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【双语】今年《政府工作报告》做了哪些“加减法”?

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发表于 2019-3-8 12:56:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2018年以来,我国发展面临多年少有的国内外复杂严峻形势,经济出现新的下行压力。在这种背景下,我们梳理一下,今年的《政府工作报告》做了哪些“加减法”。



1. Minus taxes and fees, plus market vitality

企业税费的“减法”与市场活力的“加法”

We will implement larger-scale tax cuts, and we will introduce both general-benefit and structural tax cuts, focusing primarily on reducing tax burdens in manufacturing and on small and micro businesses.

实施更大规模的减税。普惠性减税与结构性减税并举,重点降低制造业和小微企业税收负担。

VAT reform will be deepened: We will reduce the current rate of 16 percent in manufacturing and other industries to 13 percent, and lower the rate in the transportation, construction, and other industries from 10 to 9 percent, thus ensuring that tax burdens in our main industries are meaningfully reduced.

深化增值税改革,将制造业等行业现行16%的税率降至13%,将交通运输业、建筑业等行业现行10%的税率降至9%,确保主要行业税负明显降低;

We will keep the lowest bracket rate unchanged at 6 percent while adopting supporting measures, like increased tax deductions for producer and consumer services, to see that in all industries tax burdens only go down, not up; and continue making progress toward cutting the number of VAT brackets from three to two and simplifying the VAT system.We will ensure that the general-benefit tax cut policies issued at the start of the year for small and micro businesses are put into effect.

保持6%一档的税率不变,但通过采取对生产、生活性服务业增加税收抵扣等配套措施,确保所有行业税负只减不增,继续向推进税率三档并两档、税制简化方向迈进。抓好年初出台的小微企业普惠性减税政策落实。

在更大规模减税之余,李克强又明确给社保费率做“减法”:

We will significantly reduce enterprise contributions to social insurance schemes, and we will lower the share borne by employers for urban workers’ basic aged-care insurance, and localities may cut contributions down to 16 percent.

明显降低企业社保缴费负担,下调城镇职工基本养老保险单位缴费比例,各地可降至16%。

The social insurance premium collection methods currently in operation will be kept unchanged. No locality should take any measure that increases the burden on small and micro enterprises when reforming their collection systems, or require, on their own, that longstanding arrears be paid off in a lump sum.

稳定现行征缴方式,各地在征收体制改革过程中不得采取增加小微企业实际缴费负担的做法,不得自行对历史欠费进行集中清缴。

This year, we will reduce the tax burdens on and social insurance contributions of enterprises by nearly 2 trillion yuan.

全年减轻企业税收和社保缴费负担近2万亿元。

Reducing tax and fees is a major measure to lighten the burden on businesses and boost market dynamism.

减税降费是减轻企业负担、激发市场活力的重大举措。

We will let market entities, especially small and micro businesses, feel the weight of their burden being meaningfully lightened, honoring our promise to enterprises and society, and seeing that no matter the number of difficulties, this important job gets done and gets done well.

要切实让市场主体特别是小微企业有明显减税降费感受,坚决兑现对企业和社会的承诺,困难再多也一定要把这件大事办成办好。

He also said as long as market entities are energized, China can boost the internal forces driving development and withstand the downward pressure on the economy.

只要市场主体有活力,就能增强内生发展动力、顶住经济下行压力。

2. Minus government expenditure, plus people’s livelihood

政府开支的“减法”与民生保障的“加法”

在经济下行压力加大、经济增速预期目标下调、实施更大规模减税降费的紧要关口,李克强明确提出,要给政府开支做“减法”。

To support the lightening of the burden on enterprises, governments at all levels must tighten their belts and find workable means of raising funds.

为支持企业减负,各级政府要过紧日子,想方设法筹集资金。

The central government needs to increase revenue and reduce expenditures. Profits turned in by designated state-owned financial institutions and enterprises directly under the central government should be increased; general expenditures should be cut by over 5 percent, spending on official overseas visits, official vehicles, and official hospitality should be cut by another 3 percent, and all funds that have long stayed unused will be taken back.

