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【双语】把乡村振兴战略作为新时代“三农”工作总抓手

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千缘 发表于 2019-11-30 01:37:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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把乡村振兴战略作为新时代“三农”工作总抓手

The Rural Vitalization Strategy: The Key to Our Efforts Concerning Agriculture, Rural Areas and Farmers in the New Era

习近平

Xi Jinping



乡村振兴战略是党的十九大提出的一项重大战略。我们以这个题目进行集体学习,目的是加深对这一重大战略的理解,明确思路,深化认识,切实把工作做好。

Rural vitalization is one of the major strategies that were introduced at the 19th National Congress of the CPC. Our goals in conducting group study on this topic are to build deeper awareness and understanding of this important strategy, set clear approaches, and ensure that our work is performed well.

一、实施乡村振兴战略是关系全面建设社会主义现代化国家的全局性、历史性任务

I. Implementation of the rural vitalization strategy: a historic task with wide-ranging implications for building a modern socialist China

我一直强调,没有农业农村现代化,就没有整个国家现代化。在现代化进程中,如何处理好工农关系、城乡关系,在一定程度上决定着现代化的成败。从世界各国现代化历史看,有的国家没有处理好工农关系、城乡关系,农业发展跟不上,农村发展跟不上,农产品供应不足,不能有效吸纳农村劳动力,大量失业农民涌向城市贫民窟,乡村和乡村经济走向凋敝,工业化和城镇化走入困境,甚至造成社会动荡,最终陷入“中等收入陷阱”。这里面更深层次的问题是领导体制和国家治理体制问题。我国作为中国共产党领导的社会主义国家,应该有能力、有条件处理好工农关系、城乡关系,顺利推进我国社会主义现代化进程。

I have consistently emphasized that without modernizing agriculture and rural areas, we will not be able to achieve modernization of the country as a whole. To a certain extent, how we balance the relationships between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas will determine whether the modernization drive succeeds or fails. Looking at other countries’ experience in modernization, there are those that failed to strike the right balance in these relationships, which led to lagging rural and agricultural development and insufficient supply of agricultural products. With agriculture unable to absorb the rural labor force, massive numbers of unemployed rural migrants flooded into urban slums in these countries, their rural areas and rural economies teetered toward depression and industrialization and urbanization fell into dire straits, consequently even leading to social unrest and ultimately getting caught in the middle income trap. The underlying causes of these problems were deficiencies in leadership and governance systems. I am confident that as a socialist country under the leadership of the CPC, China has the capacity and conditions necessary to effectively balance the relationships between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas in order to ensure smooth progress for socialist modernization.

当前,我国正处于正确处理工农关系、城乡关系的历史关口。新中国成立后,在当时的历史条件和国际环境下,我们自力更生,依靠农业农村支持,在一穷二白的基础上推进工业化,建立起比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系。改革开放以来,我们依靠农村劳动力、土地、资金等要素,快速推进工业化、城镇化,城镇面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化。我国广大农民为推进工业化、城镇化作出了巨大贡献。在这个过程中,农业发展和农村建设也取得了显著成就,为我国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设打下了坚实基础。

We are now at a key historical juncture in our efforts to properly balance the relationships between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas. After the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, we were forced by the historical context and international environment at the time to rely on ourselves and rest on the support of agriculture and rural areas as we pushed forward industrialization from a foundation of utter destitution. During this process, we gradually built up fairly sound systems for industry and the national economy. Since the launch of reform and opening up, we have achieved rapid progress in industrialization and urbanization with the backing of factors including rural labor, land, and capital, thus bringing vast changes to urban areas. China’s rural residents have contributed tremendously to the advancement of industrialization and urbanization. Throughout this process, significant achievements have also been made in rural and agricultural development. This has laid solid foundations for China’s reform and opening up as well as the socialist modernization drive.

