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【双语】总是爱感冒?科学家另辟蹊径对抗感冒病毒

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发表于 2019-9-19 01:57:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
人们经常调侃感冒是“吃药七天好,不吃药一周好”。对于感冒病毒,医学界一直没有找到有效的针对性药物。但科学家最近找到了一种方法来抵御感冒病毒的侵袭,真正的感冒药或许不久就能面世了。

  Scientists think they have found a way to stop the common cold and closely related viruses which can cause paralysis.

  科学家们认为他们已经找到了一种方法来治疗普通感冒以及与其密切相关的病毒,这些病毒可能导致瘫痪。

  Instead of trying to attack them directly, the researchers targeted an essential protein inside our cells which the viruses need to replicate.

  研究人员没有试图直接攻击感冒病毒,而是将研究目标对准了病毒复制所需的细胞内的一种基本蛋白质。

  The approach gave "complete protection" in experiments on mice and human lung cells.

  该方法在针对小鼠和人类肺细胞的实验中提供了“完全的保护”。

  However, the US-based researchers are not ready for trials in people.

  不过,美国的研究人员还没有准备好进行人体试验。

  普通感冒的挑战

  Tackling the common cold has been a massive problem in medicine.

  治疗普通感冒一直是医学界的一大难题。

  Most colds are caused by rhinoviruses, but there are around 160 different types and they mutate so easily they rapidly become resistant to drugs, or learn to hide from the immune system.

  大多数感冒由鼻病毒引起,但是大约有160种不同的病毒,它们很容易变异,并且会迅速产生抗药性,或者学会躲避免疫系统。

  rhinovirus ['raɪnəʊ,vaɪrəs]:n.鼻病毒

  mutate [mjuː'teɪt]:vi.变化,产生突变

  This has led to the idea of "host-directed therapy" - essentially making our bodies inhospitable for the cold viruses.

  这引发了“宿主导向疗法”的想法,也就是从本质上使人的身体不适合感冒病毒存活。

  An individual virus does not have everything it needs to replicate. Instead, it is dependent on infecting another cell and stealing some of the parts inside.

  单个病毒并不具备复制所需的一切。相反,它依赖于感染另一个细胞并从中获取部分物质。

  It is why scientists still argue whether viruses are truly alive.

  因此,科学家们仍然在争论病毒是否真的是活的。

  A team at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, found one of the components which the viruses were dependent upon.

  斯坦福大学和加州大学旧金山分校的一个研究小组发现了病毒所依赖的一种成分。

  病毒的依赖

  Scientists started with human cells and then used gene-editing to turn off instructions inside our DNA one-by-one.

  科学家从人类细胞开始,之后用基因编辑一个接一个地关闭人类DNA中的指令。

  These modified cells were then exposed to a range of enteroviruses - this includes the rhinoviruses which cause the common cold, and more dangerous viruses that are closely related to polio and can cause paralysis.

  这些经过编辑的细胞随后暴露在多种肠道病毒中——包括导致普通感冒的鼻病毒,以及与脊髓灰质炎密切相关、可能导致瘫痪的更危险的病毒。



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