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【VOA】世界最著名的儿童医生—本杰明 · 斯波克

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发表于 2019-5-26 01:53:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式




I'm Faith Lapidus. And I'm Steve Ember with People in America in VOA Special English. Today we tell about the world's most famous doctor for children, Benjamin Spock.

我是菲丝·拉伯蒂斯,我是史蒂夫·恩伯。这里是VOA慢速英语栏目《美国人物志》。今天我们讲述世界上最著名的医生本杰明·斯波克的故事。

Benjamin Spock's first book caused a revolution in the way American children were raised. His book, "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care," was published in nineteen forty-six. The book gave advice to parents of babies and young children. The first lines of the book are famous. Dr. Spock wrote: "Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do".

本杰明·斯波克的第一本书变革了美国人养育儿童的方式。他的书《婴幼儿保健常识》出版于1946年。这本书给婴儿和儿童的父母提供了建议。这本书的第一句话非常有名。斯波克医生写道:“相信你自己。你比想象中知道的更多。”

This message shocked many parents. For years, mothers had been told that they should reject their natural feelings about their babies. Before Dr. Spock's book appeared, the most popular guide to raising children was called "Psychological Care of Infant and Child." The book's writer, John B. Watson, urged extreme firmness in dealing with children. The book called for a strong structure of rules in families. It warned parents never to kiss, hug or physically comfort their children.

这段话震惊了很多父母。多年来,人们一直告知母亲们,她们应该放弃她们对孩子的自然情感。在斯波克医生的书出版之前,养育孩子最流行的指南是《婴幼儿心理护理》。这本书的作者约翰·B·沃森敦促人们在处理儿童问题时要极端坚定。这本书呼吁建立一个强有力的家庭规则结构。它告诫父母永远不要亲吻、拥抱或在身体上安慰孩子。

Dr. Spock's book was very different. He gave gentle advice to ease the fears of new parents. Dr. Spock said his work was an effort to help parents trust their own natural abilities in caring for their children.

斯波克医生的书则非常不同。他提出了温和的建议,以减轻新父母的恐惧。斯波克医生认为他的作品是为了帮助父母们相信他们在照料孩子方面的自然本性。

"I was always trying to lean in the direction of reassuring parents."

“我经常努力向安慰父母的方向倾斜。”

Dr. Spock based much of his advice on the research and findings of the famous Austrian psychoanalyst, Sigmund Freud.

斯波克医生的很多建议都建立在著名的奥地利精神分析学家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的研究和发现之上。

"Freud was interested in where is the origin of neuroses, I was interested in the other side of it, how do children grow emotionally. And I think Freud has given us a very good explanation of the stages of development."

“弗洛伊德对神经症的起源很有兴趣,我则对另一方面感兴趣,那就是儿童在情感上是如何成长的。我觉得弗洛伊德已经给了我们一个关于发育阶段的很好的解释。”

Dr. Spock's book discusses the mental and emotional development of children. It urges parents to use that information to decide how to deal with their babies when they are crying, hungry, or tired.

斯波克医生的书讨论了儿童的智力和情感的发育。它敦促父母利用这些信息来决定当他们的孩子哭泣、饥饿或疲惫时该如何应对。

For example, Dr. Spock dismissed the popular idea of exactly timed feedings for babies. Baby care experts had believed that babies must be fed at the same times every day or they would grow up to be demanding children.

例如,斯波克博士否定了为婴儿精确定时喂食的流行观点。婴儿护理专家曾认为,婴儿必须每天在同一时间喂食,否则他们长大后会成为要求苛刻的孩子。

Dr. Spock said babies should be fed when they are hungry. He argued that babies know better than anyone about when and how much they need to eat. He did not believe that feeding babies when they cry in hunger would make them more demanding. He also believed that showing love to babies by hugging and kissing them would make them happier and more secure.

斯波克博士说,婴儿饿的时候应该吃东西。他认为婴儿比任何人都清楚什么时候需要吃什么,需要吃多少。他不认为在婴儿饿哭的时候给他们喂食会让他们更加苛刻。他还认为,通过拥抱和亲吻婴儿来表达爱意会让他们更快乐、更有安全感。

"The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care" examined the emotional and physical growth of children. Dr. Spock said he did not want to just tell a parent what to do. He said he tried to explain what children generally are like at different times in their development so parents would know what to expect.

《婴幼儿保健常识》考察了儿童的情感和身体成长。斯波克医生认为他不想仅仅告诉父母应该做什么。他认为他试图解释儿童在不同发展阶段是什么样子的,这样父母就知道该期待什么了。

Dr. Spock's book did not receive much notice from the media when it was published in nineteen forty- six. Yet, seven hundred fifty thousand copies of the book were sold during the year after its release. Dr. Spock began receiving many letters of thanks from mothers around the country.