长期以来,我们对工农关系、城乡关系的把握是完全正确的,也是富有成效的。这些年,我国农业连年丰产,农民连年增收,农村总体和谐稳定。特别是几亿农民工在城乡之间长时间、大范围有序有效转移,不仅没有带来社会动荡,而且成为经济社会发展的重要支撑。

The last few decades have proven that we have maintained an accurate grasp on how to balance the relationships between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas, and that our efforts in this regard have been effective. Over the years, we have seen harvests and rural incomes continuously grow, while rural areas have remained harmonious and stable overall. In particular, though hundreds of millions of rural residents have moved between rural and urban areas in a massive and extended migration, they have done so in an orderly and effective manner. Not only have they not brought social turmoil, they have become an important pillar of social and economic development.

同时,我们也要看到,同快速推进的工业化、城镇化相比,我国农业农村发展步伐还跟不上,“一条腿长、一条腿短”问题比较突出。我国发展最大的不平衡是城乡发展不平衡,最大的不充分是农村发展不充分。党的十八大以来,我们下决心调整工农关系、城乡关系,采取了一系列举措推动“工业反哺农业、城市支持农村”。党的十九大提出实施乡村振兴战略,就是为了从全局和战略高度来把握和处理工农关系、城乡关系。

At the same time, however, we must recognize that agricultural and rural development has been outpaced by the rapid advancement of industrialization and urbanization. This problem is now quite pronounced, with an effect comparable to trying to run with one leg shorter than the other. The greatest imbalance in China’s development is that between urban and rural development, while the greatest inadequacy exists in the development of rural areas. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, we have adopted a series of measures to encourage the industrial sector to reciprocate the help that the agricultural sector contributed to its development and promote the provision of support from urban areas to rural areas, in our resolve to adjust the relationships between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas. Meanwhile, the rural vitalization strategy decided on at the 19th National Congress of the CPC was aimed precisely at balancing the relationships between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas in an overall and strategic approach.

在现代化进程中,城的比重上升,乡的比重下降,是客观规律,但在我国拥有近14亿人口的国情下,不管工业化、城镇化进展到哪一步,农业都要发展,乡村都不会消亡,城乡将长期共生并存,这也是客观规律。即便我国城镇化率达到70%,农村仍将有4亿多人口。如果在现代化进程中把农村4亿多人落下,到头来“一边是繁荣的城市、一边是凋敝的农村”,这不符合我们党的执政宗旨,也不符合社会主义的本质要求。这样的现代化是不可能取得成功的!40年前,我们通过农村改革拉开了改革开放大幕。40年后的今天,我们应该通过振兴乡村,开启城乡融合发展和现代化建设新局面。

It is an objective law that over the course of modernization, cities take up a larger share while the share of rural areas declines. However, the fact remains that China is a country with almost 1.4 billion people, and no matter how far industrialization and urbanization progress, our agricultural sector must continue to develop, which means that rural areas will remain and co-exist with urban areas over the long term; this is also an objective law. Even when China’s urbanization rate reaches 70%, there will still be over 400 million rural residents. If these people are left behind in the process of modernization and we end up with flourishing cities on one side and run-down villages on the other, then we will have neither lived up to our Party’s governing mission, nor the essential requirements of socialism. Such kind of modernization cannot succeed. Four decades ago, we began the reform and opening up drive by launching rural reform. We should adopt a similar strategy today, opening up a new stage for the modernization drive and integrated urban-rural development by vitalizing rural areas.



二、坚持把实施乡村振兴战略作为新时代“三农”工作总抓手

II. Implementation of the rural vitalization strategy: the focus of our efforts concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers in the new era

我在党的十九大报告中对乡村振兴战略进行了概括,提出要坚持农业农村优先发展,按照产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕的总要求,建立健全城乡融合发展体制机制和政策体系,加快推进农业农村现代化。这其中,农业农村现代化是实施乡村振兴战略的总目标,坚持农业农村优先发展是总方针,产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕是总要求,建立健全城乡融合发展体制机制和政策体系是制度保障。

I outlined the rural vitalization strategy in the report to the 19th National Congress of the CPC, stating that we must prioritize the development of agriculture and rural areas, and pointing out that in order to build rural areas with thriving businesses, pleasant living environment, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity, we need to put in place sound systems, mechanisms, and policies for promoting integrated urban-rural development, and speed up the modernization of agriculture and rural areas. The modernization of agriculture and rural areas is the general goal of the rural vitalization strategy; prioritizing the development of agriculture and rural areas is the general policy; and building rural areas with thriving businesses, pleasant living environment, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity is the general requirement; while putting in place sound systems, mechanisms, and policies for integrated urban-rural development provides the institutional guarantees.