中央财政要开源节流,增加特定国有金融机构和央企上缴利润,一般性支出压减5%以上、‘三公’经费再压减3%左右,长期沉淀资金一律收回。

Local governments also need to dig deep, take big steps to improve the mix of spending, and put various funds and assets to good use through multiple avenues.

地方政府也要主动挖潜,大力优化支出结构,多渠道盘活各类资金和资产。

然而在民生领域,财政支出不仅没有降低,反而在一些领域持续做“加法”。

China will develop more equitable and higher quality education. Government budgetary spending on education will remain above 4 percent of GDP, and central government spending on education will exceed one trillion yuan.

要发展更加公平更有质量的教育,国家财政性教育经费占国内生产总值比例继续保持在4%以上,中央财政教育支出安排超过1万亿元。

He vowed to ensure access to basic medical and health services, saying China will continue to increase basic medical insurance and serious disease insurance protection for rural and non-working urban residents. Government subsidies for resident medical insurance will be raised by an average of 30 yuan per person, half of which is to be used for serious disease insurance. And China will lower and unify the deduction line for serious disease insurance, and raise the reimbursement rate from 50 to 60 percent.

保障基本医疗卫生服务。继续提高城乡居民基本医保和大病保险保障水平,居民医保人均财政补助标准增加30元,一半用于大病保险。降低并统一大病保险起付线,报销比例由50%提高到60%。

Although the pressure of maintaining a balanced budget will grow this year, inputs to ensure basic living standards will only be increased and not cut. We will support private sectors in boosting the supply of non-basic public services to meet people’s multilevel and diverse needs.

今年财政收支平衡压力加大,但基本民生投入确保只增不减。支持社会力量增加非基本公共服务供给,满足群众多层次、多样化需求。

We must stay true to the vision of people-centered development and do everything within our capacity to meet people’s basic needs, resolve key problems affecting living standards, promote social fairness and justice, and help our people achieve better lives.

要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,尽力而为、量力而行,切实保障基本民生,推动解决重点民生问题,促进社会公平正义,让人民过上好日子。



3. Minus government power, plus convenience for enterprises and people

政府权力的“减法”与企业群众办事便利的“加法”

针对上届政府以来一直力推的“简政放权”,今年的《政府工作报告》又做了这些“减法”。

China will cut government approvals and improve services to create a favorable environment for investment and business startups. The government will further shorten the negative list on market entry and promote across-the-board implementation of the policy of “entry unless on the list.” China will continue to pursue the cut certification to create convenience reform initiative, and see that businesses and the public are not saddled with running from pillar to post for certificates.

要以简审批优服务便利投资兴业,进一步缩减市场准入负面清单,推动“非禁即入”普遍落实。持续开展“减证便民”改革行动,不能让繁琐证明来回折腾企业和群众。

China will conduct impartial regulation to promote fair competition. The government will move faster to do away with all regulations and practices that impede the functioning of a unified market and fair competition. And see that law breakers are punished in accordance with law and the law-abiding are let be.

要以公正监管促进公平竞争。加快清理妨碍统一市场和公平竞争的各种规定和做法,对违法者依法严惩、对守法者无事不扰。

This will leave companies to spend more time doing business and less time chasing approvals, the Premier said, adding that delivering good services is what a government is meant to do; failure to do so means failing in its duties. We will use impartial regulation to ensure a fair, efficient, and dynamic market.

让企业多用时间跑市场、少费功夫跑审批。政府部门做好服务是本分,服务不好是失职。用公正监管管出公平、管出效率、管出活力。

政府权力的“减法”,换来的是营商环境和企业群众办事便利度的“加法”。

This year, all permits required of businesses will be separated from the business license to make it quicker and easier for companies to get a license and start operating as soon as possible; and China will put an end to the phenomenon of “letting firms in but not letting them do business.”

