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【双语】三大英语词典2019年度热词出炉,今年大家都在关注这件事!

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千缘 发表于 2019-11-22 02:28:02 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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日前,权威英文词典纷纷发布了2019年年度词汇,环境、气候相关的热词纷纷上榜,体现了今年人们对环保问题的关切。

牛津词典:“气候紧急事件”

据《卫报》报道,《牛津词典》宣布“气候紧急事件”("climate emergency")为2019年年度词汇。

此前,“气候紧急事件”的使用增加了100倍,并表示这表明我们谈论气候的方式“更加直接”。

Oxford Dictionaries has declared “climate emergency” the word of the year for 2019, following a hundred-fold increase in usage that it says demonstrated a “greater immediacy” in the way we talk about the climate.



牛津词典将其定义为“需要采取紧急行动以减少或停止气候变化,并避免由此造成的不可逆转的环境破坏(“a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it”)”。



2018年9月-2019年9月,每十亿单词中“气候紧急事件”出现的频率 图源:牛津词典网站

牛津词典表示,该词已从“相对不为人知”飙升至“2019年最引人注目的、备受争议的词汇之一”。Oxford said the words soared from “relative obscurity” to “one of the most prominent – and prominently debated – terms of 2019.”

牛津大学表示,这一选择不仅反映了人们对气候变化意识的增强,还特别关注了我们讨论气候变化时使用的语言。《牛津词典》称,“气候紧急事件”一词的出现反映出人们正有意识地将语言推向即时性和紧迫性。

剑桥词典:“升级回收”

剑桥词典网站日前发布消息称,“upcycling”(升级回收)被确定为2019年年度词汇。

这个词指的是将无用及不需要的产品,转化为质量更好或具有环境价值的新材料或产品。

Cambridge Dictionary has named 'upcycling', the activity of making new items out of old or used things, as its Word of the Year 2019.

剑桥词典近日将“upcycling”(升级回收)评为2019年年度词汇。“升级回收”指的是用旧的或使用过的东西制造新物品的活动。



Kevin Jarrett/unsplash

数据显示,“升级回收”一词当选是因为它是最能引起剑桥词典用户共鸣的“每日一词”。

Upcycling was chosen as the ‘Word of the Day’ which resonated most strongly with followers on the Dictionary’s Instagram account. It received more likes than any other ‘Word of the Day’ when shared on 4 July 2019.

2019年7月4日,剑桥词典在Instagram账户上分享这个词汇时,它获得的点赞量超过其他所有的“每日一词”。

自2011年12月首次被收入剑桥词典网站以来,“升级回收”一词的搜索量增长了181%,仅去年一年的搜索量就增加了一倍。

剑桥词典的出版经理温德林·尼科尔斯说:“‘升级回收’一词背后的积极含义比这个词本身更有意义。”

"We think it's the positive idea behind upcycling that appeals more than the word itself," said Wendalyn Nichols, Publishing Manager of the Cambridge Dictionary. "Stopping the progression of climate change, let alone reversing it, can seem impossible at times. Upcycling is a concrete action a single human being can take to make a difference.

剑桥词典的出版经理温德林·尼科尔斯说:“我们认为,‘升级回收’一词背后的积极意义比这个词本身更吸引人。阻止气候变化的进程,更不用说扭转它,有时似乎是不可能的。‘升级回收’是每个人可以为此做出改变的具体行动。”

这些具体行动包括,人们改变自身的饮食、衣着、出行等行为习惯。

"Lookups of upcycling reflect the momentum around individual actions to combat climate change — the growing trends of vegan, flexitarian and plant-based diets; reading and following the handbook There is No Planet B; or fashion designers upcycling clothes to create their latest collections."

“对‘升级回收’一词的搜索反映了个人应对气候变化行动的趋势——纯素食、弹性素食和植物性饮食的增长趋势;阅读并遵循《没有第二个地球》手册,以及时装设计师们对衣服进行‘升级回收’来打造最新服装系列。”



其他相关词汇也入围了2019年度词汇,反映了对于气候变化影响担忧:

carbon sink碳汇

An area of forest that is large enough to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide from the earth's atmosphere and therefore to reduce the effect of global warming森林面积大到足以吸收地球大气中大量的二氧化碳,从而减少全球变暖的影响

compostable可堆肥的

Something that is compostable can be used as compost when it decays可用来制作肥料的东西,腐烂后可以用作堆肥

除此之外,剑桥词典最近新增了“塑料足迹”这个词。

A recent addition is the noun plastic footprint, defined as a measurement of the amount of plastic that someone uses and then discards, considered in terms of the resulting damage caused to the environment.

剑桥词典新增“塑料足迹”这个词,用来衡量一个人使用和丢弃塑料的数量,及其对环境造成的破坏。

discard [dɪs'kɑː(r)d] v.丢弃

柯林斯词典:“气候罢工”

同时,柯林斯词典则将“climate strike(气候罢工)”选为2019年度词汇。

The 2019 word of the year - which will get its own entry in the next edition of the dictionary - is defined by Collins as "a form of protest in which people absent themselves from education or work in order to join demonstrations demanding action to counter climate change".

2019年度词汇“气候罢工”将被收录进下一版的柯林斯词典中。柯林斯词典将其定义为“人们停课或停工,以参加示威要求采取行动应对气候变化的一种抗议形式。”



这是继2018年“一次性使用”("single-use")之后,环保词汇连续第二年被选为年度词汇。

在过去一年时间里,全球爆发了多次气候变化抗议活动。

柯林斯词典编纂者发现,与2018年相比,今年这个词的使用频率增加了100倍,于是climate strike当之无愧地当选2019年度词汇。

"Climate strike" was picked by Collins Dictionary after being used on average 100 times more this year than in 2018.

柯林斯词典将“climate strike(气候罢工)”选为2019年度词汇,今年该词的平均使用率是2018年的100倍。

The term was first recorded four years ago when pupils skipped school to protest over global warming - but the movement has grown over the last year.

这个说法最早出现在四年前,当时学生们罢课抗议全球变暖,但是去年,该运动影响范围进一步扩大。



澳大利亚的布里斯班的环保主义者 图源:路透社

来看一下事件梳理:

1

The term climate strike was first registered in November 2015 during the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris when the first event of its kind took place.

“气候罢工”一词最早出现在2015年11月巴黎联合国气候变化大会期间,当时发生了首次“气候罢工”。2

But the movement was reignited thanks to Swedish teenage activist Greta Thunberg.

但由于瑞典青少年活动家格里塔·腾伯格的行动,气候罢工行动得以再现。3

On 20 August 2018, Thunberg sat outside Sweden's parliament carrying a "school strike for climate change" sign and saying she was refusing to attend classes until Swedish politicians took action.

2018年8月20日,腾伯格坐在瑞典议会外,举着“为气候变化而罢课”的牌子,并表示除非瑞典政界人士采取行动,否则她将拒绝上课。



4

The movement snowballed with students around the world missing school to demand action on global warming, and in September millions of people took part in a global climate strike.

这场运动愈演愈烈,世界各地的学生纷纷罢课,要求对全球变暖采取行动。今年9月,数百万人参加了全球气候罢工。

除了“气候罢工”,柯林斯还增加了“回归野生化”("rewilding")一词,即让土地回归野生状态。Alongside "climate strike", Collins has also added the term "rewilding", the practice of returning land to a wild state.

在任何紧急情况,人们的智慧和能力都可以让我们准备一份“Plan B”备用。

但地球只有一个,There is no Planet B。



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