新时代“三农”工作必须围绕农业农村现代化这个总目标来推进。长期以来,为解决好吃饭问题,我们花了很大精力推进农业现代化,取得了长足进步。现在,全国主要农作物耕种收综合机械化水平已超过65%,农业科技进步贡献率超过57%,主要农产品人均占有量均超过世界平均水平,农产品供给极大丰富。相比较而言,农村在基础设施、公共服务、社会治理等方面差距相当大。农村现代化既包括“物”的现代化,也包括“人”的现代化,还包括乡村治理体系和治理能力的现代化。我们要坚持农业现代化和农村现代化一体设计、一并推进,实现农业大国向农业强国跨越。

Our efforts concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers in the new era must be advanced in line with the general goal of modernizing agriculture and rural areas. For many years, we have devoted immense effort to advancing agricultural modernization in order to make sure that the Chinese people have enough to eat and secured considerable progress in this regard. Now, the rate of mechanization in the plowing, sowing, and harvesting of major crops throughout the country is over 65 percent, the contribution of technological advances to growth in agricultural production is over 57 percent, and output of major agricultural products per capita has surpassed the world average, with these products in abundant supply. However, compared with cities, rural areas lag far behind in terms of infrastructure, public services, and social governance. The modernization of rural areas includes modernization on both the material level and the personal level, as well as modernization of rural governance systems and capacity. We must remain committed to making plans that drive forward the modernization of agriculture and rural areas in an integrated manner, and complete the transition from a large agrarian country to a world-class agricultural powerhouse.

坚持农业农村优先发展的总方针,就是要始终把解决好“三农”问题作为全党工作重中之重。我们一直强调,对“三农”要多予少取放活,但实际工作中“三农”工作“说起来重要、干起来次要、忙起来不要”的问题还比较突出。我们要扭转这种倾向,在资金投入、要素配置、公共服务、干部配备等方面采取有力举措,加快补齐农业农村发展短板,不断缩小城乡差距,让农业成为有奔头的产业,让农民成为有吸引力的职业,让农村成为安居乐业的家园。

Upholding the general policy of prioritizing the development of agriculture and rural areas means that we must consistently make resolving issues concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers our top priority. We have constantly stressed the importance of increasing investment in agriculture, easing burdens on rural residents, and loosening restrictions on rural business in response to these issues, but the reality is that although we attach great importance to our work in this regard in discussion, it can easily become sidelined or even neglected in practice. We must counteract this tendency by adopting vigorous measures in areas such as capital investment, factor allocation, public services, and official assignments so that we may remedy shortcomings in the development of agriculture and rural areas more quickly and constantly narrow the gap between urban and rural areas. By doing so, we will turn agriculture into an industry with bright prospects, make farming an appealing occupation, and build rural areas into beautiful communities in which people live and work in peace and contentment.

产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕,“二十个字”的总要求,反映了乡村振兴战略的丰富内涵。本世纪初,我国刚刚实现总体小康,面临着全面建设小康社会的任务,我们党就提出了“生产发展、生活宽裕、乡风文明、村容整洁、管理民主”的社会主义新农村建设总要求,这在当时是符合实际的。现在,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,社会主要矛盾、农业主要矛盾发生了很大变化,广大农民群众有更高的期待,需要对农业农村发展提出更高要求。产业兴旺,是解决农村一切问题的前提,从“生产发展”到“产业兴旺”,反映了农业农村经济适应市场需求变化、加快优化升级、促进产业融合的新要求。生态宜居,是乡村振兴的内在要求,从“村容整洁”到“生态宜居”反映了农村生态文明建设质的提升,体现了广大农民群众对建设美丽家园的追求。乡风文明,是乡村振兴的紧迫任务,重点是弘扬社会主义核心价值观,保护和传承农村优秀传统文化,加强农村公共文化建设,开展移风易俗,改善农民精神风貌,提高乡村社会文明程度。治理有效,是乡村振兴的重要保障,从“管理民主”到“治理有效”,是要推进乡村治理能力和治理水平现代化,让农村既充满活力又和谐有序。生活富裕,是乡村振兴的主要目的,从“生活宽裕”到“生活富裕”,反映了广大农民群众日益增长的美好生活需要。

