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【语法】分词或分词短语作状语

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发表于 2018-6-14 14:04:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
分词或分词短语作状语

㈠ 分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示

1. 时间、原因、条件、让步(可转换成相应的状语从句)

① Put into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns.

Put into use in April 2000 == When it was put into use in April 2000(时间状语)

② Blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits.

Blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network

== Because she was blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network(原因状语)

③ Given time, he’ll make a fist-class tennis player.(条件状语)

Given time == If he is given time

④ Left at home, John didn't feel afraid at all.

Left at home == Although he was left (让步状语)

2. 表示方式,伴随状况或结果(可以转换成并列句或非限制性定语从句)

① We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs, thinking that all children like these things.

thinking that all children like these things.== and think that all children like these things.(伴随状语)

② He earns a living driving a truck.

driving a truck == by driving a truck. (方式状语)高考对分词用作方式状语考得

③ He fired, killing one of the passers-by.

He fired and killed one of the passers-by. (结果状语)

④ He died, leaving his wife with five children.

He died and left his wife with five children. (结果状语)

⑤ It rained and rained, vehicles bogged and bridges washed out.

It rained and rained, and vehicles were bogged and bridges were washed out. (结果状语)

有时为了强调,分词前会加when,while, if,unless,once,though,even if,as if 等连词一起作状语

When comparing different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences.

Though tired, he still continued reading.

Once published, this book will be popular with the students.

分词(短语) 与主语的关系

1. 主语一致:分词短语的动作由主句主语发出。看以下错误

Waiting for the bus, a brick fell on my head.

Hearing the news, tears came into his eyes.

Finding her car stolen, a policeman was asked to help.

When using the computer, the password must be remembered.

2. 有自己主语的分词结构--- 独立分词结构。分词有自己意义上的主语,分词的动作不由主句主语发出。

The town seen from the hill,we can see it more clearly

.=If the town is seen from the hill,we can see it more clearly. 如果从山上看这座城市,我们能看得更清楚。

Everything taken into consideration,the party was a success. 将所有的事情考虑在内,晚会算是成功的。

3. 固定表达方式

在一些表达说话人态度的句子中,分词主语和主句主语不一致,但这些词已经约定俗成,不认为是错。

常见的不需要逻辑主语的动词-ing/-ed形式结构:

Considering (that)…考虑到 supposing (that)… 如果……generally speaking一般说来

frankly speaking坦白说Judging from… 从…判断 talking of… 说到……

Concerning… 关于 setting aside...除开……Coming to…谈到 ……

allowing for...考虑到……Proving/provided (that)…假定 supposing/suppose (that)…假如……

Seeing (that)… 既然 …… given (that)…假设;如果;考虑到 put frankly 坦白地说

taken as a whole总的说来

例如:

Put frankly, I don’t agree with what he said. 坦白地说,我不同意他说的话。

Given the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation.

考虑到他的一般身体状况,他手术后恢复过来可能需要一段时间。

Supposing he is ill, who will do the work?假如他病了,谁来做这工作呢?

㈣ 现在分词和过去分词的不同形式





主动


被动(及物动词)


未发生




to be done(被动 未发生)


Are you going to attend the meeting to be held next month?


一般


doing(一般主动)


done(一般被动)


Putting down my paper, I walked over to the windows.


Did you attend the meeting held last month in Shanghai?


进行


doing(主动 进行)


being done(被动 进行)


Singing a song, he sat down.


The question being discussed is very important.


已完成


having done(主动 完成)


having been done(被动 完成)


Having sung a song, he sat down.


All flights having been cancelled, they had to take the train


㈤ 分词完成式的用法 主动形式 having done被动形式 having been done

分词完成式一般用于以下情况:

① 多次反复的分词动作

Having failed twice, he didn’t want to try again.

Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.

Having been bitten twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters.

② 分词动作先发生,分词动作和主句谓语有一段时间的间隔,且间隔较长

Having failed to qualify the doctor, he took up teaching.

Having waited in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home.

Having been warned about the thieves, he left his valuables at bank.

如果间隔短,即使分词动作先发生,我们一般也用分词一般式,以强调两个动作的衔接。

Locking the door, he went home.

Hearing the joke, we burst out laughting.

③ 分词动作本身要持续很久

Having driven all day,we were rather tired.

Hving been praised for thirty years, he can’t stand any criticisms.

Having watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.(having watered 强调动作经历了较长时间)

④ 从句分词后面有表示完成时态的状语标志时

Having seen the film before, I decided not to see it again.

⑤ 使用分词完成式以避免混淆

Having eaten the supper, he went out. 吃过晚饭他出门了。

Eating the supper, he went out. 他端着碗出门了。

㈥ 一种易错情况

有些过去分词已经形成了系表结构,因此他们作状语时与主句的主语之间是逻辑上的主动关系,但仍然用过去分词形式。例如:

After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, exhausted.

Lost in thought,she nearly ran into a tree.   陷入沉思,她差点撞到树上。

lost意为“迷失的”,与逻辑主语连接起来相当于Because she was lost…,作原因状语

类似的过去分词还有

disappointed, dressed, determined, devoted, tired, exhausted, prepared, seated, caught…

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