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【语法】省略与替代

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发表于 2018-2-14 12:44:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
A. 动词不定式中的省略

1. 在下列动词see,watch,notice,observe,look at,make,have,let,hear,listen to,feel等后的不定式做宾补,要省略不定式符号。

2. 在...do nothing but / except do ...的结构中,在介词but或except后作宾语时不定式符号要省略。

3. 在would rather和had better后不定式符号要省略。

4. 在几个不定式并列时,第二个、第三个不定式的不定式符号要省略。

5. 在expect,forget,like,want,wish,try,have,need,used,ought,be able,be going 等动词和动词词组后接的不定式中,不定式符号后面的动词原形常省略。

  B. 从句中的省略

1. 在if,as if,while,when,where,although,unless,what,whether等引起的状语从句中可以省略主谓部分。

Mistakes,if any,should be corrected .( = if there are any mistakes)

  Please come again,if possible.(= if it possible for you to come)

  Fill in the proper articles where necessary.(= where they are necessary)

  He won't come. unless invited.(= unless he is invited)

  He opened his lips as if to say something .(= as if he were going to say something)

2. 在if引起的从句中如有等词倒装时,省略if。

  Were I you, I would not do it.

  Had we known your telephone number, I would have given you a phone call.

3. We have finished our homework, so have they. (= and they have finished their homework , too)

If you don’t go to the concert, neither shall I. (= I shall not go to the concert either)

4. 宾语从句中连词that引起的宾语从句和定语从句中的关系代词that、which,whom等

  在定语从句中作宾与可以省略that。

  C. 介词的省略

  prevent sb (from) doing sth.

  stop sb (from) doing sth.

  have trouble / difficulty (in) doing sth.

  spend time / money (in) doing sth.

  be busy (in) doing sth.

  D. 替代

  省略与代替的作用是什么?

  1. so代替前面句子中已经表达过的词,短语或句子(多是宾与从句). 与so 连用的常用动词有:hope,believe,think,be afraid,expect,surprise,imagine等。

  2. 用not代替so的情况。

  3. 用不定式符号代替不定式。

  4. 用do在句子中代替其它动词。

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