The general requirement of building rural areas with thriving businesses, pleasant living environment, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity reflects the broad scope of the rural vitalization strategy. At the beginning of the 21st century, when China had just achieved moderate prosperity for most of society and was facing the task of bringing about moderate prosperity throughout society, our Party introduced general requirements for building a new socialist countryside: advanced production, better living standards, a civilized lifestyle, clean surroundings, and democratic management. These requirements were in line with the realities of the time, but now rural residents have higher expectations as Chinese socialism has entered a new era and great transformations have occurred with regard to the principal challenges in both the agricultural sector and society as a whole. We therefore need to set higher requirements for the development of agriculture and rural areas. A thriving business environment is the basis for resolving all of the issues facing rural areas. The change from “advanced production” to “thriving businesses” reflects new requirements placed on the agricultural sector and the rural economy to adapt to changing market demand, accelerate optimization and upgrading, and boost industrial integration. Building pleasant living environment is an intrinsically necessary component of rural vitalization. The change from “clean surroundings” to “pleasant living environment” shows that efforts to develop an ecological civilization in rural areas have improved in quality, and that rural residents are determined to build beautiful communities. Fostering social etiquette and civility is an urgent task in rural vitalization. The key points of focus in this task are promoting core socialist values, protecting and passing on the fine cultural traditions of rural areas, augmenting the development of public cultural facilities and activities in rural communities, and improving the general disposition of rural residents by discouraging undesirable habits in order to imbue rural society with a greater degree of civility. Effective governance provides important backing for rural vitalization. The change from “democratic management” to “effective governance” is meant to promote the modernization of governance capacity and standards in the countryside so that rural areas are harmonious, orderly, and filled with vitality. Achieving prosperity is the main objective of rural vitalization. The change from “better living standards” to “prosperity” reflects rural residents’ ever-growing needs for a better life.

由此可见,乡村振兴是包括产业振兴、人才振兴、文化振兴、生态振兴、组织振兴的全面振兴,是“五位一体”总体布局、“四个全面”战略布局在“三农”工作的体现。我们要统筹推进农村经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设和党的建设,促进农业全面升级、农村全面进步、农民全面发展。

From this we can see that rural vitalization is comprehensive, covering the vitalization of industry, talent, culture, the environment, and organizational structures, and that it serves as the embodiment of the “five-pronged” overall plan and the “Four Comprehensives” strategy in our work concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers. We must push forward coordinated economic, political, cultural, social, ecological, and Party development in rural areas. By doing so, we will promote the enhancement of agriculture, the improvement of rural areas, and the personal development of rural people in every way possible.



三、坚持走中国特色乡村振兴之路

III. Following a distinctively Chinese approach to rural vitalization

实施乡村振兴战略,首先要按规律办事。在我们这样一个拥有近14亿人口的大国,实现乡村振兴是前无古人、后无来者的伟大创举,没有现成的、可照抄照搬的经验。我国乡村振兴道路怎么走,只能靠我们自己去探索。

In implementing the rural vitalization strategy, we must first act in accordance with objective laws. Bringing about rural vitalization in a country as large as China with almost 1.4 billion people is an unprecedented feat. With no ready-made model to emulate, we must rely on ourselves to forge a path forward.

