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【VOA】杰克逊即将就任总统之际,悲剧发生了

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English. Last week in our series, we talkedabout the election of eighteen twenty-eight. Andrew Jackson defeated PresidentJohn Quincy Adams, after a campaign in which both sides made bitter and viciouscharges. One of those charges was about Jackson's wife, Rachel. His opponentsaccused him of taking her from another man. They said Andrew and Rachel weremarried before she was legally divorced from her first husband. This was true.But it was because her first husband said he had divorced her, when really hehad not. Andrew and Rachel remarried -- legally this time -- after they learnedof the situation. Rachel Jackson was a kind and simple woman. The campaigncharges hurt her deeply. She was proud that Andrew was elected president. Butshe was not happy about the life she would have to lead as first lady. Atfirst, it was thought that she might remain in Tennessee. But Rachel Jacksonknew that her place was with her husband. She would go with him to Washington.But then, tragedy intervened. Our story this week is told by Jack Weitzel andStewart Spencer.

欢迎收听VOA慢速英语之建国史话节目。上周在系列节目中,我们讨论了1828年的选举。安德鲁·杰克逊击败在任总统约翰·昆西·亚当斯,此前双方在竞选期间进行过激烈又残酷的相互指控,其中一项指控针对杰克逊的妻子雷切尔。杰克逊的对手指责他把雷切尔从另一个男人身边抢走。他们说安德鲁和雷切尔结婚时,她还没和第一任丈夫合法离婚。实际情况确实如此,但这是因为雷切尔的第一任丈夫表示已经和她离婚,而实际上他并未办完手续。安德鲁和雷切尔在得知此情况后,又办理了一次受法律认可的结婚手续。雷切尔·杰克逊是一位心地善良的单纯女人,竞选期间出现的各种指控深深地伤害到她。她为安德鲁当选总统感到自豪,但她对自己要成为第一夫人这件事并不满意。起初,人们认为她可能会留在田纳西州。但雷切尔·杰克逊觉得自己应该陪伴丈夫。她要和他一起去华盛顿。但随后悲剧发生了,我们本周的故事由杰克·韦策尔和斯图尔特·斯宾塞讲述。

Preparations had to be made for the move toWashington. And for weeks, the Jackson home was busy. There was little time forMisses Jackson to rest. Her health seemed to suffer. Then on Decemberseventeenth, just a few days before the Jacksons were to leave for Washington,two doctors were rushed to the Jackson home outside Nashville. They foundRachel in great pain. She seemed to be suffering a heart attack. The doctorstreated her, and for a time, she seemed to get better. After a day or so,Rachel was able to sit up and talk with friends. She seemed cheerful. Jacksonwas at her side much of the time. On Sunday, Rachel sat up too long and beganfeeling worse. But the doctors said it was not serious, and they urged GeneralJackson to get some rest. He was to go to Nashville the next day. After herhusband went to sleep in the next room, Rachel had her servant help her to situp again. Rachel's mind was troubled about the years ahead in Washington."I had rather be a door-keeper in the house of God," she said,"than live in that palace in Washington." A few minutes after tenthat night, Rachel cried out and fell from her chair. The servants' screamsawakened everyone. Jackson was the first to get to Rachel. He lifted her to thebed. He watched as the doctors bent over her. Jackson read in their eyes thatlife had left Rachel. Jackson could not believe it. He sat next to her, hishead in his hands, his fingers through his gray hair.

杰克逊一家人要为迁往华盛顿做各种准备,他们一直忙碌了几个星期。杰克逊夫人几乎没时间休息,她的健康状况受到影响。12月17日,就在杰克逊夫妇动身前往华盛顿的前几天,两名医生赶到杰克逊在纳什维尔郊外的家中。他们发现瑞秋极为痛苦,好像是心脏病发作。医生对她进行了治疗,有那么一会儿她似乎好转了。大约一天后,雷切尔就可以坐起来和朋友聊天了。她看起来很高兴。杰克逊大部分时间都陪在她身边。星期天,雷切尔坐的时间有点长,开始感觉体力不支。但是医生们说情况并不严重,他们劝慰杰克逊将军休息一下,因为第二天他要去纳什维尔。雷切尔等丈夫到隔壁房间睡觉后,便又让仆人帮她坐起来。雷切尔满脑子想的都是要到华盛顿去生活数年,这让她感到心烦意乱。”她说:“我宁愿做上帝之家的守门人,也不愿住在华盛顿那座宫殿里。”那天晚上刚过十点,雷切尔大叫一声从椅子上摔倒,仆人的尖叫声惊醒了所有人。杰克逊第一个跑到雷切尔的房间,他把她抱到床上。医生俯身给雷切尔检查时,杰克逊一直在旁边守护,他从医生的眼神里得知雷切尔已经去世,这让杰克逊感到难以置信。他坐在雷切尔身旁,双手抱着头,手指插入他灰色的头发中。

