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【语法】非限定动词学习

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发表于 2018-10-27 13:45:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
前面我们学习了形容词从句、副词从句的简化——即用分词(-ing和-ed分词)、不定式、介词+动名词——来取代这些从句。

这个“简化”的过程,旨在帮助大家更好地理解非谓语动词词组的“来龙去脉”、以及各种变化形式。

我们知道:

形容词从句简化的前提:先行词必须同时是从句的主语。

形容词从句简化的基本原则,是去掉连词、主语和系动词。

We went to the village (which / that) was recommended by Lucy.

We went to the village recommended by Lucy.

(我们去了路西推荐的村庄。)

如果从句的谓语中没有系动词,就用-ing分词;

I like the woman who lives next door.

I like the woman living next door.

(我喜欢站在门口那个女人。)

如果从句的谓语中有情态动词,就用to-不定式。

I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well.

I'm looking for a secretary to use a computer well.

(我在找一个善用电脑的秘书。)

副词从句的简化相对复杂一些,我们给大家留了一组句子作业,这些句子代表了“副词从句简化”全部的规则。

副词从句简化的前提:主、从句的主语必须是一致的。我们分五类情况,逐一分析:

一、最常规的简化方式,同形容词从句。

Since I didn’t have enough money to go on vacation, I stayed at home.

Not having enough money to go on vacation, I stayed at home.

(没有足够的钱去度假,我就宅在家里。)

John will visit the market today as he has to buy a pair of new shoes.

John will visit the market today to buy a pair of new shoes.

(今天约翰会去商场买双新鞋。)

My sister is studying honours physics, since she is determined to become an astronaut.

My sister is studying honours physics, determined to become an astronaut.

(我姐姐在学习大学物理,因为她决心做个宇航员)

二、会影响意义的连词不省略;主从句主语不一致时、保留主语。

Since it was so hot, we didn’t go out today.

It being so hot, we didn’t go out today.

(因为天热,我们今天就没出去。)

Whether it is insured or not, your house needs a fire alarm.

Whether insured or not, your house needs a fire alarm.

(不管有没有保险,你的房子都要装个火险警报器。)

She is more confident than she was ever before.

She is more confident than ever before.

(她比以往都更自信)

三、BE表示“是、作为”、改为being

Suppose you are a volunteer, what can you do to help people?

Being a volunteer, what can you do to help people?

(作为一名志愿者,你想怎样帮助大家?)

Before he was in school, he used to be a naughty child.

Before being in school, he used to be a naughty child.

(上学前他是个熊孩子。)

四、如果强调从句行为发生在先,可用having+ v-ed

They were full up because they had eaten so much grass.

Having eaten so much grass, they were full up.

(吃了这么多草,它们饱了。)

五、根据以上原则,从句还可简化为介词词组、连词+形容词

Although she earns a low salary, Wendy often goes traveling.

Despite her/the low salary, Wendy often goes traveling.

(不顾自己的低薪水,温蒂还是常常去旅游。)

至此,我们知道:“非谓语动词词组”(或叫“非限定动词分句”)可以做句子的定语和状语,形式上分为-ing分词、-ed分词和to-不定式。关于他们,我们要知道的是:

1. 非谓语动词也有时态和语态的意义:

-ing分词——突出主动、“正在进行中”的;

-ed分词——突出被动、“已经发生了”的;

to不定式——突出未来性。

2. 非谓语动词的复杂变化形式包括:

Having + v-ed——突出“先行发生”

Being + v-ed——突出“正在被……”,如:

an conceptbeing questioned:一个正在受到批判的概念

3.出现在介词后的-ing分词又叫“动名词”;

On arriving at the airport, she called her brother.

(一到机场她就给哥哥打电话。)

需要注意的是:它有被动形式:being + v-ed。

After being invited, she didn't hesitate to attend the conference.

(受到邀请后,她毫不迟疑地去参加大会了。)

既然动名词和不定式可起“名词”的作用,那么它也能简化名词从句咯?敬请期待下一节:名词从句的简化——动名词和不定式。

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