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【双语】中国不容丛林法则破坏国际贸易体系

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发表于 2018-10-9 22:52:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2018年10月4日,英国主流大报《每日电讯报》纸质版和网络版同时刊登驻英国大使刘晓明题为《中国不容丛林法则破坏国际贸易体系》的署名文章。全文如下:

On 4 October 2018, the Daily Telegraph and its website published a signed article by Ambassador Liu Xiaoming entitled “China can’t let the law of the jungle harm world trade”. The full text is as follows:



中国不容丛林法则破坏国际贸易体系

China Can’t Let the Law of the Jungle Harm World Trade

不久前,美国政府出台对2000亿美元中国输美商品加征关税的措施,引发国际社会对中美贸易摩擦持续升级的担忧。一些西方舆论也趁机炒作中国市场不够开放,指责中国“不公平贸易”行为破坏国际贸易体系。针对美方的错误举动和部分舆论的误解,中国政府专门发布了《关于中美经贸摩擦的事实与中方立场》白皮书。在此,我想强调三点:

The world is turned upside down. When the latest US tariffs on $200 billion (£153bn) of Chinese imports raised international concerns over escalation of trade disputes, some western media blamed China for not opening its market wide enough, thus undermining the multilateral trade regime with “unfair trade”. However, China should not take the blame for the wrongs of the US. To clear the misperceptions, the Chinese Government released a white paper titled The Facts and China’s Position on China-US Trade Friction, which, in my view, emphasises three key points.

首先,中国对外开放进程不仅符合自身国情,也认真履行了国际承诺。世界上任何一个国家对外开放都不是绝对的、无条件的,而是建立在符合自身国情基础之上,中国也不例外。根据国际货币基金组织数据,2017年中国人均国内生产总值仅有8643美元,排在世界第71位,大概相当于美国七分之一,英国五分之一,中国是名符其实的发展中国家。十多年前,我曾在中国最贫困的省份之一甘肃担任省长助理,到过中国最贫穷的地方。中国现在仍有3000多万贫困人口,8000多万残疾人,每年需要解决1500万人的就业。但即使这样,中国对外开放并未降低标准,而是不折不扣兑现了加入世贸组织时的承诺。以货物贸易为例,中国关税总水平早在2010年就已由2001年的15.3%降至9.8%,此后中国继续自主降低关税,到2015年中国贸易加权平均关税水平仅有4.4%,明显低于很多新兴经济体和发展中国家,已接近美国2.4%和欧盟3%的水平。在世贸组织12大类服务部门的160多项分部门中,中国已经开放9大类的100项,接近发达成员平均开放108项,远超发展中国家的54项。

First, China’s opening-up is based on its national conditions. The openness of a market is never absolute or unconditional. It is always based on the national conditions of the country concerned. China is no exception. According to IMF statistics of 2017, China’s per capita GDP was only $8,643, ranking the 71st in the world and accounting for one seventh of the US and one fifth of the UK. More than 10 years ago, I served as Assistant Governor of Gansu, one of the least developed provinces in China, and visited some of the poorest places there. I know from personal experience the severe challenges China faces in terms of development. With more than 30 million people living in poverty, more than 80 million with various disabilities and 15 million people in need of a job every year, there is no denying that China is the largest developing country in the world. This is the basic national condition of China.

Despite this, China has never compromised the level of openness of its market. On the contrary, China has fulfilled its WTO commitments to the letter. Take the trade in goods as an example. By 2010, China had lowered average tariffs on imported goods from 15.3% to 9.8%, eight years ahead of scheduled cuts. But China did not stop there. Through further cuts on its own initiative, China had lowered the trade-weighted tariffs to 4.4% by 2015, which was significantly lower than many other emerging economies and developing countries, and was close to the levels of the US (2.4%) and the EU (3%). In services trade, China’s commitment covers 9 of the 12 core services sectors according to WTO classification, namely 100 of the 160 sub-sectors. This is close to the average level (108) of developed countries and way ahead of the average level (54) of other developing countries.

