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【语法】写作·干货丨善用同位语,表达更精练

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发表于 2018-3-30 12:08:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
同位语

英语中的同位语到底是什么?

常见的结构是什么?

何时该使用同位语?

使用同位语有什么好处呢?

……

别急,看完这篇文章

相信你能找到答案!

同位语(apposition)指用于再定义相邻的名词(或词组)的名词(或词组)。比如:“Last week, I met Vivian Yang, a former classmate of mine.”或“Vivian Yang, a former classmate of mine, is the author of the best-seller, Shanghai Girl.”这两个句子中,a former classmate of mine是对名词Vivian Yang的再定义,表明她的身份;第二个句子中的Shanghai Girl是对best-seller的再定义,交代畅销书的书名。它们都是同位语,简单地说,就是它们所修饰对象的“分身”。

同位语的概念理解起来很容易,但是中国学生普遍不善于在英语写作中有效地使用同位语来为文字锦上添花。比如写“莫言是个多产的作家,他写了八十多部短篇小说”,常见的英语表述有:“Mo Yan is a prolific writer. He wrote more than 80 short stories.”或“Mo Yan is a prolific writer, who wrote more than 80 short stories.”但很少有人会使用同位语结构,写成:“A prolific writer, Mo Yan wrote more than 80 short stories.”相比较而言,第三个句子结构更为紧凑,文字更为精炼。

下面结合例句,为大家介绍同位语结构在写作中的四种用法。

用法1

在一个名词后用另一个名词或代词进行修饰、限定或说明,一般需用逗号隔开,当两者关系紧密且同位语本身只有一个词时可省略逗号。



例句点评

例句一

Mrs. Wang, our next door neighbor, sings loudly.

【评析】Our next door neighbor是Mrs. Wang的同位语,补充说明Mrs. Wang的身份。

例句二

She told me that her brother Tom is a taxi driver during the day and night club waiter at night.

【评析】Tom是her brother的同位语,补充说明her brother的名字。由于同位语只有一个词Tom,故her brother和Tom之间无需用逗号隔开。

例句三

Wordy: Biotechnology is defined as the use of a natural biological system to produce a product or to achieve an end desired by human beings. The subject is not new.

Better: Biotechnology, the use of a natural biological system to produce a product or to achieve an end desired by human beings, is not new.

【评析】原句中was freed是被动语态,但句子强调的重点在于Nelson Mandela重获自由。既然是“自由”,当然使用主动语态更能表达出自由的精神。因此,将被动语态was freed改为主动语态walked free可以达到更为有力的表达效果。

用法2

用同位语对修饰对象进行举例。



例句点评

例句一

I love reading novels, especially science fictions.

【评析】句中的science fictions是novels的同位语,进一步说明是哪种类别的小说。

例句二

Wordy: Today, transistors and other solid state devices, such as personal computers, cellular telephones, and precision controls, to name a few, are the foundation of industries unknown a few decades ago.

Better: Today, transistors and other solid state devices—personal computers, cellular telephones, and precision controls, to name a few—are the foundation of industries unknown a few decades ago.

【评析】原句中,such as之后的内容是transistors and other solid state devices进行举例解释,可以处理为同位语的形式。由于破折号可以起到引出解释说明内容的作用,因此这句话改写时可以用破折号来引出同位语。

例句三

Wordy: Coolidge was a taciturn, morose New England farmer who did not seem to have apparent talents, but, he appeared to the country to symbolize such old American virtues as frugality, honesty, hard work and religious faith.

Better: A taciturn, morose New England farmer of no apparent talents, Coolidgenevertheless appeared to the country as a symbol of old American virtues: frugality, honesty, hard work, and religious faith.

【评析】如果一个名词前面冠有许多形容词或该名词后面有起形容作用的定语从句,句子读起来可能会比较拗口,而同位语是解决这一问题的好方法。原句中,New England farmer前面既有两个形容词,后面还跟着一个定语从句,显得很是繁琐。由于a taciturn, morose New England farmer who did not seem to have apparent talents是Coolidge的解释和定义,故可以运用前面所讲的方法将同位语结构写为A taciturn, morose New England farmer of no apparent talents置于Coolidge的前面。而原句后半句中frugality, honesty, hard work and religious faith是对old American virtues的举例解释,由于冒号也可以起到引出解释说明的作用,因此可以将frugality, honesty, hard work and religious faith用作同位语置于old American virtues的后面,并用冒号隔开。

用法3

在同位语后接定语从句或介词短语。



例句点评

例句一

The next day, the warmest they had ever known, the farm animals all died.

【评析】原句中的同位语其实是the warmest day,但day在同位语中被省略了。其后还接了一个定语从句they had ever known,用以增添信息。

例句二

The soccer player scored again in the second half of the game, this time on a header, that is, a shot at the goal by the use of one’s forehead.

【评析】这个句子里有两个同位语,this time是the second half of the game的同位语,而a shot at the goal by the use of one’s forehead是header的同位语,用于进一步解释说明。其中,a shot后面接了一个介词短语,用以增添信息。

用法4

用同位语对修饰对象(完整句)进行总结和概括。



例句点评

例句一

The majority in the Philippines are Roman Catholic, a reflection of centuries of Spanish rule.