今年,要对所有涉企经营许可事项实行“证照分离”改革,使企业更便捷拿到营业执照并尽快正常运营,坚决克服“准入不准营”的现象。

Reform of the system for construction project approval will be introduced nationwide, and the time of approval needed at every stage of a project will be significantly shortened. China will encourage online approvals and services, and work faster to make it possible for such services to be accessed via one website and processed remotely. If there are more matters that do require presence in person, they should be processed at a single window, within a specified time, and without the need for a second visit, the Premier said.

在全国推开工程建设项目审批制度改革,使全流程审批时间大幅缩短。推行网上审批和服务,加快实现一网通办、异地可办,使更多事项不见面办理,确需到现场办的要“一窗受理、限时办结”“最多跑一次”。

Government at each level should have the courage to conduct self-reform, further streamline administration and delegate power, speed up the transformation of our functions and the improvement of our performance, and strengthen government credibility and capacity for execution to better meet the people’s new expectations for a better life.

各级政府要勇于自我革命,深入推进简政放权,加快转职能、提效能,增强政府公信力和执行力,更好满足人民对美好生活的新期待。

4. Minuses and pluses in more fields

多个领域都有“加减法”

1小时40分钟的《政府工作报告》还在另一些政策上做了“加减法”。

This year, average broadband service rates for small and medium enterprises will be lowered by another 15 percent, and average rates for mobile internet services will be further cut by more than 20 percent, the Premier said.

今年中小企业宽带平均资费再降低15%,移动网络流量平均资费再降低20%以上。

Cellphone subscribers nationwide will be able to keep their numbers while switching carriers, and cellphone packages will be regulated to achieve solid fee cuts for all consumers to see, he added.

在全国实行“携号转网”,规范套餐设置。“让用户切实感受到网速更快更稳定,使降费实实在在、消费者明明白白。

We will cut the average electricity price for general industrial and commercial businesses by another 10 percent, Premier Li said, adding that the reform of the toll roads system will be advanced, by cutting tolls on highways and bridges.

一般工商业平均电价再降低10%。推动降低过路过桥费用。



We will speed up the development of a comprehensive listing system for the collection of fees and charges, making charge collecting open and transparent and leaving unauthorized charges no place to hide.

加快收费清单“一张网”建设。“让收费公开透明,让乱收费无处藏身。”

We should fully respect and trust our scientists and researchers, and empower teams and leaders of innovation by placing more human, financial, and material resources at their disposal and giving them more power to make decisions on technology roadmaps.”

要充分尊重和信任科研人员,赋予创新团队和领军人才更大的人财物支配权和技术路线决策权。

We will also work hard to cut red tape to enable researchers to concentrate on the pursuit of learning, innovation, and breakthroughs, he said.

大力简除烦苛,使科研人员潜心向学、创新突破。

Governments at all levels must firmly oppose and put a stop to all pointless formalities and bureaucracy in all its manifestations. We should free government employees from the mountains of documents and endless meetings, from the superfluities surrounding evaluations and inspections, and from report writing and form filling-in, and instead spend our energy on solving real problems.

各级政府要坚决反对和整治一切形式主义、官僚主义,让干部从文山会海、迎评迎检、材料报表中解脱出来,把精力用在解决实际问题上。

We should cut down on and overhaul matters subject to inspection, checks, and evaluations, and implement an Internet Plus Inspection initiative. The number of meetings and documents will be cut. This year, the State Council and its offices and departments will lead the way in making major reductions to the number of meetings and will cut the number of documents issued by over a third.

压减和规范督查检查考核事项,实施“互联网+督查”。减少开会和发文数量,今年国务院及其部门要带头大幅精简会议、坚决把文件压减三分之一以上。

Government works for the public; words can’t compare with actions. All levels and employees of government should be down to earth and practical and eschew doing things for show. We should let what we have achieved in reform and development speak for themselves. We should deliver a good performance in what we do.

为政以公,行胜于言。各级政府及其工作人员要求真务实、力戒浮华,以推动改革发展的成果说话,以干事创业的实绩交卷。

来源:中国政府网

编辑:Helen


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