我国人多地少矛盾十分突出,户均耕地规模仅相当于欧盟的四十分之一、美国的四百分之一。“人均一亩三分地、户均不过十亩田”,是我国许多地方农业的真实写照。这样的资源禀赋决定了我们不可能各地都像欧美那样搞大规模农业、大机械作业,多数地区要通过健全农业社会化服务体系,实现小规模农户和现代农业发展有机衔接。当前和今后一个时期,要突出抓好农民合作社和家庭农场两类农业经营主体发展,赋予双层经营体制新的内涵,不断提高农业经营效率。

The problem of limited land in relation to population is extremely pronounced in China, with the average amount of arable land per rural household equivalent to 2.5 percent of that in the EU, and just 0.25 percent of that in the US. The common saying “1.3 mu per person and 10 mu per family” is an accurate portrayal of the situation for agriculture in many areas throughout China. These resource limitations have made it so that we could not possibly use massive machinery to develop large-scale farming in the same way that they have in the US and Europe. Instead, what we need in most regions is to improve specialized agricultural services and link small rural households with modern agricultural development. Now and for the foreseeable future, we should focus on supporting the development of two types of agricultural businesses – family farms and farmer cooperatives – and give new meaning to the two-tier land tenure system in order to constantly make the agricultural sector run more effectively.

我国农耕文明源远流长、博大精深,是中华优秀传统文化的根。我国很多村庄有几百年甚至上千年的历史,至今保持完整。很多风俗习惯、村规民约等具有深厚的优秀传统文化基因,至今仍然发挥着重要作用。要在实行自治和法治的同时,注重发挥好德治的作用,推动礼仪之邦、优秀传统文化和法治社会建设相辅相成。要继续进行这方面的探索和创新,并不断总结推广。

China’s long-standing and expansive agrarian culture represents the foundation of our fine cultural traditions. Many villages in China have hundreds or even thousands of years of history and have been preserved up to the present day. There are numerous local customs and village regulations that are steeped in cultural tradition and still play an important role today. While practicing self-governance and law-based governance, we should also lay stress on effectively exerting the role of virtue in governance, using China’s qualities as a land of ceremony and propriety with rich cultural traditions to complement the development of a law-based society and vice versa. We must continue exploring and innovating in this regard, and ensure that the experience we gain in the process is put to good use.

要把乡村振兴战略这篇大文章做好,必须走城乡融合发展之路。我们一开始就没有提城市化,而是提城镇化,目的就是促进城乡融合。要向改革要动力,加快建立健全城乡融合发展体制机制和政策体系。要健全多元投入保障机制,增加对农业农村基础设施建设投入,加快城乡基础设施互联互通,推动人才、土地、资本等要素在城乡间双向流动。要建立健全城乡基本公共服务均等化的体制机制,推动公共服务向农村延伸、社会事业向农村覆盖。要深化户籍制度改革,强化常住人口基本公共服务,维护进城落户农民的土地承包权、宅基地使用权、集体收益分配权,加快农业转移人口市民化。

For the rural vitalization strategy to be implemented successfully, we must pursue integration between urban and rural development. Since the very beginning, we have talked about urbanization that includes cities and towns rather than cities alone because our goal is to promote integrated urban-rural development. Drawing on reform for momentum, we should speed up our efforts to develop systems, mechanisms, and policies for integrating development between urban and rural areas. We should build diverse mechanisms for guaranteeing investment, increase investment in agricultural and rural infrastructure development, move faster to ensure interconnection between urban and rural infrastructure, and promote bidirectional flows of factors such as talent, land, and capital between urban and rural areas. We should develop systems and mechanisms giving urban and rural residents equal access to basic public services and work to ensure that public services and social programs extend to and cover rural areas. We should boost reform of the household registration system, bolster basic public services for people who have become permanent residents of cities, safeguard the rights of rural migrant workers who have settled in cities with regard to farmland contracting, residential land-use, and proceeds from rural collective undertakings, and move faster to grant urban residency to the rural migrant population.

打好脱贫攻坚战是实施乡村振兴战略的优先任务。贫困村和所在县乡当前的工作重点就是脱贫攻坚,目标不变、靶心不散、频道不换。2020年全面建成小康社会之后,我们将消除绝对贫困,但相对贫困仍将长期存在。到那时,现在针对绝对贫困的脱贫攻坚举措要逐步调整为针对相对贫困的日常性帮扶措施,并纳入乡村振兴战略架构下统筹安排。这个问题要及早谋划、早作打算。

Winning the fight against poverty is our top priority in implementing the rural vitalization strategy. Poverty-stricken villages and the counties and towns in which they are located must make poverty alleviation the focus of their work and give this task their constant and undivided attention. Though we will have eliminated absolute poverty once we achieve moderate prosperity throughout society in 2020, relative poverty will remain for a long time to come. After 2020, we should gradually shift from our current poverty eradication measures targeting absolute poverty to regular assistance measures that target relative poverty, and incorporate these into the rural vitalization strategy’s framework. We should see to it that plans concerning this issue are made as early as possible.