【评析】本句中,a reflection of centuries of Spanish rule概括了the majority in the Philippines are Roman Catholic这个现象,是后者的同位语。

例句二

My grandmother is totally against racial discrimination, a position she has held ever since she was a teenager.

【评析】本句中,a position 指的是my grandmother is totally against racial discrimination。

中译英实例

例一

我们这个国家有不计其数的方言,而许多方言彼此无法沟通,要在语言上和政治上形成一股强大的凝聚力,就靠普通话了。

不合格译文:Our country has numerous dialects, many of which is difficult to communicate with each other. It is Putonghua that unites the country in language and politics.

【评析】many of which是复数,而后面跟的却是单数is,犯了主谓不一致的错误。Each同理,other指两者之间,由于前面用了many,肯定不止两者,故应改为one another (指两者或多者之间)。

基本合格译文:There are innumerable dialects being spoken in our country, while in most cases people using different dialects are unable to communicate with one another. Therefore, Mandarin is second to none in bringing strong unification to our nation, both linguistically and politically.

【评析】第一个句子略显臃肿,且while使用不恰当。While是用来表示对比的转折,但实际上这句话中while引出的从句和前面的主句并没有对比和转折关系。

合格译文:Putonghua, “the common dialect,” is a powerful force for linguistic and political unity in our country with countless dialects, many of them mutually unintelligible.

【评析】该译文抓住了原文想要表达的主要信息,即“要在语言上和政治上形成一股强大的凝聚力,就靠普通话了”,以其作为译文的主句。而两个同位语结构the common dialect和many of them mutually unintelligible中,第一个同位语解释了“普通话”的含义,使读者更能理解其所起到的凝聚作用;第二个同位语结构简明精炼,使句子不致繁冗,且逻辑清晰。

例二

两个男子出现在舞台上,一个高瘦,一个矮胖。

不合格译文:Two men appeared on the stage, one is high and skinny and the other is short and fat.

【评析】首先,前后两句各有完整的主谓结构,其中间不能用逗号连接。其次,形容人个头高不能用high,而应该用tall。

基本合格译文:Two men appeared on the stage: one is tall and skinny and the other is short and fat.

【评析】分析原文可知,“一个高瘦,一个矮胖”是对舞台上“两个男子”的进一步解释说明,可用冒号来衔接。

合格译文:Two men appeared on the stage, one tall and skinny and the other short and plump.

【评析】除了冒号之外,还可以使用同位语结构,省略is,使句子更为精炼。

练习:

用同位语结构改写句子

George Renwick is the head of the Journalism Department. He has written four books about the broadcast media. (提示:用同位语连接两个句子)

Ming and Su demanded a salary raise during the past two months. My boss unexpectedly agreed to give the two of them the raise. (提示:a salary rise和the rise可处理成同位语结构)

Alan Mathison Turing was born in London in 1912. He was the second of his parents’ two sons. (提示:Alan Mathison Turingh和the second of his parents’ two sons可处理成同位语结构)

Her fascinating and inspiring story is told in “Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century.” It is truly a classic of David and Goliath tale. (提示:her fascinating and inspiring story和a classic of David and Goliath tale可处理成同位语结构)

After her father died, Snow White lived in the castle with her stepmother, who was the Queen. (提示:删去who引导的定语从句,用同位语替代)

More than 300,000 people are expected to climb to the top of the Er-mei Mountain this year. This number is three times as many as a decade ago. (提示:用同位语连接两个句子,并改进to climb to the top)

He was so ascetic that he gave away his inheritance. Instead, he had to rely on the generous help of his Cambridge mentors, Russell and Keynes, to secure academic employment for him. At the same time, he lived frugally and in his later years he had to be cared for by his students. (提示:用同位语和状语从句连接句子;删去“so … that”;把具体名词“generous help”改为抽象名词generosity)

George Bernard Shaw, whose father was shiftless and alcoholic and whose mother was strong-minded and musically gifted, was born in Dublin in 1856. (提示:将whose引导的从句内容替换成同位语结构)

参考答案

George Renwick, head of the Journalism Department, has written four books about the broadcast media.

My boss unexpectedly agreed to give the two of them, Ming and Su, the salary raise they demanded during the past two months.

Alan Mathison Turing, the second of his parents’ two sons, was born in London in 1912.

A classic David and Goliath tale, her fascinating and inspiring story is told in “Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century.”

After her father died, Snow White lived in the castle with her stepmother, the Queen.

More than 300,000 people are expected to scale the Er-mei Mountain this year, three times as many as a decade ago.

Always an ascetic, he gave away his inheritance, relying on the generosity of his Cambridge mentors, Russell and Keynes, to secure academic employment for him, living frugally and in later years being cared for by his students.

George Bernard Shaw, the son of a shiftless, alcoholic father and a strong-minded, musically gifted, mother, was born in Dublin in 1856.

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