英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

扫描二维码登录本站

超棒的英语学习网站快速提高英语水平本广告位招租

社区广播台

查看: 54|回复: 0
收起左侧

[TED] 【名校公开课】世界如何因猪而转?

[复制链接]
发表于 2019-2-4 17:54:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
己亥猪年到来,猪猪自然成了当之无愧的主角。前段时间,全网爆红的《啥是佩奇》宣传片,就让佩奇这只粉色小猪享受了一次流量担当的感觉。提到猪,很多人都会想到它是我们的食物来源。但是,一只猪的作用可不仅仅是提供食物,它会对我们的生活产生很多影响,我们甚至能从一只猪身上看到全球化的旅程。

今天普特君为大家推荐的就是作家Christien Meindertsma的TED演讲:How pig parts make the world turn,她将带着我们一起了解很多人都不清楚的一只普通猪猪的神奇作用。



中英全文

Hello. I would like to start my talk with actually two questions, and the first one is: How many people here actually eat pig meat? Please raise your hand -- oh, that's a lot. And how many people have actually seen a live pig producing this meat? In the last year?

你们好。我想先问大家两个问题,第一:在座有多少人吃猪肉?请举手。噢,真不少啊。那么,有多少人见过一头活的肉猪?在最近一年以内。

In the Netherlands -- where I come from -- you actually never see a pig, which is really strange, because, on a population of 16 million people, we have 12 million pigs. And well, of course, the Dutch can't eat all these pigs. They eat about one-third, and the rest is exported to all kinds of countries in Europe and the rest of the world. A lot goes to the U.K., Germany.

在荷兰,我的家乡,你根本见不到活猪,这很奇怪,因为,我们人口有一千六百万,而全国却有一千二百万头猪。当然,荷兰人不可能吃完那么多头猪。他们大概只能消耗三分之一的猪,余下的出口到欧洲及世界其他国家。相当一部分出口到英国,德国。

And what I was curious about -- because historically, the whole pig would be used up until the last bit so nothing would be wasted -- and I was curious to find out if this was actually still the case. And I spent about three years researching. And I followed this one pig with number "05049," all the way up until the end and to what products it's made of. And in these years, I met all kinds people like, for instance, farmers and butchers, which seems logical. But I also met aluminum mold makers, ammunition producers and all kinds of people. And what was striking to me is that the farmers actually had no clue what was made of their pigs, but the consumers -- as in us -- had also no idea of the pigs being in all these products.

让我感到好奇的是——由于在过去,人们会让猪的全身上下各个部分都派上用场,这样就不会产生浪费......我很想知道现在的情况是否跟以前一样。于是,我用了三年时间来调查。我跟踪调查了一头代号为05049的猪。一路追踪到底并找到它最终被加工成哪些产品。这几年,我见过了各种人,比如说,农民和屠夫,这没什么奇怪的。但是,我还见到了铝制模具的工人,军火制造商和其他各行各业的人。最让我吃惊的是,那些养猪户对于猪的用途一无所知,而对于消费者——也就是我们——也不知道猪被用于制造这些产品。

So what I did is, I took all this research and I made it into a -- well, basically it's a product catalog of this one pig, and it carries a duplicate of his ear tag on the back. And it consists of seven chapters -- the chapters are skin, bones, meat, internal organs, blood, fat and miscellaneous. (Laughter) In total, they weigh 103.7 kilograms. And to show you how often you actually meet part of this pig in a regular day, I want to show you some images of the book.

于是,我把整个调查做成一本书——列出了这头猪被制成的各类产品,书上还把它的耳标挂在背面。本书共有七章。包括猪皮、骨头、猪肉、内脏、猪血、肥肉及猪杂碎。这些全加起来,共重103.7公斤。为了让大家看到一天内你们与这头猪的接触有多频繁,我想展示一下书中的几幅插图。

You probably start the day with a shower. So, in soap, fatty acids made from boiling pork bone fat are used as a hardening agent, but also for giving it a pearl-like effect. Then if you look around you in the bathroom, you see lots more products like shampoo, conditioner, anti-wrinkle cream, body lotion, but also toothpaste. Then, so, before breakfast, you've already met the pig so many times. Then, at breakfast, the pig that I followed, the hairs off the pig or proteins from the hairs off the pig were used as an improver of dough. (Laughter) Well, that's what the producer says: it's "improving the dough, of course." In low-fat butter, or actually in many low-fat products, when you take the fat out, you actually take the taste and the texture out. So what they do is they put gelatin back in, in order to retain the texture.