斯波克医生的书在1946年出版时没有引起太多媒体的注意。然而,在此书出版的第二年,其销量高达75万册。斯波克开始收到全国各地的母亲们的感谢信。

Dr. Spock considered his mother, Mildred Spock, to be the major influence on his personal and professional life. He said his ideas about how parents should act were first formed because of her. He reacted to the way in which his mother cared for him and his brother and sisters.

斯波克医生认为给他生活带来最大影响的人是他的母亲米尔德里德·斯波克。他认为起初自己的关于父母应该如何作为的观点是因为自己的母亲而形成的。他对母亲照顾他和弟弟妹妹的方式做出了反应。

Dr. Spock described his mother as extremely controlling. He said she believed all human action was the result of a physical health issue or a moral one. She never considered her children's actions were based on emotional needs.

斯波克医生称他的母亲控制欲极强。他说,自己的母亲认为所有人类行为都是身体健康问题或道德问题的结果。她从不认为孩子们的行为是基于情感需要。

"And though some people have said I suppose this book is a protest against the way you were brought up, well that's only about a third of it."

“尽管有人说这本书是对我自己养育方式的抗议,但这只说出了其中的三分之一。

Dr. Spock later argued against this way of thinking. Yet, he praised his mother's trust of her own knowledge of her children. In his book, "Spock on Spock," he wrote about his mother's ability to correctly identify her children's sicknesses when the doctors were wrong.

斯波克医生后来反对了这种思维方式。然而,他赞扬了母亲对自己对孩子的了解的信任。在他的书《斯波克谈斯波克》中,他写道,当医生错了的时候,他的母亲能够正确地识别孩子的疾病的能力。

"I think that my interest in children, devotion to children and those of my sisters and brother were all because my mother was totally devoted to her children. So I think that's part of where I got launched from, I cared a lot about children, but I think I also thought there must be easier ways, more pleasant ways to bring up children than the rather severe oppressive way that my mother used."

我想,我对孩子的兴趣,对孩子的奉献,对兄弟姐妹的奉献,都是因为我的母亲全身心地投入到她的孩子身上。所以我想这就是我起步的部分原因,我很关心孩子,但是我也觉得肯定有比我母亲严重的压迫性的育儿方式更轻松更舒适的育儿方式。

Benjamin Spock was born in nineteen-oh-three. He was the first of six children. The Spock family lived in New Haven, Connecticut. His father was a successful lawyer. Benjamin was a quiet child. He attended Phillips Academy, a private school in Andover, Massachusetts. Later he attended Yale University in New Haven. He joined a sports team at Yale that competed in rowing boats. In nineteen twenty-four, he and his team members competed in rowing at the Olympic Games in Paris, France. They won the gold medal.

本杰明·斯波克出生于1903年。他是六个孩子中的老大。斯波克一家住在康涅狄格州的纽黑文。他的父亲是一位成功的律师。本杰明是个安静的孩子。他就读于马萨诸塞州安多弗的私立学校菲利普斯学院。后来他就读于纽黑文的耶鲁大学。他加入了耶鲁大学的一个赛艇运动队。1924年,他和他的队员在法国巴黎奥运会上参加了划船比赛。他们赢得了金牌。

Benjamin Spock worked at a camp for disabled children for three summers during his years at Yale. He said the experience probably led to his decision to enter medical school. He began at Yale Medical School, but he completed his medical degree at Columbia University in New York City. He graduated as the best student in his class in nineteen twenty-nine.

本杰明·斯波克在耶鲁大学期间曾在一个残疾儿童夏令营工作过三个夏天。他说,这次经历可能促使他决定进入医学院。他起初是在耶鲁医学院,但他后来在纽约市哥伦比亚大学获得了他的医学学位。1929年,他作为班里最好的学生毕业。

Benjamin Spock had married Jane Cheney during his second year in medical school. They later had two sons, Michael and John.

本杰明·斯波克在医学院二年级时娶了简·切尼。后来他们有了两个儿子,迈克尔和约翰。

Dr. Spock began working as a pediatrician, treating babies and children in New York City in nineteen thirty-three. During the next ten years he tried to fit the theories about how children develop with what mothers told him about their children. In nineteen forty-three, a publisher asked him to write a book giving advice to parents. He finished the book by writing at night during his two years of service in the United States Navy.

