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【双语】我也想问:为什么男孩的休闲时间比女孩多?

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发表于 2019-4-14 01:39:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
在你的刻板印象里,是不是女生都爱整洁,男生都爱游戏?在家中是不是妈妈做的家务多,爸爸操心家务少呢?是什么原因造成了这种现象呢?今天就和小译来一探究竟吧!



On average, American men have more leisure time each day than American women—the difference works out to about half an hour.

通常来说,美国男性比女性每天多了大约半小时的休闲时间。

This inequity, according to a recent analysis of government data by the Pew Research Center, starts early. Among teens ages 15 to 17, the analysis found, boys had roughly an hour more of free time each day than girls.

根据皮尤研究中心最近的政府数据分析显示,这种不平等很早就开始了。分析发现,年龄段处于15至17岁的青少年中,男孩要比女孩每天多出大约一小时的空闲时间。



The time-use patterns of teen boys and girls map closely onto the time-use patterns of adult men and women. Teen boys spend an average of an hour more than teen girls each day absorbed in digital screens; men watch about a half hour more TV than women. Meanwhile, the time that teen girls spend each day cleaning and cooking is more than double the time boys spend on those tasks, and that roughly carries over into adulthood. The teenage years, from this vantage point, begin to look like practice for an adulthood of gender inequities.

青年男女的时间利用模式在很大程度上反映了成年男女的时间利用模式。相较青年女孩而言,青年男孩每天多出大约一小时可以花在电子产品上;而成年男性则每天比成年女性多出半小时可以花在看电视上。与此同时,青年女孩儿在打扫和做饭上花的时间是男孩的两倍多,而且这个时间利用模式会伴随他们进入成人期。青少年时期开始养成的“男性有利”时间模式,造成了成年后的性别不平等。



Parents can play a major role in generating these inequities. Research on housework suggests that parents introduce kids to tasks differently, depending on their gender. Mothers, for instance, tend to spend more time with their daughters cooking, doing housework, and shopping than they do with their sons. Fathers, meanwhile, are more likely to involve their sons in home-improvement projects and leisure activities such as watching TV. “Kids’ activities are in part driven by their own parents’ gender division of labor,” says Jill Yavorsky, a sociologist at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. “These really mirror each other in a lot of ways."

父母是造成这些不平等的主因。一项家务调查表明,父母会根据孩子的性别给他们分配不同的任务。例如妈妈们更倾向于和女儿一起做饭,做家务和逛街。而爸爸们则更喜欢和儿子一起做家庭装修和看电视等休闲活动。“从某种程度上来说,孩子的活动由父母根据性别进行的家庭分工来决定,二者在很多方面都相互反映。”北卡罗莱纳大学夏洛特分校的社会学家Jill Yavorsky说道。



And kids learn what’s expected of them not just by doing, but by observing: A study published last year found that men who grew up with working mothers tended to spend more time on child care, while women who grew up with working mothers were more likely to not only work but also work longer hours and make more money than those whose mothers didn’t work. “These beneficial outcomes are due at least in part to employed mothers’ conveyance of egalitarian gender attitudes and life skills for managing employment and domestic responsibilities simultaneously,” the researchers wrote.

孩子们通过行动和观察得知父母期待他们做什么:去年发表的一项研究发现,和职业母亲一起长大的男性会花更多时间照顾孩子,而与职业母亲一起长大的女性不仅愿意工作,相对于和全职妈妈一起长大的女性来说,她们还会在工作上投入更多时间并能赚更多钱。研究人员写道:这种有利的结局在一定程度上归功于职业母亲向孩子传达了平等的性别观念,教给了他们同时承担事业和家庭责任的生活技能。



Parents send other unequal messages to their children about the work they do around the house. According to data covering about 10,000 families released last year by BusyKid, an app for paying children allowance, the average boy earned $13.80 a week, while the average girl received $6.71—a pay gap at least as wide as the one between adult men and women in the workplace. It’s worth noting that this gap—like the aforementioned disparities in time use—forms well before kids grow up and enter the workforce.

就孩子们需要做的家务而言,父母会给他们传递其他的不平等信息。根据BusyKid(一个给孩子付钱做家务的软件)去年对大约10000个家庭的调查数据显示,每个男孩平均每周可以获得13.8美元,而女孩平均每周却只有6.71美元的收入——这个收入差距和职上男女工资的差距是类似的。值得注意的是,和上文提到的时间分配不平等一样,工资差距也是在孩子长大之前和进入职场之前就形成了。



The data from BusyKid also indicated that parents were more likely to pay boys than girls for personal-upkeep activities such as brushing their teeth or taking a shower. These are things that girls, in their teenage years, also spend more time on: According to the Pew analysis, teenage girls typically spent just over an hour on showering, getting dressed, and other hygiene- or appearance-related tasks, while teenage boys averaged 23 minutes fewer. (The gap for adult men and women for such personal-care activities is 28 minutes.)

BusyKid的数据还提到,父母更愿意给儿子的自我保养活动买单,比如刷牙、洗澡等。还有些事情是青少年时期的女孩子会花更多时间去做的:皮尤研究中心的分析表明,青年女孩普遍耗费一个多小时在洗澡、穿衣和做卫生等与外貌相关的事情上。而这些事情,青年男孩平均每天只需花23分钟甚至更少。(成年男女在这类个人护理方面花的时间则相差28分钟。)



In an attempt to give their little girls and boys equal opportunities, many parents seek to correct for society-level gender inequities by doing things like buying books about, say, astronauts or dinosaurs—topics typically coded as male—for their daughters. These efforts no doubt expand kids’ ideas of what’s possible, but it’s also important to consider what parents are themselves doing at home. In order to encourage a more equal distribution of housework, Yavorsky says, “they ultimately need to divide it more evenly amongst themselves, to model that to their kids.” Because it seems that those kids, once they grow up, will to some extent think about housework the way their parents did.

为了让小女孩和小男孩拥有平等的机会,很多父母开始寻求正确的方式去纠正社会层面的性别不平等,比如给女儿买有关宇航员和恐龙等(通常认为适合男生的)内容的书籍。这些努力无疑可以拓展孩子们的思维,让他们知道一切都是有可能的。但是父母在家里的言传身教也同样重要。为了鼓励更公平的家务分配方式,Yavorsky说:“父母本身就需要公平地分配家务,给孩子们做出榜样。”因为孩子们长大后似乎在很大程度上都会按照他们父母的方式来分配家务。



你在家里会主动帮父母做家务吗?你家里父母之间的家务活又是怎么分配的呢?快来留言区和大家分享吧!



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