第二,中国融入国际贸易体系不仅使自身受益,也使国际社会受益。中国2001年入世以来,经济总量从世界第六跃升至世界第二。在此期间,中国低成本劳动力、土地等资源与国际资本、技术相结合,迅速形成巨大生产能力,推动了全球产业链、价值链发展,促进了世界经济增长。2002年以来,中国经济对世界经济增长的年均贡献率接近30%,稳居第一。中国已成为全球第二大进口国,是120多个国家和地区的最大贸易伙伴。中国一直积极参与全球“促贸援助”活动,通过提供无息贷款、人员培训等,帮助提高最不发达国家参与全球贸易的能力。未来15年,中国还将进口24万亿美元商品。今年11月中国将举办首届国际进口博览会,再次彰显中国以实际行动造福世界的决心。

Second, China is not only a beneficiary but also a contributor. Since becoming a member of the WTO in 2001, China has grown from the world’s sixth to second largest economy. In this process, China’s resources, such as low-cost labour and land, match well with international capital and technology, which has quickly generated enormous productive capacity, promoted the development of the global industrial chain and value chain, and boosted world economic growth.

Since 2002, China has been the most powerful economic engine, contributing nearly 30% of world growth every year. China has also grown to be the world’s second largest importer and the largest trading partner of more than 120 countries and regions. Moreover, by providing interest-free loans and personnel training for the least developed countries, China has played an active role in “Aid for Trade”, a programme designed to help these countries take part in global trade. Its further plan to import $24 trillion of goods in the coming 15 years and the scheduled first-ever International Import Expo this coming November are demonstrations of China’s determination to deliver tangible benefits to the world.

第三,中国不仅是国际多边贸易体系的坚定捍卫者,也是积极促进者。美国一味强调“公平贸易”,追求绝对“对等开放”,实质上否定了各国发展阶段、资源禀赋和优势产业的客观差异,无视发展中国家发展权,势必会对发展中国家经济和产业造成冲击,造成更大范围的不公平。美国的所作所为从根本上背离了世界贸易组织最惠国待遇和非歧视性原则,使国际多边贸易体系面临严峻挑战,使世界贸易组织面临生死存亡关头。

The US moves pose severe challenges to the world trade regime and put the WTO in jeopardy because they are in essence against the WTO principles of non-discrimination, including the most-favoured-nation obligation. By emphasising “fair trade” and “absolutely equal opening up of markets”, the US ignores the differences between countries in development stages, resource endowment and industrial strength, or weakness, and turns a blind eye to the right of developing countries to seek development. This could only deal a heavy blow to the economy and industries of developing countries, and cause further unfairness in a wider scope.

China is not only upholding but also promoting the multilateral trade regime. This is the third emphasis of the White Paper.

正如“不能将洗澡水和孩子一起倒掉”一样,我们不能因为世界贸易组织不完美就“任性退出”。中国一贯坚持遵守和维护世界贸易组织规则,支持开放、透明、包容、非歧视的多边贸易体制并对世贸组织进行必要改革。中国认为改革应通过渐进的方式开展,应照顾大多数成员关切,反映大多数成员诉求,维护大多数成员特别是发展中成员权益,改革最终成果需世贸组织成员形成共识。当务之急是解决危及世贸组织生存的三大问题,即上诉机构成员遴选问题、美国滥用232国家安全措施和美国301措施。只有先解决世贸组织的生存问题,才能讨论发展和改革问题。

As the old saying goes, “Do not throw the baby out with the bathwater”. The WTO, though not perfect, must not be abandoned. China supports an open, transparent, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trade regime, and the necessary reform of the WTO. Such reform should be a step-by-step process that accommodates the concerns and meets the aspirations of the majority of WTO members, and safeguards their rights and interests, especially those of the developing members. Moreover, the outcome of such reform must be based on the consensus of the WTO members.

Right now, members should make it a priority to address the problems that threaten the very existence of the WTO: the selection of Appellate Body Members and the abuse of US domestic laws, namely the national security measures under Section 232 of US Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and the measures pursuant to Section 301 of US Trade Act of 1974. Development and reform of the WTO cannot be achieved before the existence of the organisation is ensured.

“孤举者难起,众行者易趋。”如果没有以世贸组织为核心的国际多边贸易体系,世界经济贸易都将完全暴露在贸易保护主义和单边主义的狂风暴雨中。中英作为世界主要经济体,不能任由世界退回到“单打独斗、以邻为壑”的旧时代。我们应当携手并肩,坚决维护以规则为基础的国际多边贸易体制,坚定不移推动全球治理体系变革,共同促进世界经济持续发展与繁荣。

A Chinese adage goes, “It is difficult to lift a heavy object alone; it is easier if you do it with many others.” Without the multilateral trade regime with the WTO at its core, the world economy and trade would be exposed to the storm of protectionism and unilateralism.

As two major economies in the world, China and the UK should not sit idly by if world trade returns to the age dominated by the law of the jungle. It is time to join hands to uphold the rule-based multilateral regime, advance the reform of the global governance system, and work for the sustainable development and prosperity of the world.


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