四、为实施乡村振兴战略提供坚强政治保证

IV. Providing implementation of the rural vitalization strategy with strong political guarantees

实施乡村振兴战略,各级党委和党组织必须加强领导,汇聚起全党上下、社会各方的强大力量。要把好乡村振兴战略的政治方向,坚持农村土地集体所有制性质,发展新型集体经济,走共同富裕道路。要充分发挥好乡村党组织的作用,把乡村党组织建设好,把领导班子建设强,弱的村要靠好的党支部带领打开局面,富的村要靠好的党支部带领再上一层楼。人才振兴是乡村振兴的基础,要创新乡村人才工作体制机制,充分激发乡村现有人才活力,把更多城市人才引向乡村创新创业。

In implementing the rural vitalization strategy, Party committees and organizations at all levels must step up their leadership and bring together the strength of the whole Party and all sectors of society. We must maintain a firm grasp on the political orientation of the strategy, upholding the system of collective land ownership in rural areas, developing a new type of collective economy, and pursuing common prosperity. We must help Party organizations in villages effectively exert their roles by ensuring that they are well established and have strong leadership bodies. Vulnerable villages should look to stronger Party branches for guidance in reaching toward brighter prospects, while well-off villages should do the same in order to improve further. Since the invigoration of talent represents the foundation for rural vitalization, we should introduce new systems and mechanisms in this regard, tapping into existing rural talent while also attracting more urban entrepreneurs and innovators to rural areas.

在实施乡村振兴战略中要注意处理好以下关系。

In implementing the rural vitalization strategy, we must focus on striking the right balance in the following relationships.

第一,长期目标和短期目标的关系。实施乡村振兴战略是一项长期而艰巨的任务,要遵循乡村建设规律,着眼长远谋定而后动,坚持科学规划、注重质量、从容建设,聚焦阶段任务,找准突破口,排出优先序,一件事情接着一件事情办,一年接着一年干,久久为功,积小胜为大成。要有足够的历史耐心,把可能出现的各种问题想在前面,切忌贪大求快、刮风搞运动,防止走弯路、翻烧饼。

First, the relationship between short-term and long-term goals

Implementing the rural vitalization strategy is an arduous task that will take a long time to accomplish. Throughout this process, we must conform to the laws governing the rural development, and only take action after taking the long-term goal into consideration. We should stay committed to rational planning, put emphasis on quality, take our time to ensure the effectiveness of our initiatives, focus on the tasks at hand, look for the right opportunities, and set an ordered list of priorities. We should proceed step-by-step and year-by-year, working with persistent effort to accumulate small victories and gradually turn these into great successes. We need to be sufficiently patient and think ahead about problems that could potentially emerge. It is imperative that we stop ourselves from being overly ambitious and engaging in impulsive campaigns, and that we refrain from flip-flopping and getting off track.

第二,顶层设计和基层探索的关系。党中央已经明确了乡村振兴的顶层设计,各地要解决好落地问题,制定出符合自身实际的实施方案。编制村庄规划不能简单照搬城镇规划,更不能搞一个模子套到底。要科学把握乡村的差异性,因村制宜,精准施策,打造各具特色的现代版“富春山居图”。要发挥亿万农民的主体作用和首创精神,调动他们的积极性、主动性、创造性,并善于总结基层的实践创造,不断完善顶层设计。

Second, the relationship between top-level design and primary level exploration

Top-level design for rural vitalization has already been defined by the CPC Central Committee, so now it is up to localities to find the best ways to implement these designs by finding solutions that fit in with their own realities. In formulating plans for rural areas, we may neither simply copy those for urban areas, nor apply a single model without any adaptability. We must have a rational understanding of the differences that exist from village to village, and apply policies in ways that are suited to each of them so that all of their unique beauty shines forth. We should help the millions upon millions of rural residents exert their primary role and pioneering spirit, mobilizing their enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity. We should also become more adept at reviewing experience gained at the primary level and using this to constantly improve top-level design.