1933年在纽约市,斯波克医生开始作为儿科医生工作,负责治疗婴儿和儿童。在接下来的十年里,他试图把关于孩子成长的理论与母亲们对他讲的关于孩子的故事相吻合。1943年,一位出版商邀请他创作一本给父母提供建议的书。他在美国海军服役的两年期间,通过晚上写作完成了这本书。他妻子简帮助他完成了《婴幼儿保健常识》的第一个版本。”

Jane Spock helped her husband produce the first version of "Baby and Child Care." She typed the book from his notes and spoken words.

简通过丈夫的笔记和口述把这本书打了出来。

During the nineteen fifties, Dr. Spock became famous. He wrote several other books. He wrote articles for a number of magazines. He appeared on television programs. He taught at several universities. And he gave speeches around the country to talk to parents about their concerns.

20世纪50年代,斯波克医生成名了。他又写了一些其他的书。他为杂志创作文章。他也参加电视节目。斯波克也在几个大学教学。他也在全国各地发表演讲,跟父母们谈论他们的担忧。

During this time, he discovered things he wanted to change in the book. He wanted to make sure parents knew that they should have control over their children and expect cooperation from them. So, in nineteen fifty-seven the second version of the book was published. He continued to make changes to "Baby and Child Care" throughout his life.

在这段时间,他想改变书中的一些东西。他想确保父母知道他们应该掌控自己的孩子,并期待与他们合作。所以,1957年,这本书的第二版出版了。在斯波克的一生中,他不断改进《婴幼儿保健常识》这本书。

In the nineteen sixties, Benjamin Spock began to be active in politics. He supported John F. Kennedy in his campaign for president. He joined a group opposed to the development of nuclear weapons.

在20世纪60年代,本杰明斯波克开始在活跃政治领域。在约翰·F·肯尼迪竞选总统时,他表示了支持。他加入了一个反对发展核武器的团体。

Dr. Spock also took part in demonstrations to protest the Vietnam War. In nineteen sixty-eight, he was found guilty of plotting to aid men who were refusing to join the American armed forces.

斯波克医生也参加了抗议越战的游行。1968年,他因密谋帮助拒绝参加美国军队的人而被判有罪。

Dr. Spock appealed the ruling against him. Finally, it was cancelled. However, the legal battle cost Doctor Spock a lot of money. The events damaged public opinion of the once very trusted children's doctor. Fewer people bought his books. Some people said Dr. Spock's teachings were to blame for the way young people in the nineteen sixties and seventies rebelled against the rules of society. A leading American religious thinker of that time called Dr. Spock "the father of permissiveness."

斯波克博士对不利于他的裁决提出上诉。最终这项罪名撤销了。但是,这次法庭斗争花费了斯波克很多钱。这次事件破坏了这位曾经非常受人信任的儿童医生的公共观点。买他的书的人变少了。有些人认为20世纪六七十年代年轻人反对社会规则的行为应归咎于斯波克医生的教导。那时美国的一个宗教思想领袖称斯波克医生是“放任之父”。

In nineteen seventy-two, Dr. Spock decided to seek election as president of the United States. He was the candidate of the small "People's Party."

1972年,斯波克医生决定竞选美国总统。他是小政党“人民党”的候选者。

He spoke out on issues concerning working families, children and minorities. Dr. Spock received about seventy-five thousand votes in the election that Richard Nixon won.

他公开谈论了关于工薪家庭、儿童和少数族裔的问题。斯波克医生大概获得了75000张选票,那次理查德·尼克松赢得了竞选。

Dr. Spock's marriage had been suffering for some time. For years, Jane Spock drank too much alcohol and suffered from depression. She reportedly felt her husband valued his professional and political interests more than he valued her. In nineteen seventy-five, Benjamin and Jane Spock ended their forty-eight-year marriage. One year later, Mary Morgan became his second wife.

斯波克医生的婚姻已经痛苦了一段时间。多年来,妻子简一直酗酒并且患有抑郁症。据报道,简觉得丈夫对专业和政治的兴趣的重视大过对自己的重视。1975年,本杰明和简结束了他们48年的婚姻。一年后,玛丽·摩根成为了本杰明的第二任妻子。

More than fifty million copies of Dr. Spock's "Baby and Child Care" book have been sold since it was published. It has been translated into thirty-nine languages. The eighth edition was published in two thousand four.

自斯波克医生的《婴幼儿保健常识》出版以来,这本书的销量已超过5000万册。它已被翻译为39种语言。这本书的第八版出版于2004年。

Benjamin Spock died in nineteen ninety-eight at the age of ninety-four. Yet his advice continues to affect the lives of millions of children and their parents.

本杰明·斯波克于1998年去世,享年94岁。然而他的建议仍旧影响着数百万父母和儿童的生活。



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