你可能起床之后会洗个澡。那么,肥皂里的脂肪酸就是由高温煮沸的猪骨脂所提炼出的,可用作硬化剂还能打造出肥皂的珠光效果。接着,如果你环顾一下浴室,就能看到更多类似的用品,如洗发水、护发素、抗皱霜、护肤乳还有牙膏。在用早餐之前,你就已经跟这头猪亲密接触好几次了。到了早餐时间,这头猪的毛,或者说从这头猪的毛里提取出的蛋白质被用作面团的优化剂。生产商是这么说的:“它能让面团更美味。”当然啦。在低脂黄油,实际上,在许多低脂产品中,当其中的脂肪被去掉之后,实际上产品的味道和质感也就丧失了。为此,生产商会加入明胶以保持产品的质感。

Well, when you're off to work, under the road or under the buildings that you see, there might very well be cellular concrete, which is a very light kind of concrete that's actually got proteins from bones inside and it's also fully reusable. In the train brakes -- at least in the German train brakes -- there's this part of the brake that's made of bone ash. And in cheesecake and all kinds of desserts, like chocolate mousse, tiramisu, vanilla pudding, everything that's cooled in the supermarket, there's gelatin to make it look good. Fine bone china -- this is a real classic. Of course, the bone in fine-bone china gives it its translucency and also its strength, in order to make these really fine shapes, like this deer.

当你下了班,你看到的路面底下,或建筑物下面,很可能铺有微孔混凝土,这种混凝土很轻,其中就有从猪骨头中获取的蛋白质。它还能被重复利用。在火车的制动器里,至少在德国产的火车制动器里,有一个零件是由猪的骨灰制成的。在起司蛋糕和各种各样的甜点比如巧克力慕斯、提拉米苏、香草布丁,以及超市所有冷藏的食物里,都添加了明胶来保持食物美观。骨瓷--这个很经典。当然,骨瓷中的骨粉给瓷器增添了一层蒙胧感同时让瓷器更坚固,这样才能制作出这些精美的造型,就像这头小鹿。

In interior decorating, the pig's actually quite there. It's used in paint for the texture, but also for the glossiness. In sandpaper, bone glue is actually the glue between the sand and the paper. And then in paintbrushes, hairs are used because, apparently, they're very suitable for making paintbrushes because of their hard-wearing nature.

在室内装修方面,这头猪的贡献尤为显著。它被用来控制颜料质感和光泽度。砂纸中把砂和纸粘在一起的胶水实际上就是骨胶。再来就是猪毛做成的刷子,很显然,猪毛是非常适合用来制作刷子的,因为它很耐磨。

I was not planning on showing you any meat because, of course, half the book's meat and you probably all know what meats they are. But I didn't want you to miss out on this one, because this, well, it's called "portion-controlled meat cuts." And this is actually sold in the frozen area of the supermarket. And what it is -- it's actually steak. So, this is sold as cow, but what happens when you slaughter a cow -- at least in industrial factory farming -- they have all these little bits of steak left that they can't actually sell as steak, so what they do is they glue them all together with fibrin from pig blood into this really large sausage, then freeze the sausage, cut it in little slices and sell those as steak again. And this also actually happens with tuna and scallops. So, with the steak, you might drink a beer. In the brewing process, there's lots of cloudy elements in the beer, so to get rid of these cloudy elements, what some companies do is they pour the beer through a sort of gelatin sieve in order to get rid of that cloudiness. This actually also goes for wine as well as fruit juice.

我不打算给你们看关于猪肉的图片,因为,当然啦,这本书一半的篇幅都在讲猪肉,你们也都知道猪肉的用途。但是,我想让大家看看这张图,因为......这叫做“控量切割肉”。这实际上是在超市的冷鲜区出售的肉。这是牛排。在牛肉区出售,然而,事实上,当一头牛被宰杀之后——至少在屠宰场里是这样的情况——会剩下零碎的牛排肉但是这些碎肉又不能作为牛排出售,于是,屠宰场就用猪血中提取的纤维蛋白把这些碎肉粘在一起制成一个硕大的肉肠,把它冷冻,再切成小片最后把这些肉片作为牛排出售。一些金枪鱼和扇贝也经过这样的处理。吃着牛排,你可能还会来点啤酒。啤酒在酿造的过程中,会产生大量浑浊物,为了除去这些浑浊物,一些酿酒公司会把啤酒倒入一种明胶过滤网来把浑浊物去掉。红酒和果汁的酿造过程中也有这道工序。

There's actually a company in Greece that produces these cigarettes that actually contain hemoglobin from pigs in the filter. And according to them, this creates an artificial lung in the filter. (Laughter) So, this is actually a healthier cigarette. (Laughter) Injectable collagen -- or, since the '70s, collagen from pigs -- has been used for injecting into wrinkles. And the reason for this is that pigs are actually quite close to human beings, so the collagen is as well. Well, this must be the strangest thing I found. This is a bullet coming from a very large ammunition company in the United States.

希腊有一家公司生产这种香烟。它的过滤嘴中含有猪的血红蛋白。这家公司称,他们在过滤嘴中植入了一个人造肺。因此,这是一种更有益健康的香烟。注射用胶原质——十九世纪七十年代以后,猪的胶原质——被用来防止皱纹的产生。这是因为猪和人类实际上很相似,我们的胶原质也很相似。这是我最奇特的发现。这颗子弹是美国一家规模很大的军火公司生产的。

And while I was making the book, I contacted all the producers of products because I wanted them to send me the real samples and the real specimens. So I sent this company an email saying, "Hello. I'm Christien. I'm doing this research. And can you send me a bullet?" (Laughter) And well, I didn't expect them to even answer my email. But they answered and they said, "Why, thank you for your email. What an interesting story. Are you in anyway related to the Dutch government?" I thought that was really weird, as if the Dutch government sends emails to anyone.