第三,充分发挥市场决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用的关系。要进一步解放思想,推进新一轮农村改革,从农业农村发展深层次矛盾出发,聚焦农民和土地的关系、农民和集体的关系、农民和市民的关系,推进农村产权明晰化、农村要素市场化、农业支持高效化、乡村治理现代化,提高组织化程度,激活乡村振兴内生动力。要以市场需求为导向,深化农业供给侧结构性改革,不断提高农业综合效益和竞争力。要优化农村创新创业环境,放开搞活农村经济,培育乡村发展新动能。要发挥政府在规划引导、政策支持、市场监管、法治保障等方面的积极作用。推进农村改革不可能一蹴而就,还可能会经历阵痛,甚至付出一些代价,但在方向问题上不能出大的偏差。有一条是我一直强调的,就是农村改革不论怎么改,都不能把农村土地集体所有制改垮了、把耕地改少了、把粮食生产能力改弱了、把农民利益损害了。这些底线必须坚守,决不能犯颠覆性错误。

Third, the relationship between allowing the market to play the decisive role and enabling the government to better play its role

We must free our minds further and advance a new round of rural reform, starting with deep-rooted issues in rural and agricultural development and focusing on managing the relationships between farmers and the land, between farmers and collectives, and between rural and urban residents. Reform should also seek to define rural ownership rights more clearly, promote the market-based allocation of factors in rural areas, give more effective support to the agricultural sector, and advance the modernization of rural governance, while also raising the level of organization in order to stimulate endogenous momentum for driving rural vitalization forward. Taking market demand as a guide, we should further supply-side structural reform in the agricultural sector in order to constantly increase its profitability and competitiveness. We should improve the environment for innovation and entrepreneurship in rural areas, stimulate the rural economy by loosening controls, and foster new drivers of rural development. The government should play an active role with regard to planning and guidance, policy support, market supervision, and legal safeguards. Rural reform cannot be achieved overnight, but even though we may face temporary difficulties or have to make certain sacrifices, we must not deviate from our determined course. I have always stressed that no matter how rural reform is carried out, we must not take any actions that would do away with collective land ownership, reduce the amount of cultivated land, weaken our grain production capacity, or harm the interests of farmers. It is absolutely imperative that we hold fast to these bottom lines and avoid making disruptive errors.

第四,增强群众获得感和适应发展阶段的关系。要围绕农民群众最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,加快补齐农村发展和民生短板,让亿万农民有更多实实在在的获得感、幸福感、安全感。要科学评估财政收支状况、集体经济实力和群众承受能力,合理确定投资规模、筹资渠道、负债水平,合理设定阶段性目标任务和工作重点,形成可持续发展的长效机制。要坚持尽力而为、量力而行,不能超越发展阶段,不能提脱离实际的目标,更不能搞形式主义和“形象工程”。

Fourth, the relationship between bringing a stronger sense of fulfillment to our people and conforming to our current stage of development

With a focus on issues that are of greatest concern to rural residents and that impact them most directly in their everyday lives, we must move faster to remedy shortcomings in rural development and public wellbeing to bring rural residents more concrete feelings of fulfillment, happiness, and security. In order to establish long-acting mechanisms for sustainable development, we should rationally assess government revenue and expenditures, the strength of the collective economy, and the adaptability of the public, designate appropriate investment volume, funding channels, and debt levels, and set key tasks and targets that we can work toward incrementally. We must continue performing the best that we can with our current capabilities, and ensure that we do not get ahead of ourselves, lose sight of realistic objectives, or get caught up in going through the formalities and engaging in projects solely for the sake of appearances.

(这是习近平总书记2018年9月21日在十九届中央政治局第八次集体学习时的讲话。)

(This was the speech made at the eighth group study session of the Political Bureau of the 19th CPC Central Committee, September 21, 2018.)



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