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【语法】移形换位说“倒装”

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发表于 2018-11-4 12:11:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
倒装,指的是句子主谓之间的正常词序发生变化。我们最早接触、也最熟悉的,就是一般疑问句。倒装的目的,是为了强调句子的某个成分,将它提前到句首。

因此我们可以将倒装结构,归纳成一个“公式”:

倒装标记 + 被强调的成分 + 一般疑问句。

根据这个“倒装标记”,我们可以把它分为三种情况。试着对比下列句子的变化:

1、Only + 被强调的成分 + 一般疑问句。

例1:You can only play after lunch.

倒装:Only after lunchcan you play.

(你只能在午饭后玩耍)

例2:I would only accept this position if everybody agreed.

倒装:Only if everybody agreedwouldI accept this position.

(只有大家都同意,我才会接受这个职位。)



例3:You can only solve this puzzle by guessing.

倒装:Only by guessingcanyou solve this puzzle.

(你只能通过猜测解答这个难题。)

2、So/Such +被强调的成分 + 一般疑问句。

例4:He ran so quickly that the others couldn't catch up with him.

倒装:So quickly did he run that the others couldn't catch up with him.

(他跑的那么快,其他人都跟不上。)

例5:There was such a wind that we couldn't open the window.

倒装:Such a wind was there that we couldn't open the window.

(那么大的风,我们都不能开窗了。)

3、否定词+ 被强调的成分 + 一般疑问句。

例6:The fork didn't appear in England until the seventeenth century.

倒装:Not until the seventeenth century did the fork appear in England.

(直到十七世纪,叉子才出现在英格兰。)

例7:I had hardly arrived home when my phone rang.

倒装:Hardly had I arrived home when my phone rang.

(我刚到家电话就响了。)



这里说的“否定词”,包括三类:

第一类是否定副词,如:barely,hardly, little, seldom, rarely, never, scarcely等;

第二类和从句相关,如:scarcely……when, no sooner ……than, hardly……when等;

第三类是介词词组,如:at no time; by no means; under no circumstances等。

【联系】

容易混淆的两种现象:

1、完全倒装,是将时间、地点状语置于句首,主谓完全颠倒。

例8:The children rolled down the hill.

倒装:Down the hill rolled the children.

例9:A nice café was round the corner.

倒装:Round the corner was a nice café.

2、AS从句的前置,是把需要强调的成分提前,但主谓词序不变:

这种结构中,as可能有三个意义:比较、让步、原因。

例10:Because he was tired, we decided not to disturb him.

前置:Tired as he was, we decided not to disturb him.

(因为他太累了,我们决定不打扰他。)

例11:As cautious as others, she didn't give an immediate reply.

前置:Cautious as others, she didn't give an immediate reply.

(和其他人一样谨慎,她没有立刻答复。)

例12:Though he worked hard, he did not pass the exam.

前置:Hard as he worked, he did not pass the exam.

(虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格。)

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