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【语法】超全!英语常见的基本句式和句型结构

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发表于 2018-1-20 15:15:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
英语中有四种基本的句式:陈述句、祈使句、疑问句和感叹句。

例如:

Declarative: Tom'll come to the meeting tomorrow.

陈述句:(汤姆明天会参加会议。)

Imperative: Turn to page 232 in your science book.

祈使句:(请把你的科学课本翻到第232页。)

Interrogative: Where do you live?

疑问句:(你住在哪里啊?)

Exclamatory: That's awesome!

感叹句:(太棒了!)

陈述句

陈述句是对事实、安排或观点进行“声明”或陈述。陈述句可以是肯定句,也可以是否定句。陈述句以句号(.)结尾。

I'll meet you at the train station.

(我们在火车站见面吧。)

The sun rises in the East.

(太阳从东方升起。)

He doesn't get up early.

(他不早起。)

祈使句

祈使句是发出命令(有时是要求)的一种句式。祈使句中一般没有主语,you是隐含的主语。祈使句以句号(.)或感叹号(!)结尾。

Open the door.

(把门打开。)

Finish your homework.

(把你的作业做完。)

Pick up that mess.

(把这乱七八糟的收拾一下。)

疑问句

疑问句就是提出问题的句式。疑问句中,助动词位于主语前面,而主语后则跟着主动词(例如:Are you coming..?)。疑问句以问号结尾。

How long have you lived in France?

(你在法国住了多久呀?)

When does the bus leave?

(公交什么时候开走的?)

Do you enjoy listening to classical music?

(你喜欢听古典音乐吗?)

感叹句

感叹句通过感叹号(!)对一个陈述(陈述句或祈使句中)进行了强调。

Hurry up!

(快点!)

That sounds fantastic!

(听起来棒极了!)

I can't believe you said that!

(我真不敢相信你会那么说!)

说完了句式,我们再来看一下基本的句型结构:

最常见的是简单句,

简单句

简单句中没有连接词(如and, but, or等)。

Frank ate his dinner quickly.

(弗兰克飞快地吃了饭。)

Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday.

(上个星期六,皮特和苏去了博物馆。)

Are you coming to the party?

(你会去那个派对吗?)

并列复合句

复合句由两个陈述构成,这两个陈述由连接词(如and、but、or等)连在一起。

I wanted to come, but it was late.

(我是想来的,但太晚了。)

The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus.

(公司这年效益不错,所以给每个人都准备了奖金。)

I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.

(我去购物,我妻子去上课。)

主从复合句

主从复合句中含有一个独立的从句,且至少有一个。两个从句由一个从属连词(如which, who, although, despite, if, since等)连接起来。

My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang.

(我女儿上课迟到了,铃声响了一会才到。)

That's the man who bought our house.

(就是那个男人买下了我们的房子。)

Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.

(虽然难度很高,这个班级还是以高分通过了测试。)

并列复合句—主从复合句

并列复合句和主从复合句都含有一个或以上的独立的从句。从句由连词(如but, so, and等)和从属连词(如who, because, although等)

John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation.

(上个月短暂拜访了约翰,他得奖后开始了短暂的假期。)

Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered.

(杰克忘记了朋友的生日,等他最后想起来的时候,就送了一张卡片。)

The report which Tom compiled was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.

(汤姆编辑的那份报告被提交到了董事会,但最终因为太复杂被打回来了。)

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