To his friend, John Coffee, Jackson said:"John, can you realize she is dead. I certainly cannot." Rachel wasburied two days later. Ten-thousand persons went to the Jackson home for thefuneral. The Reverend William Hume spoke simply of Rachel Jackson's life. Hetalked of her kindness and humility. And he told how she had been hurt by theterrible charges made during the election campaign. Jackson fought to hold backhis tears. When the churchman finished speaking, those near Jackson heard himsay: "In the presence of this dear saint, I can and do forgive all myenemies. But those vile wretches who have lied about her, must look to God formercy." Jackson felt that Rachel's death was caused by the vicious chargesmade during the election campaign. He told a friend a few days later: "MayGod almighty forgive her murderers as I know she would forgive them. I nevercan." Jackson left his home January eighteenth to begin the long trip toWashington. "My Heart is nearly broken," he said. "I try to liftmy spirits, but cannot."

杰克逊对朋友约翰·科菲说:“约翰,你能看出她死了吗?我是看不出来。”两天后,雷切尔的尸体下葬。一万人来到杰克逊家中参加葬礼,威廉·休姆牧师简单讲述了雷切尔·杰克逊的一生,谈到她的仁慈和谦逊,还提及她在竞选期间被可怕的指控所伤。杰克逊努力克制不让自己哭出来。当牧师讲完话,杰克逊身边的人听到他说:“在这位挚爱的圣者面前,我能够也确会原谅所有的敌人。但那些对她进行诽谤的卑鄙小人,必须向上帝寻求怜悯。”杰克逊觉得雷切尔的死是由竞选活动期间那些恶毒的指控引起的。几天后,他告诉一位朋友:“愿全能的上帝宽恕她的凶手,因为我知道她会原谅他们。但我永远做不到。”杰克逊于1月18日离开家,长途跋涉前往华盛顿。“我的心都要碎了,”他说。“我试着振作起来,但无济于事。”

In Washington, no one knew what to expect.Senator Daniel Webster wrote a friend at Boston: "General Jackson will behere about the fifteenth of February. Nobody knows what he will do when he doescome. My opinion is that when he comes, he will bring a breeze with him. Whichway it will blow, I cannot tell. My fear is stronger than my hope." Crowdsof Jackson's supporters began arriving in the capital. Some wanted to see theirman sworn-in as president. Many wanted -- and expected -- a government job.General Jackson arrived in Alexandria, Virginia, across the Potomac River fromWashington, on February twelfth. Jackson was sixty-one years old. He was atall, thin man. His face was wrinkled. And his white hair was pushed back fromhis high forehead. His eyes -- usually sharp and commanding -- were filled withgrief. Jackson's health had never been really good. He carried in his body twobullets from duels fought years before. But he was a tough man with a spiritstrong enough to keep moving, even when seriously sick. For three weeks, thegeneral met with his advisers and friends. He decided on the men who would formhis cabinet. For the job of Secretary of State, Jackson chose Martin Van Burenof New York, a man of great political ability. He named a Pennsylvaniabusinessman, Samuel Ingham, to be secretary of the treasury. John Berrien ofGeorgia was chosen to be attorney general. His Navy Secretary would be JohnBranch, a former senator and governor of North Carolina. For war secretary,Jackson chose an old friend, Senator John Eaton of Tennessee.

在首都华盛顿,没人知道接下来将会发生什么。参议员丹尼尔·韦伯斯特在给波士顿一位朋友的信中写道:“杰克逊将军将在2月15日左右到达华盛顿,没人知道他来后会做什么。我的想法是,他来时会带着一股清风。但我无法预知风的走向,我感受到的恐惧比希望更强烈。”大批杰克逊的支持者开始抵达首都,有些人想看他宣誓就任总统,更多的人则期望能谋到一份政府工作。2月12日,杰克逊将军从华盛顿穿过波托马克河抵达弗吉尼亚州的亚历山大港。杰克逊那时61岁,又高又瘦,脸上布满皱纹。他的白发从高高的前额处往后背,他那双曾敏锐又威严的眼睛,现在充满了悲伤。杰克逊的健康状况一直都不太好,他身体里有两颗子弹,那是几年前和别人决斗时留下的。但他是一个坚强的人,即使在重病时也要勇往前行。三周来,杰克逊将军会见了他的顾问和朋友,他在选择组建内阁成员。对于国务卿一职,杰克逊选择了纽约州的马丁·范布伦,他的政治能力很强。宾夕法尼亚州商人塞缪尔·英厄姆任命为财政部长,佐治亚州的约翰·贝里恩被选为司法部长,议员兼北卡罗来纳州州长约翰·布兰奇任命为海军部长,杰克逊的老友田纳西州参议员约翰·伊顿任命为作战部长。