当我写这本书的时候,我联系了所有产品的制造商,让他们给我送一些实物样品和实物标本。于是我给这家公司发了封邮件我说:“您好,我是克莉丝汀。我在做这项研究。您可以给我寄来一颗子弹吗?”我可没指望他们会给我回音。结果他们回复了我,说:“感谢您的邮件。您的故事很有意思。请问您跟荷兰政府有什么关系吗?”我觉得很奇怪,好像荷兰政府经常乱给人发邮件似的。

So, the most beautiful thing I found -- at least what I think is the most beautiful -- in the book, is this heart valve. It's actually a very low-tech and very high-tech product at the same time. The low-tech bit is that it's literally a pig's heart valve mounted in the high-tech bit, which is a memory metal casing. And what happens is this can be implanted into a human heart without open heart surgery. And once it's in the right spot, they remove the outer shell, and the heart valve, well, it gets this shape and at that moment it starts beating, instantly. It's really a sort of magical moment. So this is actually a Dutch company, so I called them up, and I asked, "Can I borrow a heart valve from you?" And the makers of this thing were really enthusiastic. So they were like, "Okay, we'll put it in a jar for you with formalin, and you can borrow it." Great -- and then I didn't hear from them for weeks, so I called, and I asked, "What's going on with the heart valve?" And they said, "Well the director of the company decided not to let you borrow this heart valve, because want his product to be associated with pigs."

我发现的最美的产品,至少我个人认为是本书里最美的,是这个心脏瓣膜。它有技术含量低的一面同时又是个高科技产品。说它技术含量低,是因为,它实际上就是把一个高科技的带有记忆功能的金属网套在一个猪的心脏瓣膜上。这个瓣膜无须开心手术,就能被植入人的心脏里。一旦进入正确的位置,金属网便被移除,这样,心脏瓣膜,就变成了这个形状,这时,它立即就开始跳动。这真是非常神奇的一刻。这是一家荷兰公司。我给他们打电话,我问:“我能向你们借一片心脏瓣膜吗?”这个产品的制造商非常热心。他们说:“好的,我们会把它放在一瓶福尔马林里面,这样可以借给你了。”太好了。但是,过了好几周,一直没有他们的音信,所以我又给他们打电话,我问:“请问那个心脏瓣膜什么时候到啊?”他们回答说:“公司的主管决定不把它借给你了,因为他不想让别人把这个产品跟猪联系起来。”

Well, the last product from the book that I'm showing you is renewable energy -- actually, to show that my first question, if pigs are still used up until the last bit, was still true. Well it is, because everything that can't be used for anything else is made into a fuel that can be used as renewable energy source.

最后,我准备向大家介绍书中的一个产品是可再生能源——这其实回答了我的第一个问题,猪的各个部位是否都派上了用场,答案是肯定的,因为余下不能再做它用的部分全被制成了一种燃料可以用来做可再生能源。

In total, I found 185 products. And what they showed me is that, well, firstly, it's at least to say odd that we don't treat these pigs as absolute kings and queens. And the second, is that we actually don't have a clue of what all these products that surround us are made of.

我总共在猪身上找出了185种产品。从这些产品中我有一些感触。首先,我们没有把猪当成宝贝那就太奇怪了。第二,我们根本不知道身边各种产品是由什么制成的。

And you might think I'm very fond of pigs, but actually -- well, I am a little bit -- but I'm more fond of raw materials in general. And I think that, in order to take better care of what's behind our products -- so, the livestock, the crops, the plants, the non-renewable materials, but also the people that produce these products -- the first step would actually be to know that they are there. Thank you very much.

你可能以为我对猪很感兴趣,但是——可能有一点吧——我更感兴趣的是各种产品的原材料。我认为,想要更好地利用制造产品所需的资源——牲畜、庄稼、植物、不可再生资源,还有生产者——我们首先必须意识到他们的存在。非常感谢大家。



为什么很多人听力无法提高?

原因可能有:

▪没有选对材料,听过难或简单的听力材料;

▪没有刻意训练,只是不断听,没有纠正自己的错误;

▪大多数人都会涉及到的一个问题,坚持不下来。

普特最新推出100天听力进阶训练,通过发音技巧的讲解来提升英语听力,包含初中高三个等级,精选新概念2,英文播客,科学60秒,影视片段原声等素材,难度逐渐增加,每一篇素材都有详细的语音规则的讲解,口语和听力可以一起通过训练得到质的提升。



上一篇:【名校公开课】 做任何事情之前,都应该问自己这3个问题
下一篇:【名校公开课】寒门究竟怎样才能出贵子?70年跟踪七万名孩子的调查研究
[发帖际遇]: 一个袋子砸在了 千缘 头上,千缘 赚了 5 元 家元. 幸运榜 / 衰神榜
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

随便看看 精彩图片 帖子导读 联系管理
快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表