathe easier. It seemed he was not going to push for reforms after all. But Roosevelt was only following an old hunting rule of African tribesmen. "Speak softly," the rule said, "and carry a big stick." Roosevelt spoke softly during his first months as president. He would use the big stick later. When the blow came, it was against big business.

在他宣誓就任副总统几个月后,他宣誓出任总统职位。威廉·麦金利病逝,西奥多·罗斯福因一颗刺客的子弹而成为总统。罗斯福向党内领导人承诺,他将继续执行麦金利的政策,他说会慢慢做出调整。罗斯福总统在第一次给国会的信息中提出了一些新建议,他要求成立美国商业劳工部来处理工业问题。他呼吁加强海军力量,限制移民,还提议在中美洲修建一条连接大西洋和太平洋的运河。当罗斯福当上总统时,那些担心情况变遭的商人们开始松了口气。看来他终究不会推动改革,但是罗斯福只是遵循非洲部落人的古老狩猎规则。这条规则说的是,“轻声细语,再拿上一根大棒。”罗斯福在就任总统的头几个月里讲话很轻柔,之后就用上大棒。当打击来临时,是对大企业不利。

A group of wealthy railroad owners had agreed to join their railroads into one. They formed a company to control it. The new company would have complete control of railroad transportation in the American West. There would be no competition. President Roosevelt believed the company violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Law. The law said it was illegal for businesses to interfere with trade among the states. The law also said it was illegal for any person or group to get control of a whole industry. Since the anti-trust law had been passed in eighteen ninety, few companies had been found guilty of violating it. So, many people were shocked when Roosevelt announced he was taking action under the law against the railroad trust. He said there could be no compromise in how the law was enforced. That will be our story next week.

一群富有的铁路业主同意把他们的铁路合并成一条铁路,他们成立了一家公司来掌控这条铁路。新公司将完全控制美国西部的铁路运输,不会出现竞争。罗斯福总统认为该公司违反了《谢尔曼反托拉斯法》。法律规定,企业干预各州之间的贸易是非法的。该法律还规定,任何人或团体获得整个行业的控制权都是违法的。自1890年通过反托拉斯法以来,很少有公司被判违反该法。因此,当罗斯福宣布他将根据法律对铁路信托采取行动时,许多人都感到震惊。他说,在如何执行法律方面不能妥协。这将是我们下周要讲述的故事。


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