Three members of this cabinet -- Berrien,Branch, and Ingham -- were friends of John C. Calhoun, Jackson's vicepresident. Calhoun expected to be president himself when Jackson stepped downin four or eight years. Martin Van Buren also wanted the presidency. He woulddo all he could to block Calhoun's ambition. Andrew Jackson was sworn-in aspresident on March fourth, eighteen-twenty-nine. President John Quincy Adamsdid not go to the ceremony at the Capitol building. Jackson had said publiclyhe would not go near Adams. And he did not make the traditional visit to theWhite House while Adams was there. Jackson was still filled with bitternessover the charges made against his wife in the election campaign. He felt Adamswas at least partly responsible for the charges. The sky over Washington wascloudy on the fourth of March. But the clouds parted, and the sun shonethrough, as Jackson began the ride to the Capitol building. His cheeringsupporters saw this as a good sign. So many people crowded around the Capitolthat Jackson had to climb a wall and enter from the back. He walked through thebuilding and into the open area at the front where the ceremony would be held.

内阁中三名成员——贝里恩、布兰奇和英厄姆——是杰克逊的副总统约翰·C·卡尔霍恩的朋友。杰克逊在四年或八年后卸任时,卡尔霍恩希望自己成为总统。马丁·范布伦也想当总统,他将竭尽全力阻止卡尔霍恩的野心。安德鲁·杰克逊于1829年3月4日宣誓就任总统。在任总统约翰·昆西·亚当斯没去参加在国会大厦举行的宣誓仪式。杰克逊曾公开表示他不会接近亚当斯,亚当斯在白宫时,杰克逊没有按照惯例去拜访他。杰克逊对竞选活动期间针对妻子提出的指控仍然充满怨恨,他觉得亚当斯至少要对这些指控负有部分责任。3月4日,华盛顿上空多云。但当杰克逊所坐的车开往国会大厦时,云朵散开,阳光普照。欢呼雀跃的支持者们认为这是一个好兆头。国会大厦周围挤满了人,杰克逊不得不翻墙从后面进楼。他穿过大楼,走到楼前举行仪式的空地上。

Theceremony itself was simple. Jackson made a speech that few in the crowd wereable to hear. Then Chief Justice John Marshall swore-in the new president. Inthe crowd was a newspaperman from Kentucky, Amos Kendall. "It is a proudday for the people," wrote Kendall. "General Jackson is their ownpresident." From the Capitol, Jackson rode down Pennsylvania Avenue to theWhite House. Behind him followed all those who had watched him become thenation's seventh president. The crowds followed him all the way into the WhiteHouse, where food and drink had been put out for a party. Everyone tried to getin at once. Clothing was torn. Glasses and dishes were broken. Chairs andtables were damaged. Never had there been a party like this at the White House.Jackson stayed for a while. But the crush of people tired him, and he was ableto leave. He spent the rest of the day in his hotel room in Alexandria. Theguests at the White House finally left after drinks were put on the tableoutside the building. Many of the people left through windows, because thedoors were so crowded. Jackson was now the president of the people. And itseemed that everybody was in Washington looking for a government job.Everywhere Jackson turned, he met people who asked him for a job. They urgedhim to throw out those government workers who supported Adams in the election.They demanded that these jobs be given to Jackson supporters.

宣誓仪式很简单。杰克逊发表演讲,但人群中只有少数人能听到。然后首席大法官约翰·马歇尔主持了新总统的宣誓就职仪式。人群中有一位来自肯塔基州的新闻记者阿莫斯·肯德尔,他在文章中写道,“这对全国人民来说是一个值得骄傲的日子,杰克逊将军现在是他们的总统了。”杰克逊从国会大厦出发,沿宾夕法尼亚大道驱车前往白宫。他车队后面跟随的,是见证他就任美国第七任总统的人群。人群随他一路走进白宫,食物和酒水都已备好,一场宴会即将举行。每个人都想赶快进去,身上穿的衣服撕破了,玻璃酒杯和餐盘都碎了,椅子和桌子也坏了,在白宫还从来没举行过这样的聚会。杰克逊待了一会儿,但拥挤的人群使他感到疲乏,等他可以离开后,便到亚历山大港的旅馆房间里度过了那天剩余的时光。酒水被摆到国会大厦外的桌子上后,白宫的客人才终于离开。许多人都从窗户爬出大厦,因为门那太拥挤了。现在,杰克逊成为美国人民的总统。似乎所有人都跑到华盛顿寻找政府工作。杰克逊去哪都能遇到求他帮授予工作的人。他们力劝杰克逊解雇那些在选举中支持亚当斯的政府职员,并要求把这些职位授予杰克逊的支持者。



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